This study implemented and evaluated a training program (a written manual, videotaped models, rehearsal, role plays, and performance feedback) designed to teach five subjects the skills to become effective family therapists. The study examined the therapists' use of three target behaviors: instructing, informing, and praising. The therapists, each paired with a parent and a preschool-aged child (2 1/2-4 1/2 yr old), were trained in the clinic to use, and to teach to the parents, several behavioral skills (e.g., praising, planned ignoring, and time-out) relevant to teaching children compliance to parental instructions. A multiple-baseline design across triads (therapist/parent/child) demonstrated that after the training program was instituted, the therapists increased their rates of instructing, praising, and informing the parents; all parents increased attention to compliance, decreased attention to noncompliance, and increased rates of praise to their children; and all children increased their compliance and decreased their noncompliance.
Although psychotherapy manuals provide treatment guidelines, detailed descriptions of therapist interventions in manual-guided therapies are lacking. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the types of therapist interventions in Supportive-Expressive (SE) psychotherapy for depression by using a molecular method of assessment and then to compare the results with those attained with a molar method. Four percent of therapist statements per session early in treatment were interpretations, which most often focused on the patient's parents, significant others, and self in the present time frame. This molecular method for assessing therapist interventions did converge with the molar adherence/competence method. (The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1998; 7:290–300)
Passive modeling of movements is often used in movement therapy to overcome disabilities caused by stroke or other disorders (e.g. Developmental Coordination Disorder or Cerebral Palsy). Either a therapist or, recently, a specially designed robot moves or guides the limb passively through the movement to be trained. In contrast, action theory has long suggested that effective skill acquisition requires movements to be actively generated. Is this true? In view of the former, we explicitly tested the latter. Previously, a method was developed that allows children with Developmental Coordination Disorder to produce effective movements actively, so as to improve manual performance to match that of typically developing children. In the current study, we tested practice using such active movements as compared to practice using passive movement. The passive movement employed, namely haptic tracking, provided a strong test of the comparison, one that showed that the mere inaction of the muscles is not the problem. Instead, lack of prospective control was. The result was no effective learning with passive movement while active practice with prospective control yielded significant improvements in performance.
The predictive validity of instruments commonly used to measure the therapeutic alliance was evaluated, using 46 sessions drawn from a clinical trial comparing manual-guided therapies for substance use. The California Psychotherapy Alliance Scale, Penn Helping Alliance Rating Scale, Vanderbilt Therapeutic Alliance Scale, and Working Alliance Inventory (Observer, Therapist, and Client versions) were rated for participants receiving either cognitive-behavioral therapy or twelve-step facilitation. All observer-rated instruments were significantly correlated with outcome; however, therapist-rated and client-rated instruments did not predict outcome. Findings suggest that the different observer-rated instruments are minimally different with respect to predictive validity, whereas patient- and therapist-rated measures may have a weaker relationship to outcome when highly objective outcome measures are used.
Rating Instruments; Alliance, Therapeutic
Therapist characteristics were explored as possible predictors of working alliance, rated early and later in therapy both by therapists (n=59) and patients (n=270) in an ongoing multisite project on process and outcome of psychotherapy. Patients and therapists had divergent perspectives on the working alliance. Therapists' experience, training, skill, and progress as therapists did not have any significant impact on alliance as rated by patients. Training and skill were positively related to alliance as rated by therapists. Interpersonal relationships on the cold–warm dimension had a moderate impact for both patients' and therapists' alliance ratings. Some implications for therapist training are discussed.
Working Alliance; Therapist Characteristics; Patient/Therapist Similarity
The authors present a cost-efficient process rating scale for detailed measurement of how much transference interpretations and related therapist interventions are used in brief dynamic psychotherapy. Theoretical and methodological considerations on how to operationalize and quantify such therapeutic interventions are discussed. The scale had highly satisfactory interrater reliability for three raters, who rated 60 whole sessions from an ongoing randomized study of two manualized forms of brief dynamic psychotherapy. In one treatment group, moderate emphasis on transference analysis was intended. In the other, minor or no use of the studied component was intended. The two treatment groups differed significantly in the use of transference interpretations and related interventions. There was no significant difference in therapists' general therapeutic skill or use of supportive interventions. The treatment differentiation was consistent with the manuals.
Transference; Brief Dynamic Psychotherapy; Process Scale; Therapist Interventions
Clinical trials sometimes have the same therapists deliver more than one psychotherapy, ostensibly to control for therapist effects. This “crossed therapists” design makes controlling for therapist allegiance imperative, as therapists may prefer one treatment they deliver to the other(s). Research has established a strong relationship between principal investigators’ allegiances and treatment outcome. Study therapists’ allegiances probably also influence outcome, yet this moderating factor on outcome has never been studied.
English language abstracts in Psychinfo and MedLine from January 1985 to December 2011 were searched for keywords “psychotherapy” and “randomized trial.”
The search yielded 990 abstracts that were searched manually. Trials using the same therapists in more than one condition were included.
Thirty-nine studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Meta-regression analyses assessed the influence of researchers’ allegiance on treatment outcome, testing the hypothesis that studies poorly controlling for therapist allegiance would show stronger influence of researcher allegiance on outcome. A single-item measure assessed researchers’ reported attempts to control for therapist allegiance.
Only one (3%) of 39 studies measured therapist treatment allegiance. Another five (13%) mentioned controlling for, without formally assessing, therapist allegiance. Most publications (64%) did not even mention therapist allegiance. In studies not controlling for therapist allegiance, researcher allegiance strongly influenced outcome, whereas studies reporting control for therapist allegiance showed no differential researcher allegiance. Cognitive-behavioral trials less frequently described controlling for therapist allegiance.
The “crossed therapist” design is subject to bias due to differential psychotherapist allegiance. Worrisome results suggest that researchers strongly allied to a treatment may ignore therapist allegiance, potentially skewing outcomes. All clinical trials, and especially “crossed therapist” designs, should measure psychotherapist allegiance to evaluate this possible bias.
One of the sacrosanct assumptions of a client is that their therapist believes in the treatment being delivered.
-- Wampold, 2001 (1, p159)
It has been known for over a century that these cranial nerves exist, and that they are not typographical errors nor a sensational event reported in the medical literature. A number of scientific articles on anatomy highlight how textbooks on descriptive anatomy do not always consider variables such as differences related to the geographical areas where people live, and these differences do exist. This is an important concept not only for surgeons, but also for all medical professionals who use manual techniques when treating their patients, ie, osteopaths, chiropractors, physiotherapists, and other manual therapists. This paper highlights the latest developments regarding these cranial nerves, offering at the same time some ideas for further reflection when looking at clinical scenarios that appear to bear little relationship to each other. Inclusion of these concepts in everyday anamnesis is encouraged.
cranial nerve; facial nerve; trigeminal system; Tolosa-Hunt syndrome
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT) implemented by parents and therapists versus therapists only on the language skills of preschool children with intellectual disabilities (ID), including children with Down syndrome and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
Seventy-seven children were randomly assigned to two treatments (parent + therapist EMT or therapist only EMT) and received 36 intervention sessions. Children were assessed before, immediately after, 6 months after, and 12 months after intervention. Separate linear regressions were conducted for each standardized and observational measure at each time point.
Parents in the parent + therapist group demonstrated greater use of EMT strategies at home than untrained parents in the therapist only group and these effects maintained over time. Effect sizes for observational measures ranged from d = .10 to d = 1.32 favoring the parent + therapist group, with the largest effect sizes found 12 months after intervention.
Findings from this study indicate generally that there are benefits to training parents to implement naturalistic language intervention strategies with preschool children who have ID and significant language impairments.
Two studies were conducted to assess the train clinical interviewing skills. In Experiment 1, eight university practicum students ("therapists") and either role played or volunteer "clients" were audiotaped during simulated interviews. Following the collection of baseline data on both therapist and client responses, training was provided by way of written materials, classroom instruction and practice, and quizzes. Results of a multiple baseline design across subjects showed improvements in therapists' interviewing skills and subsequent increases in client responding. Experiment 2 replicated and extended the research to a hospital outpatient clinic, in which therapists interviewed the parents of children with behavior problems. In addition, four months following the completion of Experiment 2, follow-up data collected during a maintenance condition showed continued high levels of therapist and client behavior. Finally, a panel of expert peers indicated that each response category was judged highly relevant to the behavioral assessment process.
This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply with therapists' recommendations. This study will develop and test a new manualized peer-mentorship program which will provide modeling and reinforcement by peers to other adolescents with chronic pain (the mentored participants). The mentorship program will encourage mentored participants to engage in therapies that promote the learning of pain self-management skills and to support the mentored participants' practice of these skills. The study will examine the feasibility of this intervention for both mentors and mentored participants, and will assess the preliminary effectiveness of this program on mentored participants' pain and functional disability.
This protocol will recruit adolescents ages 12-17 with chronic pain and randomly assign them to either peer mentorship or a treatment-as-usual control group. Mentored participants will be matched with peer mentors of similar age (ages 14-18) who have actively participated in various treatment modalities through the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and have learned to function successfully with a chronic pain disorder. The mentors will present information to mentored participants in a supervised and monitored telephone interaction for 2 months to encourage participation in skill-building programs. The control group will receive usual care but without the mentorship intervention. Mentored and control subjects' pain and functioning will be assessed at 2 months (end of intervention for mentored participants) and at 4 month follow-up to see if improvements persist. Measures of treatment adherence, pain, disability, and anxiety and depression will be assessed throughout study participation. Qualitative interviews for mentors, mentored participants, and control subjects will also be administered.
Passive intervertebral motion (PIVM) assessment is a characterizing skill of manual physical therapists (MPTs) and is important for judgments about impairments in spinal joint function. It is unknown as to why and how MPTs use this mobility testing of spinal motion segments within their clinical reasoning and decision-making. This qualitative study aimed to explore and understand the role and position of PIVM assessment within the manual diagnostic process. Eight semistructured individual interviews with expert MPTs and three subsequent group interviews using manual physical therapy consultation platforms were conducted. Line-by-line coding was performed on the transcribed data, and final main themes were identified from subcategories. Three researchers were involved in the analysis process. Four themes emerged from the data: contextuality, consistency, impairment orientedness, and subjectivity. These themes were interrelated and linked to concepts of professionalism and clinical reasoning. MPTs used PIVM assessment within a multidimensional, biopsychosocial framework incorporating clinical data relating to mechanical dysfunction as well as to personal factors while applying various clinical reasoning strategies. Interpretation of PIVM assessment and subsequent decisions on manipulative treatment were strongly rooted within practitioners’ practical knowledge. This study has identified the specific role and position of PIVM assessment as related to other clinical findings within clinical reasoning and decision-making in manual physical therapy in The Netherlands. We recommend future research in manual diagnostics to account for the multivariable character of physical examination of the spine.
Clinical reasoning; Diagnostic process; Manual physical therapy; Spinal disorders
BACKGROUND: Panic disorder, with and without agoraphobia, is a prevalent condition presenting in general practice. Psychological treatments are effective but are limited by restricted availability. Interest has grown in methods by which the efficiency and thus availability of psychological treatments can be improved, with particular emphasis on reduced therapist contact formats. AIM: To evaluate the relative efficacy in a primary care setting of a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) delivered at three levels of therapist contact: standard contact, minimum contact, and bibliotherapy. METHOD: A total of 104 patients were randomly allocated to receive standard therapist contact, minimum therapist contact or bibliotherapy, with 91 patients completing treatment. All patients received an identical treatment manual and were seen by the same psychologist therapist. Outcome was reported in terms of brief global ratings of severity of illness, change in symptoms, and levels of social disruption. These brief measures were chosen to be suitable for use in general practice and were used at treatment entry and endpoint. RESULTS: The standard therapist contact group had the strongest and most comprehensive treatment response, showing significant differences from the bibliotherapy group on all, and the minimum therapist contact group on some, endpoint measures. Some reduction in efficacy was therefore found for the reduced therapist contact groups. CONCLUSION: The standard therapist contact group showed the greatest treatment efficacy in the present study. As it was of notably shorter duration than many other current formulations of CBT, it represents a useful and efficient treatment for panic disorder and agoraphobia in primary care.
Clinical reasoning has long been a valuable tool for health care practitioners, but it has been under-researched in the field of massage therapy. Case reports have been a useful method for exploring the clinical reasoning process in various fields of manual therapy and can provide a model for similar research in the field of massage therapy. A diagnostically challenging case concerning a client with low back pain serves as a guideline for examining the clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist.
A two-part methodology was employed:
Client profileReflective inquiry
The inquiry included questions pertaining to beliefs about health problems; beliefs about the mechanisms of pain; medical conditions that could explain the client’s symptoms; knowledge of the client’s anatomy, assessment, and treatment choices; observations made during treatment; extent of experience in treating similar problems; and ability to recognize clinical patterns.
The clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist contributed to a differential diagnosis, which provided an explanation for the client’s symptoms and led to a satisfactory treatment resolution.
The present report serves as an example of the value of clinical reasoning in the field of massage therapy, and the need for expanded research into its methods and applications. The results of such research could be beneficial in teaching the clinical reasoning process at both the introductory and the advanced levels of massage therapy education.
Case report; low back pain; fibromyalgia; lumbar radiculopathy
Objective To describe feasibility and satisfaction findings from an innovative online family problem-solving intervention for adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Nine adolescents who sustained a moderate to severe TBI in the previous 24 months and their families participated in a novel, online, manualized treatment program (Teen Online Problem Solving, TOPS) consisting of 10 web-based sessions providing information and interactive exercises on cognitive, social, and behavioral skills typically affected by TBI. Web-based sessions were followed by synchronous video conferences with a therapist to review target skills and apply the problem-solving process to family goals. Results All teens and consenting parents completed at least 10 sessions. The website and videoconferences received moderate to high ratings on helpfulness and ease of use. Parents and teens reported increased knowledge regarding targeted knowledge and skills. Conclusions Findings support the acceptability of TOPS for adolescent TBI.
acquired brain injury; adolescent; telehealth
Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunction has been commonly associated with urinary disorders and lumbo-pelvic pain. Transabdominal (TA) ultrasound is currently used by physical therapists to assess PFM function. Controversy exists regarding the correlation between TA ultrasound measurement and vaginal palpation for assessment of PFM contraction, and this relationship has not yet been examined concurrently during the same contraction. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of digital palpation and TA ultrasound to assess PFM contraction when recorded 1) simultaneous to digital palpation during one contraction and 2) following digital palpation testing in another contraction. A descriptive correlational design was used to describe the relationship between variables. A total of 19 women (both asymptomatic women and those with incontinence or lumbo-pelvic pain) participated in the study. The modified Oxford scale was used to grade PFM contraction in digital palpation testing. The amount of bladder base movement on ultrasound was measured and considered as an indicator of PFM activity. Two trials were performed for TA ultrasound measurement: 1) simultaneous to digital palpation during one contraction, and 2) following digital palpation testing in another contraction. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used for analysis. There was a significant correlation between digital palpation and TA ultrasound for PFM assessment when measured simultaneously in one contraction (rho=0.62, p=0.01) and separately in a different contraction (rho=0.52, p=0.02), with a stronger correlation found in simultaneous testing. In conclusion, digital palpation and TA ultrasound measurement are significantly correlated and measure comparable parameters in evaluation of PFM contraction.
Digital Palpation; Modified Oxford Scale; Pelvic Floor Muscles; Transabdominal Ultrasound
This study examined therapists’ fidelity to a manualized multi-component cognitive-behavioral intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including exposure therapy, among public sector patients with a psychotic disorder. Therapists’ competence and adherence was assessed by clinicians at the master’s level or higher who rated 20% of randomly selected audiotaped sessions (n = 57 sessions, coded by two independent raters, with strong interrater agreement). Adherence ratings indicated that therapists complied well with the protocol, and competency ratings typically averaged above “very good” (6 on 7-point Likert scale). Findings suggest that therapists can effectively deliver a manualized cognitive-behavioral intervention for PTSD, with exposure therapy, to patients with severe mental illness without compromise to the structure of sessions and/or to the therapeutic relationship. These data add needed support for the implementation of cognitive-behavioral interventions, including exposure therapy, as effective treatments for PTSD in complicated patient populations such as those with severe forms of mental illness.
PTSD; cognitive-behavioral therapy; therapist fidelity; schizophrenia; severe mental illness
Computational models of joint anatomy and function provide a means for biomechanists, physicians, and physical therapists to understand the effects of repetitive motion, acute injury, and degenerative diseases. Finite element models, for example, may be used to predict the outcome of a surgical intervention or to improve the design of prosthetic implants. Countless models have been developed over the years to address a myriad of orthopaedic procedures. Unfortunately, few studies have incorporated patient-specific models. Historically, baseline anatomic models have been used due to the demands associated with model development. Moreover, surgical simulations impose additional modeling challenges. Current meshing practices do not readily accommodate the inclusion of implants. Our goal is to develop a suite of tools (virtual instruments and guides) which enable surgical procedures to be readily simulated and to facilitate the development of all-hexahedral finite element mesh definitions.
Finite Element Modeling; Surgical Simulations; Surgical Planning; Orthopaedics
Adherence monitoring, a technology to specify research psychotherapies, was used in the NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program (TDCRP). The authors present adherence data from a similar randomized treatment trial of 56 depressed HIV-positive patients, comparing 16-week interventions with cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, and supportive psychotherapy alone or with imipramine. Therapists were certified in manualized treatments. Blind independent raters rated randomly selected taped sessions on an adaptation of the NIMH scale, yielding adherence scores for interventions and for therapist “facilitative conditions” (FC). All therapists were rated adherent. Interrater reliability was 0.89–0.99. The scale discriminated among the four treatments (P<0.0001), with each scoring highest on its own scale. FC, which might measure therapist competence independent of treatment technique, varied by intervention but did not predict treatment outcome. This study demonstrates the ability to reliably train adherence monitors and therapists able to deliver specified treatments. Its adherence findings provide the first replication of those from the landmark NIMH TDCRP study.
AIDS/HIV; Adherence Monitoring
Evidence-based practice (EBP), a preferred psychological treatment approach, requires training of community providers. The systems-contextual (SC) perspective, a model for dissemination and implementation efforts, underscores the importance of the therapist, client, and organizational variables that influence training and consequent therapist uptake and adoption of EBP. This review critiques the extant research on training in EBP from an SC perspective. Findings suggest that therapist knowledge improves and attitudinal change occurs following training. However, change in therapist behaviors (e.g., adherence, competence, and skill) and client outcomes only occurs when training interventions address each level of the SC model and include active learning. Limitations as well as areas for future research are discussed.
dissemination and implementation; evidence-based practice; systems-contextual perspective; therapist training
We describe the development and psychometric properties of a new measure called the Skills of Cognitive Therapy (SoCT) in depressed adults and their cognitive therapists. The eight-item SoCT assesses patients' understanding and use of basic cognitive therapy (CT) skills rated from the perspectives of both observers (SoCT-O; therapists in this report) and patients (SoCT-P). Ratings of patients’ skill usage are made on 5-point Likert-type scales ranging from 1 ("never") to 5 ("always or when needed”). Higher scores reflect greater patient skill in applying cognitive therapy principles and coping strategies. To develop this scale, we used a 33-item pool, rated by both patients and their therapists at the middle and end of CT (Ns = 359–416), and evaluated the reliability and concurrent and predictive validity of both versions of the scale. The SoCT has excellent internal consistency reliability and moderate correlations between the observer and patient versions. Importantly, the SoCT showed good predictive validity for response when collected at the midpoint of acute phase CT. Considering both patients’ self-ratings and clinicians’ SoCT ratings, the odds ratio for responding to CT was 2.6. We discuss the practical utility of the SoCT, as well as its theoretical importance in research of patient CT skills (e.g., acquisition, comprehension, and generalization) as putative moderators or mechanisms of symptom change in the therapy.
cognitive therapy; depression; skill comprehension and use; assessment; mechanisms
Vital sign measurement and assessment are important components of the review of systems in a physical therapy examination for individuals with and without documented cardiopulmonary disease. The measurement of blood pressure gives the therapist information regarding the patient's baseline cardiovascular status, response to exercise/activity, and guides exercise prescription. Accurate measurement of blood pressure is critical for making appropriate clinical decisions especially if physical therapists wish to play an important role as primary health care providers. The purpose of this paper is to present recommended guidelines for blood pressure measurement by physical therapists and physical therapist assistants.
blood pressure measurement; vital sign assessment; guidelines
Background: Metachondromatosis is a condition that causes gross conical metaphyseal expansion (sometimes irregular), cortical thinning, exostoses. Metachondromatous lesions occur mainly in the extremities and are roughly symmetrical. The lesions can involve the bones of the hand and all long bones in the arms and legs. The distribution in this case additionally involved the acromion process and ischia. The bone changes, although dramatic, can be confused with other types of metaphyseal dysplasia such as Gaucher disease and multiple exostoses.
Objective: This paper will review the literature with regard to Metachondromatosis, Gaucher disease and Osteochondromatosis due to their similarities. The case study serves as an example of these findings and documents a history of fractures secondary to the obvious bone changes.
Discussion: Clinical manifestations of these conditions and how they may present to the manual therapist are discussed. With respect to Metachondromatosis, the manual therapist needs to be mindful of pathological fractures that can occur with little trauma. Manual therapists are cautioned against using long bones as levers for spinal manipulation in these patients.
Metachondromatosis; Osteochondromatosis; manual therapies; manipulation; chiropractic; contraindications; fractures; case report
To emphasize the importance for health care professionals to be knowledgeable of a relatively rare form of thoracic outlet syndrome, known as Paget Schroetter syndrome. The etiology, key signs and symptoms, and the importance of immediate referral are highlighted and an introduction to manual therapists’ role within a multidisciplinary team is provided.
Healthy athletes aged 15–30 are most commonly affected with 60–80% of patients reporting a history of repetitive or vigorous overhead activity prior to symptom onset.
Intervention and Outcome:
Manual therapists have a role in recognizing, referring, and providing symptomatic relief with soft tissue therapy, correcting abnormal biomechanics, manipulations, mobilizations, and a rehabilitative program, as seen in this case report.
Early recognition and referral of Paget Schroetter syndrome are essential for optimal recovery. Manual therapists may prove to have a role in decreasing the need for surgical decompression and accelerating resumption of regular activities.
Paget Schroetter syndrome; deep venous thrombosis; upper extremity thrombosis; thoracic outlet syndrome; chiropractic; effort thrombosis; syndrome de Paget-Schroetter; thrombose veineuse profonde; thrombose des membres supérieurs; syndrome de la traversée thoracobrachiale; chiropratique; thrombose d’effort
Our goal is to determine an optimized image-guided setup by comparing setup errors determined by two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) image guidance for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients immobilized by customized thermoplastic masks. Nine patients received weekly imaging sessions, for a total of 54, throughout treatment. Patients were first set up by matching lasers to surface marks (initial) and then translationally corrected using manual registration of orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) radiographs with DRRs (2D-2D) on bony anatomy. A kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) was acquired and manually registered to the simulation CT using only translations (3D-3D) on the same bony anatomy to determine further translational corrections. After treatment, a second set of kVCBCT was acquired to assess intrafractional motion. Averaged over all sessions, 2D-2D registration led to translational corrections from initial setup of 3.5 ± 2.2 (range 0–8) mm. The addition of 3D-3D registration resulted in only small incremental adjustment (0.8 ± 1.5 mm). We retrospectively calculated patient setup rotation errors using an automatic rigid-body algorithm with 6 degrees of freedom (DoF) on regions of interest (ROI) of in-field bony anatomy (mainly the C2 vertebral body). Small rotations were determined for most of the imaging sessions; however, occasionally rotations > 3° were observed. The calculated intrafractional motion with automatic registration was < 3.5 mm for eight patients, and < 2° for all patients. We conclude that daily manual 2D-2D registration on radiographs reduces positioning errors for mask-immobilized HNC patients in most cases, and is easily implemented. 3D-3D registration adds little improvement over 2D-2D registration without correcting rotational errors. We also conclude that thermoplastic masks are effective for patient immobilization.
head and neck; patient positioning; image guidance; CBCT