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1.  The comparative importance of books: clinical psychology in the health sciences library. 
Clinical psychology has received little attention as a subject in health sciences library collections. This study seeks to demonstrate the relative importance of the monographic literature to clinical psychology through the examination of citations in graduate student theses and dissertations at the Fordham Health Sciences Library, Wright State University. Dissertations and theses were sampled randomly; citations were classified by format, counted, and subjected to statistical analysis. Books and book chapters together account for 35% of the citations in clinical psychology dissertations, 25% in nursing theses, and 8% in biomedical sciences theses and dissertations. Analysis of variance indicates that the citations in dissertations and theses in the three areas differ significantly (F = 162.2 with 2 and 253 degrees of freedom, P = 0.0001). Dissertations and theses in biomedical sciences and nursing theses both cite significantly more journals per book than the dissertations in clinical psychology. These results support the hypothesis that users of clinical psychology literature rely more heavily on books than many other users of a health sciences library. Problems with using citation analyses in a single subject to determine a serials to monographs ratio for a health sciences library are pointed out.
PMCID: PMC226557  PMID: 10219478
2.  Are students kidding with health research ethics? The case of HIV/AIDS research in Cameroon 
BMC Medical Ethics  2012;13:12.
Background
Universities in Cameroon are playing an active part in HIV/AIDS research and much of this research is carried out by students, usually for the purpose of a dissertation/thesis. Student theses/dissertations present research findings in a much more comprehensive manner and have been described as the stepping-stone of a budding scientist’s potential in becoming an independent researcher. It is therefore important to verify how students handle issues of research ethics.
Method
Theses/dissertations on HIV/AIDS that described research studies involving the use of human research participants were screened to verify if research ethics approval and informed consent were obtained and documented. The contents of the consent forms were also qualitatively analyzed.
Results
Of 174 theses/dissertations on HIV, ethics approval was documented in 17 (9.77%) and informed consent in 77 (47.83%). Research ethics approval was first mentioned at all in 2002 and highly reported in the year 2007. Evidence of ethics approval was found for the first time in 2005 and informed consent first observed and evidenced in 1997. Ethics approval was mostly reported by students studying for an MD (14.01%) and was not reported in any Bachelors’ degree dissertation. Informed consent was also highly reported in MD theses (64.58%) followed by undergraduate theses (31.58%). Voluntary participation and potential benefits of the study were some of the common aspects dealt with in most of the consent forms. The right to discontinue participation in the study and management of residual samples were scarcely ever mentioned.
Conclusions
Overall, and given the current state of the art of research ethics around the world, student-scientists in Cameroon would seem to be merely kidding with research ethics. It is thus essential that training in health research ethics (HRE) be incorporated in the curriculum of universities in Cameroon in order that the next generation of scientists may be better equipped with thorough knowledge and practice of HRE. This, we believe, would be one way of fighting the occurrence of research scandals, which have not yet abated significantly, especially those arising from negligence or inexcusable ignorance.
doi:10.1186/1472-6939-13-12
PMCID: PMC3470971  PMID: 22686445
3.  Humanization policy in primary health care: a systematic review 
Revista de Saúde Pública  2013;47(6):1186-1200.
OBJECTIVE
To analyze humanization practices in primary health care in the Brazilian Unified Health System according to the principles of the National Humanization Policy.
METHODS
A systematic review of the literature was carried out, followed by a meta-synthesis, using the following databases: BDENF (nursing database), BDTD (Brazilian digital library of theses and dissertations), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to nursing and allied health literature), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean health care sciences literature), MedLine (International health care sciences literature), PAHO (Pan-American Health Care Organization Library) and SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online). The following descriptors were used: Humanization; Humanizing Health Care; Reception: Humanized care: Humanization in health care; Bonding; Family Health Care Program; Primary Care; Public Health and Sistema Único de Saúde (the Brazilian public health care system). Research articles, case studies, reports of experiences, dissertations, theses and chapters of books written in Portuguese, English or Spanish, published between 2003 and 2011, were included in the analysis.
RESULTS
Among the 4,127 publications found on the topic, 40 studies were evaluated and included in the analysis, producing three main categories: the first referring to the infrastructure and organization of the primary care service, made clear the dissatisfaction with the physical structure and equipment of the services and with the flow of attendance, which can facilitate or make difficult the access. The second, referring to the health work process, showed issues about the insufficient number of professionals, fragmentation of the work processes, the professional profile and responsibility. The third category, referring to the relational technologies, indicated the reception, bonding, listening, respect and dialog with the service users.
CONCLUSIONS
Although many practices were cited as humanizing they do not produce changes in the health services because of the lack of more profound analysis of the work processes and ongoing education in the health care services.
doi:10.1590/S0034-8910.2013047004581
PMCID: PMC4206092  PMID: 24626556
Humanization of Assistance; Delivery of Health Care; Primary Health Care; Public Health; Unified Health System; Qualitative Research; Review
4.  Research Trends in Post-Graduate Medical Students, Pune 
Background:
Scientific writings provide a link between production of knowledge and its use. They guide to plan for necessary improvements in treatment and prevention modalities. Inadequate and incomplete reporting of research studies weakens the medical literature.
Aim:
The aim of the study was bibliometric analysis of dissertations submitted by medical post-graduate (PGs) students.
Material and Methods:
It was a cross-sectional record based study carried out at one of the medical colleges at Pune. All the dissertations including observational studies submitted by PGs were analyzed using a pre-tested, structured assessment tool with strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) as the reference from 1st March 2009 until 30th March 2011. Data was compiled in excel sheet and it was imported into. SPSS 15 software (Statistical package for the social sciences, manufactured by IBM, Chicago Illinois in November 2006) for further analysis.
Results:
A total of 220 dissertations were analyzed in the present study. Nearly 73.18% (161/220) of dissertations were from clinical subjects, 15% (33/220) were from para-clinical and 11.8% (26/220) were from pre-clinical subjects. The majority of dissertations reported findings incompletely and inadequately without uniformity.
Conclusion:
PGs should be more vigilant in reporting their research in dissertations to increase their usefulness. They should adopt tools like STROBE, etc., to report data to create more uniformity in reporting. Adoption of such guidelines will also reduce chances of oversights and mistakes in reporting and dissertation writing.
doi:10.4103/2141-9248.133459
PMCID: PMC4071733  PMID: 24971208
Research trends; Scientific writings; Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology
5.  Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon 
Background:
Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon.
Materials and Methods:
To check if a thesis resulted in a publication, we searched: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals.
Results:
One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles.
Conclusion:
This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research findings in scientific meetings and peer reviewed journals. There is also a great necessity to build capacity in scientific writing among university students in Cameroon.
doi:10.4103/2141-9248.133474
PMCID: PMC4071747  PMID: 24971222
Cameroon; Graduate and medical students; Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Publication rates
6.  Deconstructing doctoral dissertations: how many papers does it take to make a PhD? 
Scientometrics  2010;85(2):567-579.
A collection of coauthored papers is the new norm for doctoral dissertations in the natural and biomedical sciences, yet there is no consensus on how to partition authorship credit between PhD candidates and their coauthors. Guidelines for PhD programs vary but tend to specify only a suggested range for the number of papers to be submitted for evaluation, sometimes supplemented with a requirement for the PhD candidate to be the principal author on the majority of submitted papers. Here I use harmonic counting to quantify the actual amount of authorship credit attributable to individual PhD graduates from two Scandinavian universities in 2008. Harmonic counting corrects for the inherent inflationary and equalizing biases of routine counting methods, thereby allowing the bibliometrically identifiable amount of authorship credit in approved dissertations to be analyzed with unprecedented accuracy. Unbiased partitioning of authorship credit between graduates and their coauthors provides a post hoc bibliometric measure of current PhD requirements, and sets a de facto baseline for the requisite scientific productivity of these contemporary PhD’s at a median value of approximately 1.6 undivided papers per dissertation. Comparison with previous census data suggests that the baseline has shifted over the past two decades as a result of a decrease in the number of submitted papers per candidate and an increase in the number of coauthors per paper. A simple solution to this shifting baseline syndrome would be to benchmark the amount of unbiased authorship credit deemed necessary for successful completion of a specific PhD program, and then monitor for departures from this level over time. Harmonic partitioning of authorship credit also facilitates cross-disciplinary and inter-institutional analysis of the scientific output from different PhD programs. Juxtaposing bibliometric benchmarks with current baselines may thus assist the development of harmonized guidelines and transparent transnational quality assurance procedures for doctoral programs by providing a robust and meaningful standard for further exploration of the causes of intra- and inter-institutional variation in the amount of unbiased authorship credit per dissertation.
doi:10.1007/s11192-010-0214-8
PMCID: PMC2943069  PMID: 20949112
Bibliometry; Bibliometric counting; Bias; Baseline; Benchmark
7.  Phytotherapy in primary health care 
Revista de Saúde Pública  2014;48(3):541-553.
OBJECTIVE
To characterize the integration of phytotherapy in primary health care in Brazil.
METHODS
Journal articles and theses and dissertations were searched for in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Theses Portal Capes, between January 1988 and March 2013. We analyzed 53 original studies on actions, programs, acceptance and use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Bibliometric data, characteristics of the actions/programs, places and subjects involved and type and focus of the selected studies were analyzed.
RESULTS
Between 2003 and 2013, there was an increase in publications in different areas of knowledge, compared with the 1990-2002 period. The objectives and actions of programs involving the integration of phytotherapy into primary health care varied: including other treatment options, reduce costs, reviving traditional knowledge, preserving biodiversity, promoting social development and stimulating inter-sectorial actions.
CONCLUSIONS
Over the past 25 years, there was a small increase in scientific production on actions/programs developed in primary care. Including phytotherapy in primary care services encourages interaction between health care users and professionals. It also contributes to the socialization of scientific research and the development of a critical vision about the use of phytotherapy and plant medicine, not only on the part of professionals but also of the population.
doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2007000600021
PMCID: PMC4203080  PMID: 25119949
Phytotherapy, utilization; Plants, Medicinal; Primary Health Care; Health Services; Review
8.  Health status of and health-care provision to asylum seekers in Germany: protocol for a systematic review and evidence mapping of empirical studies 
Systematic Reviews  2014;3(1):139.
Background
There are more than 100,000 asylum seekers registered in Germany, who are granted limited access to health services. This study aims to provide a systematic overview of the empirical literature on the health status of and health-care provision to asylum seekers in Germany in order to consolidate knowledge, avoid scientific redundance, and identify research gaps.
Methods/design
A systematic review and evidence mapping of empirical literature on the health status of and health-care provision to asylum seekers in Germany will be performed. We will apply a three-tiered search strategy: 1. search in databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, CINAHL, Sowiport, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, MedPilot, DNB), dissertation and theses databases, and the internet (Google); 2. screening references of included studies; 3. contacting authors and civil society organizations for grey literature. Included will be studies which report quantitative and/or qualitative data or review articles on asylum seekers in Germany, published in German or English language. Outcome measures will include physical, mental, or social well-being, and all aspects of health-care provision (access, availability, affordability, and quality). Search results will be screened for eligibility by screening titles, abstracts and full texts. Data extraction comprises information on study characteristics, research aims, and domains of health or health-care services analyzed. The quality of studies will be appraised and documented by appropriate assessment tools. A descriptive evidence map will be drawn by categorizing all included articles by research design and the health conditions and/or domains of health-care provision analyzed. The body of evidence will be evaluated, and a narrative evidence synthesis will be performed by means of a multi-level approach, whereby quantitative and qualitative evidence are analyzed as separate streams and the product of each stream is configured in a final summary.
Discussion
This systematic review will provide an evidence map and synthesis of available research findings on the health status of and health-care provision to asylum seekers in Germany. In anticipation of identifying areas which are amenable to health-care interventions, deserve immediate action, or further exploration, this review will be of major importance for policy-makers, health-care providers, as well as researchers.
Systematic review registration
PROSPERO 2014: CRD42014013043
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-139) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-139
PMCID: PMC4259011  PMID: 25433520
Asylum seekers; Refugees; Germany; Health status; Health-care provision; Access; Health services; Systematic review; Evidence mapping
9.  Making Time for Dissertation Grants 
Research on social work practice  2009;19(3):340-350.
Grant writing is a necessary skill for becoming an independent and successful social work researcher. Since social work dissertation grants are a relatively new trend, students face many challenges in identifying, preparing, and submitting dissertation grants. Lack of resources and experiences, difficulties in protecting time for grant writing, and the uncertainty of success can hinder work on dissertation grants. Thus, this article provides an overview of dissertation grants, including a review of grant mechanisms, suggestions for preparing grants in the context of program milestones, and identifying institutional infrastructure to facilitate submissions. Strategies discussed include how to learn about funding priorities, how to establish timelines to account for grant deadlines, and how to use peer reviews to guide the revision process.
PMCID: PMC3829630  PMID: 24244078
grant writing; doctoral education; research infrastructure; dissertation grants
10.  Interventions to support children’s engagement in health-related decisions: a systematic review 
BMC Pediatrics  2014;14:109.
Background
Children often need support in health decision-making. The objective of this study was to review characteristics and effectiveness of interventions that support health decision-making of children.
Methods
A systematic review. Electronic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, CINAHL, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) were searched from inception until March 2012. Two independent reviewers screened eligibility: a) intervention studies; b) involved supporting children (≤18 years) considering health-related decision(s); and c) measured decision quality or decision-making process outcomes. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted by one author and verified by another using a standardized data extraction form. Quality appraisal was based on the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool.
Results
Of 4313 citations, 5 studies were eligible. Interventions focused on supporting decisions about risk behaviors (n = 3), psycho-educational services (n = 1), and end of life (n = 1). Two of 5 studies had statistically significant findings: i) compared to attention placebo, decision coaching alone increased values congruence between child and parent, and child satisfaction with decision-making process (lower risk of bias); ii) compared to no intervention, a workshop with weekly assignments increased overall decision-making quality (higher risk of bias).
Conclusions
Few studies have focused on interventions to support children’s participation in decisions about their health. More research is needed to determine effective methods for supporting children’s health decision-making.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-14-109
PMCID: PMC3999734  PMID: 24758566
Child; Adolescent; Decision making; Patient participation; Practice
11.  Comparison of tiered formularies and reference pricing policies: a systematic review 
Open Medicine  2009;3(3):e131-e139.
Objectives
To synthesize methodologically comparable evidence from the published literature regarding the outcomes of tiered formularies and therapeutic reference pricing of prescription drugs.
Methods
We searched the following electronic databases: ABI/Inform, CINAHL, Clinical Evidence, Digital Dissertations & Theses, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (which incorporates ACP Journal Club, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Methodology Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Health Technology Assessments and NHS Economic Evaluation Database), EconLit, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, PAIS International and PAIS Archive, and the Web of Science. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and several grey literature sources. We sought English-language studies published from 1986 to 2007 that examined the effects of either therapeutic reference pricing or tiered formularies, reported on outcomes relevant to patient care and cost-effectiveness, and employed quantitative study designs that included concurrent or historical comparison groups. We abstracted and assessed potentially appropriate articles using a modified version of the data abstraction form developed by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group.
Results
From an initial list of 2964 citations, 12 citations (representing 11 studies) were deemed eligible for inclusion in our review: 3 studies (reported in 4 articles) of reference pricing and 8 studies of tiered formularies. The introduction of reference pricing was associated with reduced plan spending, switching to preferred medicines, reduced overall drug utilization and short-term increases in the use of physician services. Reference pricing was not associated with adverse health impacts. The introduction of tiered formularies was associated with reduced plan expenditures, greater patient costs and increased rates of non-compliance with prescribed drug therapy. From the data available, we were unable to examine the hypothesis that tiered formulary policies result in greater use of physician services and potentially worse health outcomes.
Conclusion
The available evidence does not clearly differentiate between reference pricing and tiered formularies in terms of policy outcomes. Reference pricing appears to have a slight evidentiary advantage, given that patients’ health outcomes under tiered formularies have not been well studied and that tiered formularies are associated with increased rates of medicine discontinuation.
PMCID: PMC3090119  PMID: 21603047
12.  The Effectiveness of Pilates Exercise in People with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e100402.
Objective
To evaluate the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP) through a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs).
Data Sources
A search for RCTs was undertaken using Medical Search Terms and synonyms for “Pilates” and “low back pain” within the maximal date range of 10 databases. Databases included the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Cochrane Library; Medline; Physiotherapy Evidence Database; ProQuest: Health and Medical Complete, Nursing and Allied Health Source, Dissertation and Theses; Scopus; Sport Discus; Web of Science.
Study Selection
Two independent reviewers were involved in the selection of evidence. To be included, relevant RCTs needed to be published in the English language. From 152 studies, 14 RCTs were included.
Data Extraction
Two independent reviewers appraised the methodological quality of RCTs using the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. The author(s), year of publication, and details regarding participants, Pilates exercise, comparison treatments, and outcome measures, and findings, were then extracted.
Data Synthesis
The methodological quality of RCTs ranged from “poor” to “excellent”. A meta-analysis of RCTs was not undertaken due to the heterogeneity of RCTs. Pilates exercise provided statistically significant improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity between 4 and 15 weeks, but not at 24 weeks. There were no consistent statistically significant differences in improvements in pain and functional ability with Pilates exercise, massage therapy, or other forms of exercise at any time period.
Conclusions
Pilates exercise offers greater improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity in the short term. Pilates exercise offers equivalent improvements to massage therapy and other forms of exercise. Future research should explore optimal Pilates exercise designs, and whether some people with CLBP may benefit from Pilates exercise more than others.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100402
PMCID: PMC4077575  PMID: 24984069
13.  A scoping review of malaria forecasting: past work and future directions 
BMJ Open  2012;2(6):e001992.
Objectives
There is a growing body of literature on malaria forecasting methods and the objective of our review is to identify and assess methods, including predictors, used to forecast malaria.
Design
Scoping review. Two independent reviewers searched information sources, assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data from each study.
Information sources
Search strategies were developed and the following databases were searched: CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses and Web of Science. Key journals and websites were also manually searched.
Eligibility criteria for included studies
We included studies that forecasted incidence, prevalence or epidemics of malaria over time. A description of the forecasting model and an assessment of the forecast accuracy of the model were requirements for inclusion. Studies were restricted to human populations and to autochthonous transmission settings.
Results
We identified 29 different studies that met our inclusion criteria for this review. The forecasting approaches included statistical modelling, mathematical modelling and machine learning methods. Climate-related predictors were used consistently in forecasting models, with the most common predictors being rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and the normalised difference vegetation index. Model evaluation was typically based on a reserved portion of data and accuracy was measured in a variety of ways including mean-squared error and correlation coefficients. We could not compare the forecast accuracy of models from the different studies as the evaluation measures differed across the studies.
Conclusions
Applying different forecasting methods to the same data, exploring the predictive ability of non-environmental variables, including transmission reducing interventions and using common forecast accuracy measures will allow malaria researchers to compare and improve models and methods, which should improve the quality of malaria forecasting.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001992
PMCID: PMC3533056  PMID: 23180505
Infectious Diseases
14.  Medical students’ perceptions and attitudes about family practice: a qualitative research synthesis 
BMC Medical Education  2012;12:81.
Background
During the last decade medical students from most Western countries have shown little interest in family practice. Understanding the factors that influence medical students to choose family medicine is crucial.
Objective
To systematically review and synthesize published evidence about medical students’ attitudes and perceptions towards family practice.
Methods
A qualitative systematic review. The literature search was undertaken in July 2010 in PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. Two authors independently selected the studies for their inclusion and assessed their quality. The selected studies were thoroughly read. Key themes and categories were identified. A matrix was created for allowing the comparison of each theme across studies.
Results
Ten studies were finally included. Seven broad themes were identified across them: 1) Scope and context of practice was a broad theme comprising linked sub-themes: perception of a varied specialty, broad practice, holistic perspective and flexibility that allows having a family; 2) Lower interest or intellectually less challenging: treating common disease, repetitive, quasi administrative job; 3) Influence of role models, either positive and negative, and society: negative comments from other professionals, peers and family; 4) Lower prestige; 5) Poor remuneration; 6) Medical school influences, being important both the length and quality of the exposure; 7) Post graduate training, where the shorter duration and the lower intensity were perceived as positive aspects. After identifying these seven key themes, were also looked into patterns in the distribution of these themes among studies.
Conclusions
Our qualitative review provides a comprehensive picture of medical students’ attitudes towards family practice in the available literature. In general, although some students find family medicine appealing, it is regarded as a career of low interest and prestige. More research is needed on the influence of role models, medical school and post graduate training.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-81
PMCID: PMC3546071  PMID: 22909189
Family practice; Attitudes; Perceptions; Students, Medical; Qualitative research; Review
15.  Effectiveness of early discharge planning in acutely ill or injured hospitalized older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
BMC Geriatrics  2013;13:70.
Background
Older age and higher acuity are associated with prolonged hospital stays and hospital readmissions. Early discharge planning may reduce lengths of hospital stay and hospital readmissions; however, its effectiveness with acutely admitted older adults is unclear.
Methods
In this systematic review, we compared the effectiveness of early discharge planning to usual care in reducing index length of hospital stay, hospital readmissions, readmission length of hospital stay, and mortality; and increasing satisfaction with discharge planning and quality of life for older adults admitted to hospital with an acute illness or injury.
We searched the Cochrane Library, DARE, HTA, NHSEED, ACP, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, PubMed, Web of Science, SciSearch, PEDro, Sigma Theta Tau International’s registry of nursing research, Joanna Briggs Institute, CRISP, OT Seeker, and several internet search engines. Hand-searching was conducted in four gerontological journals and references of all included studies and previous systematic reviews. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Where meta-analysis was not possible, narrative analysis was performed.
Results
Nine trials with a total of 1736 participants were included. Compared to usual care, early discharge planning was associated with fewer hospital readmissions within one to twelve months of index hospital discharge [risk ratio (RR) = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69 − 0.90]; and lower readmission lengths of hospital stay within three to twelve months of index hospital discharge [weighted mean difference (WMD) = −2.47, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = −4.13 − −0.81)]. No differences were found in index length of hospital stay, mortality or satisfaction with discharge planning. Narrative analysis of four studies indicated that early discharge planning was associated with greater overall quality of life and the general health domain of quality of life two weeks after index hospital discharge.
Conclusions
Early discharge planning with acutely admitted older adults improves system level outcomes after index hospital discharge. Service providers can use these findings to design and implement early discharge planning for older adults admitted to hospital with an acute illness or injury.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-70
PMCID: PMC3707815  PMID: 23829698
Discharge planning; Aged; Length of stay; Hospital readmission; Patient discharge; Systematic review; Meta-analysis
16.  A systematic review of the use and effectiveness of social media in child health 
BMC Pediatrics  2014;14:138.
Background
Social media use is highly prevalent among children, youth, and their caregivers, and its use in healthcare is being explored. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine: 1) for what purposes social media is being used in child health and its effectiveness; and 2) the attributes of social media tools that may explain how they are or are not effective.
Methods
We searched Medline, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge, and Proquest Dissertation and Theses Database from 2000–2013. We included primary research that evaluated the use of a social media tool, and targeted children, youth, or their families or caregivers. Quality assessment was conducted on all included analytic studies using tools specific to different quantitative designs.
Results
We identified 25 studies relevant to child health. The majority targeted adolescents (64%), evaluated social media for health promotion (52%), and used discussion forums (68%). Most often, social media was included as a component of a complex intervention (64%). Due to heterogeneity in conditions, tools, and outcomes, results were not pooled across studies. Attributes of social media perceived to be effective included its use as a distraction in younger children, and its ability to facilitate communication between peers among adolescents. While most authors presented positive conclusions about the social media tool being studied (80%), there is little high quality evidence of improved outcomes to support this claim.
Conclusions
This comprehensive review demonstrates that social media is being used for a variety of conditions and purposes in child health. The findings provide a foundation from which clinicians and researchers can build in the future by identifying tools that have been developed, describing how they have been used, and isolating components that have been effective.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-14-138
PMCID: PMC4047773  PMID: 24886048
Social media; Pediatrics; Systematic review
17.  A grey literature review of special events for promoting cancer screenings 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:454.
Background
Cancer remains the second leading cause of mortality in the United States. Special events such as health fairs, screening days or cultural festivals are employed often for community education about cancer screening. A previous systematic review of the published literature was conducted in 2012-2013. The purpose of this study was to conduct a grey literature component of special events that promote breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening in the U.S.
Methods
We conducted a grey literature search of dissertations/theses and conference abstracts. The theses/dissertations were restricted to those: 1) written in English, 2) published from January 1990 to December 2011, 3) examined at least one of the predefined categories of special events, 4) involved cancer screening for breast, cervical, and/or colorectal cancer, 5) included outcome data, and 6) conducted in the United States. A review of U.S. public health and cancer conference abstracts, that were readily available and had focused on at least of 3 cancer types and included outcome data, was conducted. Data were abstracted on the purpose, location, primary audience(s), activities conducted, screening provided onsite or referrals, and evaluation results.
Results
The grey literature review found 6 special events. The types of events found added to the numbers found in the systematic review, especially receptions or parties and cultural festivals/events. All focused on increasing breast and cervical cancer screening except one that focused on breast cancer only. The reach of these events was targeted at mostly minorities or underserved communities. Common evidence-based strategies were group education, small media, and reducing structural barriers. Group education involved presentations from physicians, lay-health advisors, or cancer survivors, while reducing structural barriers included activities such as providing screening appointment sign-ups at the event or providing transportation for event participants. Mammogram screening rates ranged from 6.8% to 60% and Pap tests from 52% to 70%.
Conclusions
Further evaluation of special events to promote cancer screening will prove their effectiveness. A grey literature review can augment a systematic review of published literature. Additional data about these events through the grey literature offered additional insights into the goals, intervention components and outcomes of interventions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-454
PMCID: PMC4082274  PMID: 24942822
Cancer screening; Community awareness; Cancer education; Breast cancer; Colorectal cancer; Cervical cancer
18.  Motivations of physicians and nurses to practice voluntary euthanasia: a systematic review 
BMC Palliative Care  2014;13:20.
Background
While a number of reviews have explored the attitude of health professionals toward euthanasia, none of them documented their motivations to practice euthanasia. The objective of the present systematic review was to identify physicians’ and nurses’ motives for having the intention or for performing an act of voluntary euthanasia and compare findings from countries where the practice is legalized to those where it is not.
Methods
The following databases were investigated: MEDLINE/PubMed (1950+), PsycINFO (1806+), CINAHL (1982+), EMBASE (1974+) and FRANCIS (1984+). Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861+) was also investigated for gray literature. Additional studies were included by checking the references of the articles included in the systematic review as well as by looking at our personal collection of articles on euthanasia.
Results
This paper reviews a total of 27 empirical quantitative studies out of the 1 703 articles identified at the beginning. Five studies were in countries where euthanasia is legal and 22 in countries where it is not. Seventeen studies were targeting physicians, 9 targeted nurses and 1 both health professionals. Six studies identified the motivations underlying the intention to practice euthanasia, 16 the behavior itself and 5 both intention and behavior. The category of variables most consistently associated with euthanasia is psychological variables. All categories collapsed, the four variables most frequently associated with euthanasia are past behavior, medical specialty, whether the patient is depressed and the patient’s life expectancy.
Conclusions
The present review suggests that physicians and nurses are motivated to practice voluntary euthanasia especially when they are familiar with the act of euthanasia, when the patient does not have depressive symptoms and has a short life expectancy and their motivation varies according to their medical specialty. Additional studies among nurses and in countries where euthanasia is legal are needed.
doi:10.1186/1472-684X-13-20
PMCID: PMC4021095  PMID: 24716567
Euthanasia; Physician; Nurse; Motivation; Systematic review
19.  The effect of high-heeled shoes on lumbar lordosis: a narrative review and discussion of the disconnect between Internet content and peer-reviewed literature 
Journal of Chiropractic Medicine  2010;9(4):166-173.
Objectives
Some women complain of low back pain that they believe is due to wearing high-heeled shoes, and some clinicians seem to think the reason is that high-heeled shoes cause increased lumbar lordosis. This article examines Internet information aimed at the general public and presents a literature review of available research in this area.
Methods
The keywords high heels and high-heeled shoes, combined with the words lumbar, lordosis, and pelvic tilt, were used in an Internet search of Ask.com; in published literature searches of PubMed, MANTIS, CINAHL, Scopus, and ProceedingsFirst; and in searches for theses and dissertations of PapersFirst through June 2010.
Results
There are many Internet sites that support the belief that high-heeled shoes cause increased lordosis. However, published research for this topic mostly does not support this belief; but some mixed results, small subject groups, and questionable methods have left the issue unclear.
Conclusions
It appears that some health care providers are offering advice about the effect of high-heeled shoes on lumbar lordosis that conflicts with most published research. However, the prevalence of such advice is unknown; and the published research is equivocal. Considering that both low back pain and the wearing of high heeled-shoes are common, clinicians could use some clearer guidance; this is an area that deserves further investigation.
doi:10.1016/j.jcm.2010.07.003
PMCID: PMC3206568  PMID: 22027108
Lordosis; Lumbar; Shoes; Posture; Low back pain; Chiropractic
20.  Organ and tissue donation in clinical settings: a systematic review of the impact of interventions aimed at health professionals 
In countries where presumed consent for organ donation does not apply, health professionals (HP) are key players for identifying donors and obtaining their consent. This systematic review was designed to verify the efficacy of interventions aimed at HPs to promote organ and tissue donation in clinical settings. CINAHL (1982 to 2012), COCHRANE LIBRARY, EMBASE (1974 to 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to 2012), PsycINFO (1960 to 2012), and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses were searched for papers published in French or English until September 2012. Studies were considered if they met the following criteria: aimed at improving HPs’ practices regarding the donation process or at increasing donation rates; HPs working in clinical settings; and interventions with a control group or pre-post assessments. Intervention behavioral change techniques were analyzed using a validated taxonomy. A risk ratio was computed for each study having a control group. A total of 15 studies were identified, of which only 5 had a control group. Interventions were either educational, organizational or a combination of both, and had a weak theoretical basis. The most common behavior change technique was providing instruction. Two sets of interventions showed a significant risk ratio. However, most studies did not report the information needed to compute their efficacy. Therefore, interventions aimed at improving the donation process or at increasing donation rates should be based on sound theoretical frameworks. They would benefit from more rigorous evaluation methods to ensure good knowledge translation and appropriate organizational decisions to improve professional practices.
doi:10.1186/2047-1440-3-8
PMCID: PMC4003858  PMID: 24628967
tissue and organ procurement; health professional; program development; professional education; hospital
21.  Comparison on information-seeking behavior of postgraduated students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and University of Isfahan in writing dissertation based on Kuhlthau model of information search process 
Introduction:
Information-seeking behaviors have been one of the main focuses of researchers in order to identify and solve the problems users face in information recovery. The aim of this research is Comparative on Information-Seeking Behavior of the Postgraduate Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan University in Writing Dissertation based on Kuhlthau Model of Information Search Process in 2012.
Materials and Methods:
The research method followed is survey and the data collection tool is Narmenji questionnaire. Statistical population was all postgraduate students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan University. The sample size was 196 people and sampling was stratified randomly. The type of statistical analyses were descriptive (mean and frequency) and inferential (independent t test and Pearson's correlation) and the software used was SPSS20.
Results:
The findings showed that Isfahan Medical Sciences University followed 20% of the order steps of this model and Isfahan University did not follow this model. In the first stage (Initiation) and sixth (Presentation) of feelings aspects and in actions (total stages) significant difference was found between students from the two universities. Between gender and fourth stage (Formulation) and the total score of feelings the Kuhlthau model there has a significant relationship. Also there was a significant and inverse relationship between the third stage (Exploration) of feelings and age of the students.
Conclusion:
The results showed that in writing dissertation there were some major differences in following up the Kuhlthau model between students of the two Universities. There are significant differences between some of the stages of feelings and actions of students’ information-seeking behavior from the two universities. There is a significant relationship between the fourth stage (Formulation) of feelings in the Kuhlthau Model with gender and third stage of the Feelings (Exploration) with age.
doi:10.4103/2277-9531.139633
PMCID: PMC4165090  PMID: 25250354
Graduate students; information-seeking behavior; Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; Isfahan University; Kuhlthau model of information search process; writing dissertation
22.  Publication Rates of Public Health Theses in International and National Peer-Review Journals in Turkey 
Background:
Thesis is an important part of specialisation and doctorate education and requires intense work. The aim of this study was to investigate the publication rates of Turkish Public Health Doctorate Theses (PHDT) and Public Health Specialization (PHST) theses in international and Turkish national peer-review journals and to analyze the distribution of research areas.
Methods:
List of all theses upto 30 September 2009 were retrieved from theses database of the Council of Higher Education of the Republic of Turkey. The publication rates of these theses were found by searching PubMed, Science Citation Index-Expanded, Turkish Academic Network and Information Center (ULAKBIM) Turkish Medical Database, and Turkish Medline databases for the names of thesis author and mentor. The theses which were published in journals indexed either in PubMed or SCI-E were considered as international publications.
Results:
Our search yielded a total of 538 theses (243 PHDT, 295 PHST). It was found that the overall publication rate in Turkish national journals was 18%. The overall publication rate in international journals was 11.9%. Overall the most common research area was occupational health.
Conclusion:
Publication rates of Turkish PHDT and PHST are low. A better understanding of factors affecting this publication rate is important for public health issues where national data is vital for better intervention programs and develop better public health policies.
PMCID: PMC3494212  PMID: 23193503
Bibliometrics; Mentor; Publishing; Research; Scientometrics; Turkey
23.  Do self- reported intentions predict clinicians' behaviour: a systematic review 
Background
Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice. Several interventions have been shown to be effective in changing health care professionals' behaviour, but heterogeneity within interventions, targeted behaviours, and study settings make generalisation difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the 'active ingredients' in professional behaviour change strategies. Theories of human behaviour that feature an individual's "intention" to do something as the most immediate predictor of their behaviour have proved to be useful in non-clinical populations. As clinical practice is a form of human behaviour such theories may offer a basis for developing a scientific rationale for the choice of intervention to use in the implementation of new practice. The aim of this review was to explore the relationship between intention and behaviour in clinicians and how this compares to the intention-behaviour relationship in studies of non-clinicians.
Methods
We searched: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science/Social science citation index, Current contents (social & behavioural med/clinical med), ISI conference proceedings, and Index to Theses. The reference lists of all included papers were checked manually. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they had: examined a clinical behaviour within a clinical context, included measures of both intention and behaviour, measured behaviour after intention, and explored this relationship quantitatively. All titles and abstracts retrieved by electronic searching were screened independently by two reviewers, with disagreements resolved by discussion.
Discussion
Ten studies were found that examined the relationship between intention and clinical behaviours in 1623 health professionals. The proportion of variance in behaviour explained by intention was of a similar magnitude to that found in the literature relating to non-health professionals. This was more consistently the case for studies in which intention-behaviour correspondence was good and behaviour was self-reported. Though firm conclusions are limited by a smaller literature, our findings are consistent with that of the non-health professional literature. This review, viewed in the context of the larger populations of studies, provides encouragement for the contention that there is a predictable relationship between the intentions of a health professional and their subsequent behaviour. However, there remain significant methodological challenges.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-1-28
PMCID: PMC1664582  PMID: 17118180
24.  Healthcare professionals' intentions and behaviours: A systematic review of studies based on social cognitive theories 
Background
There is an important gap between the implications of clinical research evidence and the routine clinical practice of healthcare professionals. Because individual decisions are often central to adoption of a clinical-related behaviour, more information about the cognitive mechanisms underlying behaviours is needed to improve behaviour change interventions targeting healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to systematically review the published scientific literature about factors influencing health professionals' behaviours based on social cognitive theories. These theories refer to theories where individual cognitions/thoughts are viewed as processes intervening between observable stimuli and responses in real world situations.
Methods
We searched psycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CIHNAL, Index to theses, PROQUEST dissertations and theses and Current Contents for articles published in English only. We included studies that aimed to predict healthcare professionals' intentions and behaviours with a clear specification of relying on a social cognitive theory. Information on percent of explained variance (R2) was used to compute the overall frequency-weighted mean R2 to evaluate the efficacy of prediction in several contexts and according to different methodological aspects. The cognitive factors most consistently associated with prediction of healthcare professionals' intention and behaviours were documented.
Results
Seventy eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Among these studies, 72 provided information on the determinants of intention and 16 prospective studies provided information on the determinants of behaviour. The theory most often used as reference was the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) or its extension the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). An overall frequency-weighted mean R2 of 0.31 was observed for the prediction of behaviour; 0.59 for the prediction of intention. A number of moderators influenced the efficacy of prediction; frequency-weighted mean R2 varied from 0.001 to 0.58 for behaviour and 0.19 to 0.81 for intention.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that the TPB appears to be an appropriate theory to predict behaviour whereas other theories better capture the dynamic underlying intention. In addition, given the variations in efficacy of prediction, special care should be given to methodological issues, especially to better define the context of behaviour performance.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-3-36
PMCID: PMC2507717  PMID: 18631386
25.  Suicide in deaf populations: a literature review 
Background
Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorder than those who are hearing, while at the same time encountering difficulties in accessing mental health services. These factors might increase the risk of suicide. However, the burden of suicidal behaviour in deaf people is currently unknown.
The aim of the present review was to provide a summary of literature on suicidal behaviour with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives of the review were to establish the incidence and prevalence of suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe risk factors for suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe approaches to intervention and suicide prevention that have been used in deaf populations.
Methods
A number of electronic databases (e.g. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International, Web of Science, ComDisDome, ASSIA, Education Sage Full Text, Google Scholar, and the grey literature databases FADE and SIGLE) were explored using a combination of key words and medical subject headings as search terms. Reference lists of papers were also searched. The Science and Social Sciences Citation Index electronic databases were used to identify studies that had cited key papers. We also contacted experts and organisations with an interest in the field.
Results
Very few studies focussed specifically on suicide in deaf populations. Those studies that were included (n = 13) generally involved small and unrepresentative samples. There were limited data on the rate of suicidal behaviour in deaf people. One study reported evidence of hearing impairment in 0.2% of all suicide deaths. Another found that individuals with tinnitus seen in specialist clinics had an elevated rate of suicide compared to the general population. The rates of attempted suicide in deaf school and college students during the previous year ranged from 1.7% to 18%, with lifetime rates as high as 30%. Little evidence was found to suggest that risk factors for suicide in deaf people differed systematically from those in the general population. However, studies did report higher levels of depression and higher levels of perceived risk among deaf individuals than hearing control groups. No firm evidence was found regarding the effectiveness of suicide prevention strategies in deaf people, but suggested strategies include developing specific screening tools, training clinical staff, promoting deaf awareness, increasing the availability of specialist mental health services for deaf people.
Conclusion
There is a significant gap in our understanding of suicide in deaf populations. Clinicians should be aware of the possible association between suicide and deafness. Specialist mental health services should be readily accessible to deaf individuals and specific preventative strategies may be of benefit. However, further research using a variety of study designs is needed to increase our understanding of this issue.
doi:10.1186/1744-859X-6-26
PMCID: PMC2093933  PMID: 17922904

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