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1.  Sunlight exposure, antioxidant status, and cataract in Hong Kong fishermen. 
STUDY OBJECTIVES--The aim was to test whether cataract is associated with higher lifetime exposure to sunlight, and whether antioxidants protect against cataract. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional survey of eye disease, with assessment of antioxidant status in a subgroup. SETTING--Hong Kong fishing communities in 1989. PARTICIPANTS--685 men and women aged 55 to 74 years old were included in the study, of whom 367 (54%) attended hospital for detailed examination. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--At a mobile clinic visual acuity and lens opacities were assessed, and using a questionnaire, occupational history and lifetime exposure to sunlight. At hospital ophthalmic measurements were repeated and blood was taken for measurement of plasma vitamin C, vitamin E, and total carotenoids, and red cell activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Higher grades of cataract (particularly nuclear cataract) tended to be more common in subjects with the most sun exposure, although not to the point of statistical significance. In contrast to earlier studies, no association was found with antioxidant status. CONCLUSIONS--The findings give some support to the hypothesis that sunlight causes cataract. The absence of a relation to antioxidant status may be because blood levels of antioxidants at one point in time do not adequately reflect a subject's past metabolic state, and particularly the past activity of antioxidants in the lens.
PMCID: PMC1059710  PMID: 8436894
2.  Use of traditional cooking fuels and the risk of young adult cataract in rural Bangladesh: a hospital-based case-control study 
BMC Ophthalmology  2011;11:16.
This study aimed to investigate the independent relationship between the use of various traditional biomass cooking fuels and the occurrence of cataract in young adults in rural Bangladesh.
A hospital-based age- and sex-matched case-control study incorporating two control groups was conducted. Cases were cataract patients aged 18 and 49 years diagnosed on the basis of any opacity of the crystalline lens or its capsule and visual acuity poorer than 6/18 on the Log Mar Visual Acuity Chart in either eye, or who had a pseudophakic lens as a result of cataract surgery within the previous 5 years. Non-eye-disease (NE) controls were selected from patients from ENT or Orthopaedics departments and non-cataract eye-disease (NC) controls from the Ophthalmology department. Data pertaining to history of exposure to various cooking fuels and to established risk factors for cataract were obtained by face-to-face interview and analyzed using conditional logistic regression.
Clean fuels were used by only 4% of subjects. A majority of males (64-80% depending on group) had never cooked, while the rest had used biomass cooking fuels, mainly wood/dry leaves, with only 6 having used rice straw and/or cow dung. All females of each group had used wood/dry leaves for cooking. Close to half had also used rice straw and/or cow dung. Among females, after controlling for family history of cataract and education and combining the two control groups, case status was shown to be significantly related to lifetime exposure to rice straw, fitted as a trend variable coded as never, ≤ median of all exposed, > median of all exposed (OR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.04-2.22), but not to lifetime exposure to wood/dry leaves. Case status among females showed an inverse association with ever use of cow dung as a cooking fuel (OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.22-0.81).
In this population, where cooking is almost exclusively done using biomass fuels, cases of young adult cataract among females were more likely to have had an increased lifetime exposure to cooking with rice straw fuel and not to have cooked using cow dung fuel. There is a possibility that these apparent associations could have been the result of uncontrolled founding, for instance by wealth. The nature of the associations, therefore, needs to be further investigated.
PMCID: PMC3148558  PMID: 21679452
Young adult cataract; risk factor; traditional cooking fuels; Bangladesh
3.  The Effect of Trabeculectomy on Cataract Formation or Progression 
To determine the effect of trabeculectomy on cataract formation or progression in patients with chronic glaucoma.
This controlled clinical trial was performed on patients over 50 years of age with glaucoma who were referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2006 to 2007. Trabeculectomy was indicated only in one eye while the fellow eye had wellcontrolled intraocular pressure with medication(s). The fellow eyes served as controls. Lens opacity was evaluated using three criteria: visual acuity (VA), and Lens Opacification Classification System III (LOCS III) photographs and scores.
Overall 82 eyes of 41 patients including 53.7% male and 46.3% female subjects with mean age of 62.5±9.3 (range 50–75) years were evaluated. Cataract progression in operated eyes was statistically significant according to VA (P=0.02), LOCS III photographs (P=0.05) and LOCS III scores (P=0.01). However, compared to fellow control eyes, cataract progression was significant according to VA (P=0.023) and LOCS III scores (P=0.057) but not based on LOCS III photographs. Mean VA reduction was 2 Snellen lines in operated eyes; there were 3 cases of cataract formation or progression without reduced VA.
Cataracts seem to progress following trabeculectomy; therefore it might be advisable to perform a combined procedure in older patients with moderate lens opacities.
PMCID: PMC3498554  PMID: 23198053
Trabeculectomy; Cataract
4.  Prevalence of Visually Significant Cataract and Factors Associated with Unmet Need for Cataract Surgery: Los Angeles Latino Eye Study 
Ophthalmology  2009;116(12):2327-2335.
To estimate in a United States (U.S.) Latino population the prevalence of visually significant cataract, and to report predisposing, enabling, need, and health behavior characteristics associated with the unmet need for cataract surgery (UNCS).
Population-based, cross-sectional study.
6142 Latinos 40 years and older from 6 census tracts in Los Angeles County, California.
Participants completed an in-home interview and a comprehensive eye examination which included assessment of lens opacification, using the slit lamp-based Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Visually significant cataract was defined by: any LOCS II grading ≥2, BCVA <20/40, cataract as the primary cause of vision impairment, and self-reported vision of fair or worse. Because cataract surgery is not needed in all persons, participants with a visually significant cataract or prior cataract surgery in at least one eye composed the at-risk cohort needing cataract surgery. UNCS was defined as any person in the at-risk cohort who had at least one eye with a visually significant cataract. Univariate and stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to identify predisposing, enabling, need, and health behavior characteristics associated with UNCS.
Main Outcome Measure
Prevalence of visually significant cataract, and odds ratios for factors associated with UNCS.
Of 6142 participants who completed the interview and clinical examination, 118 (1.92%) had visually significant cataract in at least one eye. Of the 344 participants who have needed cataract surgery, 118 (29.9%) had UNCS. Independent factors associated with UNCS included health behavior - having last eye exam ≥5 years ago compared to <1 year ago (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval [OR], 3.76; 1.71-8.25)- and enabling factors - being uninsured (OR, 2.79; 1.30- 5.19), income less than $20,000 (OR, 2.60; 1.40-5.56), and self-reported barriers to eye care (OR 2.41; 1.14-5.13).
Latinos in our study had a substantial unmet need for cataract surgery. As Latinos with specific health behavior and enabling characteristics were more likely to have UNCS, interventions aimed at modifying these characteristics may be beneficial in reducing the unmet need and thus reducing the burden of visual impairment related to cataract in the U.S.
PMCID: PMC2787839  PMID: 19815276
5.  Case–Control Studies and Risk Factors for Cataract in Two Population Studies in Nigeria 
The aim of this study was to determine and investigate the risks associated with cataract in South Western and North Central Nigeria.
Materials and Methods:
A hospital-based, case–control study was conducted in Lagos (Lagos group), South Western Nigeria, and Kano (Kano group), North Central Nigeria. In this study, 530 subjects with visually impairing cataracts (study group) and 530 age- and sex-matched controls (control group) were recruited from patients aged 40 to 89 years attending the ophthalmology clinics at the same hospital. All subjects were examined for the presence/absence of cataract and interviewed about their educational achievements, diarrhea/dehydration crises, urban/rural residence, and ophthalmological conditions. A standardized questionnaire was administered to all subjects. Logistic regression analysis with age adjustment, literacy, outdoor work, body mass index, crowding, regular vegetable intake, heavy alcohol, and cigarette intake was performed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Using multivariate regression analysis, after adjustment for age and other demographics factors, low education and no education [adjusted odds ratios (OR) = 2.42 for the Lagos group and 4.10 for Kano group] and a positive history of diarrhea or dehydration crises (adjusted OR = 1.31 for the Lagos group and 2.12 for Kano group) were associated with an increased risk for cataract. Senile cataracts were more common among the Fulani ethnic group (adjusted OR = 2.21) of North Central Nigeria. However, rural or urban residence did not reveal any positive risk for cataract.
The risk of cataract in North Central Nigeria is similar to that in South Western Nigeria. Cataracts were strongly associated with increasing age, with peak age of 55 years and were more common in those with lower education, severe diarrhea and among the members of Fulani in North Central Nigeria.
PMCID: PMC2991446  PMID: 21180429
Case–Control Studies; Cataract; Fulani; Nigeria; Risk Factors; Severe Diarrhea
6.  Topical Ocular Hypotensive Medication and Lens Opacification: Evidence from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) 
American journal of ophthalmology  2006;142(5):800-810.
To determine whether topical ocular hypotensive medication is associated with refractive changes, visual symptoms, decreased visual function, or increased lens opacification.
Multicenter clinical trial
We compared the medication and observation groups of OHTS during 6.3 years of follow-up with regard to the rate of cataract and combined cataract/filtering surgery, and change from baseline in visual function, refraction and visual symptoms. A one-time assessment of lens opacification was done using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) grading system.
An increased rate of cataract extraction and cataract/filtering surgery was found in the medication group (7.6%) compared to the observation group (5.6%) (HR 1.56; 95% CI 1.05–2.29). The medication and observation groups did not differ with regard to changes from baseline to June 2002 in Humphrey visual field mean deviation, Humphrey visual field foveal sensitivity, Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuity, refraction and visual symptoms. For the medication and observation groups, LOCS III readings were similar for nuclear color, nuclear opalescence and cortical opacification. There was a borderline higher mean grade for posterior subcapsular opacity in the medication group (0.43 ± 0.6 SD) compared to the observation group (0.36 ± 0.6 SD) (p=0.07).
We noted an increased rate of cataract extraction and cataract/filtering surgery in the medication group as well as a borderline higher grade of posterior subcapsular opacification in the medication group on LOCS III readings. We found no evidence for a general effect of topical ocular hypotensive medication on lens opacification or visual function.
PMCID: PMC1976472  PMID: 17056362
American journal of ophthalmology  2010;149(5):728-34.e1-2.
To estimate the 4-year incidence and progression of lens opacities.
Population-based longitudinal study.
4,658 adult Latinos from Los Angeles County, were examined at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Examination included assessment of lens opacities using the Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II). Incidences of cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular opacities (with LOCS II scores ≥2) were defined as opacity development in persons without that opacity at baseline. Single and mixed opacities were defined in persons without any opacity at baseline. Incidence of all lens changes included development of at least one opacity or cataract surgery among those without any opacity at baseline. 4-year progressions were defined as increase of ≥2 in LOCS II score.
The 4-year incidence of all lens opacities was 14.2%. 4-year incidence of cataract surgery was 1.48%. The incidences were 4.1% for cortical-only, 5.8% for nuclear-only, 0.5% for PSC-only, and 2.5% for mixed. The incidences for any opacities were 7.5% for cortical, 10.2% for nuclear, and 2.5% for PSC. Incidence increased with age (P<0.0001 for all). The progressions were 8.5% for cortical, 3.7% for nuclear, and 2.9% for PSC opacities.
Our Latino population had a higher incidence of nuclear than cortical opacities, but a greater progression of cortical than nuclear opacities. Incidence and progression of PSC was low. Additional understanding of the natural history and progression of various lens opacities will give us a better understanding of how and when to screen for, monitor, and treat cataracts.
PMCID: PMC2867354  PMID: 20181327
8.  A prospective study of dietary carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and risk of cataract in women 
Archives of ophthalmology  2008;126(1):102-109.
To examine in prospective data the relation between dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamins C and E and risk of cataract in women.
Dietary intake was assessed at baseline in 1993 among 39,876 female health professionals by use of a detailed food-frequency questionnaire. A total of 35,551 of these women provided detailed information on antioxidant nutrient intake from food and supplements and were free of a diagnosis of cataract.
Main Outcome Measure
Cataract defined as an incident, age-related lens opacity, responsible for a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse, based on self-report confirmed by medical record review.
A total of 2,031 cases of incident cataract were confirmed during an average of 10 years of follow-up. Comparing women in extreme quintiles, the multivariate relative risk of cataract was 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.95; P, test for trend, 0.045) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.00; P, test for trend, 0.03) for vitamin E from food and supplements.
In these prospective observational data from a large cohort of female health professionals, higher dietary intakes of lutein/zeaxanthin and vitamin E from food and supplements were associated with significantly decreased risks of cataract.
PMCID: PMC2396535  PMID: 18195226
9.  Proposal of a novel classification of leukocorias 
To report a case series of nine patients presenting with leukocoria without lens opacification or retrolental abnormalities and to propose a novel classification for leukocoria.
An institutional and retrospective study including a case series of patients assisted in the Congenital Cataract Section of Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil, during the period between 2005 and 2010 with prelenticular leukocoria and clear lens.
Nine patients younger than 4 years old presented with the diagnosis of unilateral prelenticular opacities without cataract formation. Echography in all patients revealed no posterior segment or lens abnormalities in the affected eye. Among the patients, three had idiopathic prelenticular membrane, two presented with juvenile xanthogranuloma with secondary pupillary membrane, one had persistent fetal pupillary membrane, one had prelenticular membrane due to congenital toxoplasmosis, one presented with pupillary membrane due to hyphema caused by iris hemangioma, and one had anterior segment persistent fetal vasculature.
This case series of patients presented unilateral prelenticular leukocoria without lens opacification or posterior segment abnormalities. Several etiologies were associated with this condition. The correct diagnosis is important in order to avoid clear lens extraction. A new classification of leukocoria is proposed herein including: prelenticular leukocoria, lenticular leukocoria, retrolenticular leukocoria, and mixed presentation leukocoria.
PMCID: PMC3399387  PMID: 22815641
leukocoria; prelenticular; pupillary membrane; children; retinoblastoma; congenital cataract
10.  Fruit and vegetable intake and vitamins C and E are associated with a reduced prevalence of cataract in a Spanish Mediterranean population 
BMC Ophthalmology  2013;13:52.
Cataract is among the major causes of vision impairment and blindness worldwide. Epidemiological studies support the role of antioxidants in the etiology of cataract, but the evidence for one specific antioxidant over another is inconsistent. Few studies have examined the association of cataract with fruit and vegetable intake with inconclusive results. In the present study, the relationship between cataract and fruit and vegetable intake and dietary and blood levels of carotenoids, vitamins C and E were examined in a Spanish Mediterranean population.
The present work is an analysis of data from 599 elderly ( ≥ 65 years) participants from the Spanish segment of the EUREYE study. This is a European multi-center cross-sectional population-based study. Cataract was diagnosed using a slit-lamp examination and defined as any lens opacity in either eye or evidence of its removal (cataract extraction). Energy-adjusted intake of fruit and vegetables and antioxidant vitamins was estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Plasma concentrations of vitamin C were analyzed by a colorimetric method and carotenoids and α-tocopherol by a HPLC method. The associations between cataract and quartiles of fruit and vegetable intake and plasma antioxidants were investigated using logistic regression models.
Of the 599 elderly recruited, 433 (73%) had cataract or cataract extraction, 54% were women and 46% were men. After adjustments, increasing quartiles of combined fruit and vegetable intake were associated with decreasing reduction of odds of cataract or cataract extraction, (P for trend = 0.008). Increasing quartiles of dietary intakes from 107 mg/d of vitamin C showed a significant decreasing association with prevalence of cataract or cataract extraction (P for trend = 0.047). For vitamin E, a protective association was found from intakes from 8 mg/d, but no linear trend was observed across quartiles of intake (P for trend = 0.944).
High daily intakes of fruit and vegetables and vitamins C and E were associated with a significantly decreased of the prevalence of cataract or cataract surgery. This study reinforces the WHO recommendations on the benefits of diets rich in fruit and vegetables.
PMCID: PMC3853246  PMID: 24106773
Cataract; Fruit intake; Vegetables intake; Antioxidant vitamins; WHO recommendations
11.  Prevalence of Cataract in an Older Population in India 
Ophthalmology  2011;118(2-19):272-278.e2.
To describe the prevalence of cataract in older people in 2 areas of north and south India.
Population-based, cross-sectional study.
Randomly sampled villages were enumerated to identify people aged ≥60 years. Of 7518 enumerated people, 78% participated in a hospital-based ophthalmic examination.
The examination included visual acuity measurement, dilatation, and anterior and posterior segment examination. Digital images of the lens were taken and graded by type and severity of opacity using the Lens Opacity Classification System III (LOCS III).
Main Outcome Measures
Age- and gender-standardized prevalence of cataract and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We defined type of cataract based on the LOCS III grade in the worse eye of: ≥4 for nuclear cataract, ≥3 for cortical cataract, and ≥2 for posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). Any unoperated cataract was based on these criteria or ungradable dense opacities. Any cataract was defined as any unoperated or operated cataract.
The prevalence of unoperated cataract in people aged ≥60 was 58% in north India (95% CI, 56–60) and 53% (95% CI, 51–55) in south India (P = 0.01). Nuclear cataract was the most common type: 48% (95% CI, 46–50) in north India and 38% (95% CI, 37–40) in south India (P<0.0001); corresponding figures for PSC were 21% (95% CI, 20–23) and 17% (95% CI, 16–19; P = 0.003), respectively, and for cortical cataract 7.6% (95% CI, 7–9) and 10.2% (95% CI, 9–11; P<0.004). Bilateral aphakia/pseudophakia was slightly higher in the south (15.5%) than in the north (13.2%; P<0.03). The prevalence of any cataracts was similar in north (73.8%) and south India (71.8%). The prevalence of unoperated cataract increased with age and was higher in women than men (odds ratio [OR], 1.8). Aphakia/pseudophakia was also more common in women, either unilateral (OR, 1.2; P<0.02) or bilateral (OR, 1.3; P<0.002).
We found high rates of unoperated cataract in older people in north and south India. Posterior subcapsular cataract was more common than in western studies. Women had higher rates of cataract, which was not explained by differential access to surgery.
Financial Disclosure(s)
The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article.
PMCID: PMC3146699  PMID: 20801514
12.  Risk factors associated with incident cataracts and cataract surgery in the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). AREDS Report Number 32 
Ophthalmology  2011;118(11):2113-2119.
To investigate potential risk factors associated with incident nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataracts and cataract surgery in participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS).
Clinic-based prospective cohort study.
Persons (N=4425), aged 60 to 80 years of age enrolled in a controlled clinical trial of antioxidant vitamins and minerals, AREDS, for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataract.
Lens photographs were graded centrally for nuclear, cortical, and PSC opacities using the AREDS System for Classifying Cataracts. Type-specific incident cataracts were defined as an increase in cataract grade from none or mild at baseline to a grade of moderate at follow-up, with also a grade of at least moderate at the final visit, or cataract surgery. Cox regression analyses were used to assess baseline risk factors associated with type specific opacities and cataract surgery.
Main Outcome Measures
Moderate cataract was defined as a grade of ≥4.0 for nuclear opacity, ≥10% involvement within the full visible lens for cortical opacity, and ≥5% involvement of the central 5 mm circle of the lens for PSC opacity. These were graded on baseline and annual lens photographs.
A clinic-based cohort of 4425 persons aged 55–80 years at baseline was followed for an average of 9.8 ± 2.4 years. The following associations were found: increasing age with increased risk of all types of cataract and cataract surgery; males with increased risk of PSC and decreased risk of cortical cataracts; non-whites with increased risk of cortical cataract; hyperopia with decreased risk of PSC, nuclear cataract, and cataract surgery; Centrum use with decreased risk of nuclear cataract; diabetes with increased risk of cortical, PSC cataract, and cataract surgery; higher educational level with decreased risk of cortical cataract; and smoking with increased risk of cortical cataract and cataract surgery. Estrogen replacement therapy in female participants increased the risk of cataract surgery.
Our findings are largely consistent with the results of previous studies, providing further evidence for possible modifiable risk factors for age-related cataract.
PMCID: PMC3178670  PMID: 21684602
13.  Treatment of experimental lens capsular tears with intense focused ultrasound. 
High-intensity focused ultrasound was employed to seal lens capsular tears in a rabbit model. Ultrasound therapy was applied either contiguously, thereby completely covering the tear, or in a discrete exposure pattern around the tear. Both methods prevented the formation of a generalised cataract. This was in contrast to results observed in a group of control (untreated) animals which all developed generalised lens opacities. Each control animal also developed a local lens opacity at the site of the capsular tear, as did half the animals treated with the discrete pattern. No animal treated with contiguous exposures developed any local or generalised traumatic-type cataract other than the small lens opacity immediately produced by the treatment. These treatment cataracts would not constitute a significant impediment to vision so long as they did not fall on the visual axis.
PMCID: PMC1040703  PMID: 4041409
14.  Risk factors for age related cataract in a rural population of southern India: the Aravind Comprehensive Eye Study 
Aim: To determine risk factors for lens opacities and age related cataract in an older rural population of southern India.
Methods: A cross sectional population based study of 5150 people aged 40 years and above from 50 clusters from three districts in southern India. The lens was graded and classified after dilation using LOCS III system at the slit lamp for cataract. Definite cataract was defined as nuclear opalescence ⩾3.0 and/or cortical cataract ⩾3.0 and/or PSC ⩾2.0.
Results: Definite cataracts were found in 2449 (47.5%) of 5150 subjects and the prevalence of cataract increased with age. The age adjusted prevalence of cataract was significantly lower in males (p = 0.0002). Demographic risk factors—increasing age and illiteracy—were common for the three subtypes of cataract; females were more likely to have cortical cataracts and nuclear cataracts. Additionally, nuclear cataracts were associated with moderate smoking (OR:1.28, 95% CI:1.01 to 1.64), lean body mass indices (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.59) and higher waist to hip ratios (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.82); cortical cataracts with hypertension (OR: 1.39 95% CI:1.11 to 1.72), pseudoexfoliation (OR:1.53,95% CI:1.17 to 2.01), and moderate to heavy smoking; and posterior subcapsular cataracts with diabetes (OR:1.55, 95% CI:1.12 to 2.15), lean body mass (OR:1.32, 95% CI:1.11 to 1.57), and high waist to hip ratios (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.94).
Conclusions: Risk factors for age related cataract in this population do not appear to be different from those reported in other populations. Further studies are required to identify the reason for the high prevalence of age related cataract and to understand better the role of each risk factor for cataractogenesis in this population.
PMCID: PMC1772282  PMID: 15258010
age related cataract; India; Aravind Comprehensive Eye Study
15.  Ultrasonographic Findings in Patients Examined in Cataract Detection-and-Treatment Campaigns: A Retrospective Study 
Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil)  2009;64(7):637-640.
A cataract is defined as an opacity of any portion of the lens, regardless of visual acuity. In some advanced cases of cataracts, in which good fundus visualization is not possible, an ultrasound examination provides better assessment of the posterior segment of the globe.
This study aims to evaluate the ultrasonographic records of patients with advanced cataracts who were examined during cataract campaigns.
The ultrasonographic findings obtained from 215 patients examined in cataract campaigns conducted by the Hospital das Clínicas Department of Ophthalmology of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo between the years of 2005 and 2007 were evaluated, and the utility of this exam in changing the treatment procedures was studied.
A total of 289 eyes from 215 patients were examined. Of the eyes examined, 77.5% presented with findings in the vitreous cavity and the posterior pole. A posterior vitreous detachment with no other complications was observed in 47.4% of the eyes. The remaining 30.1% presented with eye diseases that could result in a reduced visual function after surgery. The most frequent eye diseases observed were diffuse vitreous opacity (12.1% of the eyes) and detachment of the retina (9.3% of the eyes).
In many cases, the ultrasonographic evaluation of the posterior segment revealed significant anomalies that changed the original treatment plan or contra-indicated surgery. At the very least, the evaluation was useful for patient counseling.
The ultrasonographic examination revealed and differentiated between eyes with cataracts and eyes with ocular abnormalities other than cataracts as the cause of poor vision, thereby indicating the importance of its use during ocular evaluation.
PMCID: PMC2710435  PMID: 19606238
Ultrasonography; Cataract; Posterior segment; Retinal detachment; Vitreous opacities
16.  Subjective and Quantitative Measurement of Wavefront Aberrations in Nuclear Cataracts – A Retrospective Case Controlled Study 
To measure, quantify and compare Ocular Aberrations due to nuclear cataracts.
Department of ophthalmology and school for ophthalmic technicians, college of medicine and health sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman.
Retrospective case controlled study.
113 eyes of 77 patients with nuclear cataract (NC) were recruited from outpatient clinic of a major tertiary referral center for Ophthalmology. Patients having NC with no co-existing ocular pathologies were selected. All patients were subjected to wavefront aberrometry (make) using Hartmann-Shack (HS) aberrometer. Consents were taken from all patients. Higher order Aberrations (HOA) were calculated with Zernike polynomials up to the fourth order. For comparison 28 eyes of 15 subjects with no lenticular opacities (control group) were recruited and evaluated in an identical manner. No pupillary mydriasis was done in both groups.
Total aberrations were almost six times higher in NC group compared to control (normal) subjects. The HOA were 21 times higher in NC group, and coma was significantly higher in NC eyes compared to normal (control) group. The pupillary diameter was significantly larger in control group (5.48mm ± 1.0024, p<.001) compared to NC (3.05mm ± 1.9145) subjects (probably due to younger control age group). Amongst Zernike coefficients up to fourth order, two polynomials, defocus (Z20) and spherical aberration (Z42) were found to be significantly greater amongst NC group, compared to normal control group.
Nuclear cataracts predominantly produce increased defocus and spherical aberrations. This could explain visual symptoms like image deterioration in spite of normal Visual acuity.
PMCID: PMC2813574  PMID: 20142953
Aberrometry; Nuclear Cataract; Zernike Polynomials
17.  Loss of contrast sensitivity in diabetic patients with LOCS II classified cataracts. 
Contrast sensitivity function (CSF) was assessed in a population of diabetics with moderate cataracts to determine if CSF testing provides more information about visual dysfunction than Snellen or Lotmar interferometric visual acuity. With the Lens Opacities Classification Systems Version II (LOCS II) of cataract classification it was possible to grade accurately the type and severity of cataract and nuclear brunescence. The presence of statistically significant relationships between increasing LOCS II classification (worsening cataract) and diminished function, even when the regression model was controlled for Snellen visual acuity, supports the thesis that CSF measurements do provide more information about cataract related visual loss than Snellen acuity alone. Statistically significant (p < or = 0.05) relationships existed between different morphological types of cataract, nuclear colour, and CSF at specific frequencies. The frequencies affected differed with cataract type or nuclear colour, and with distance and near CSF.
PMCID: PMC504413  PMID: 8435406
18.  The influence of cortical, nuclear, subcortical posterior, and mixed cataract on the results of microperimetry 
Eye  2011;25(10):1317-1321.
Microperimetry is a useful instrument for evaluating sensitivity threshold due to retinal pathologies. The aim of the study is to assess the impact of different forms of cataract on microperimetry results.
In a prospective design, patients were recruited for cataract surgery at the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna. Exclusion criteria were any other ophthalmic disease except cataract, that is, macular pathology. Using the Lens Opacities Classification System III classification, patients were classified into four groups: nuclear, cortical, subcapsular posterior, and mixed cataract. Then patients underwent microperimetry: results were analyzed for magnitude of retinal sensitivity loss and correlated to the forms and density of the cataract.
Mean density of cataract was LOCS 3.2–3.5 in the four groups. Differences were not statistically significant. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was LogMAR 0.5±0.13 in nuclear, LogMAR 0.49±0.21 in cortical, and LogMAR 0.58±0.12 in mixed cataract patients, and significantly worse in patients with subcapsular posterior cataract (LogMAR 0.64±0.12). Microperimetry shows a mean sensitivity of 11.4–12.6 dB without significant group differences. The BCVA is correlated with microperimetry in patients with nuclear and cortical cataract. Density of cataract is highly correlated with microperimetry results in all groups.
The present study shows a good correlation of microperimetry results with the BCVA of patients with nuclear and cortical cataract. In patients with subcapsular posterior cataract, microperimetry results were better than estimated by BCVA. Density of cataract is highly correlated with macular sensitivity. A reduction of 1 dB in microperimetry per 1 posterior capsule opacification score increase can be estimated for these patients.
PMCID: PMC3194310  PMID: 21738231
microperimetry; retinal sensitivity; cataract; density of cataract; PCO score; best corrected visual acuity
19.  Study of nuclear cataract progression using the National Eye Institute Scheimpflug system. 
AIMS--A study was conducted to determine the capability of the recently developed National Eye Institute (NEI) Scheimpflug cataract imaging system in detecting changes in the nuclear region of the lens over a 1 year period. METHODS--Twenty five eyes with pure nuclear cataracts with mean nuclear densities < or = 0.30 optical density units (ODU) as well as 30 normal control eyes were each examined at baseline and 12 months later. Computerised densitometry using the NEI Scheimpflug cataract imaging system was performed. Clinical grading of the lenses was also done using the Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II). For densitometry, a change of plus or minus 0.023 ODU (the 99% range) in mean density in the nuclear area was considered a progression or regression at 1 year. RESULTS--Using the Scheimpflug densitometry, 14 of the 25 cataractous eyes showed significant progression at 1 year. In the normal control group, only three of the 30 eyes showed significant progression. In contrast, using the LOCS II clinical grading, only two of the 25 cataractous eyes showed a one step increase, two of the 30 controls progressed at 1 year, and none regressed. There was no significant difference in visual acuity. CONCLUSION--This study suggests the value of the NEI Scheimpflug cataract imaging system in detecting nuclear change within 1 year. However, clinically significant changes may require longer follow up periods. These data will be useful in planning future longitudinal studies of nuclear cataracts, such as for clinical trials of anticataract drugs.
PMCID: PMC505159  PMID: 7626567
20.  Cataract subtype risk factors identified from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination survey 2008–2010 
BMC Ophthalmology  2014;14:4.
To assess the socio-demographic and health-related risk factors associated with cataract subtypes in Korea.
A total of 11,591 participants (aged ≥40 years) were selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2010. The Korean Ophthalmologic Society conducted detailed ophthalmologic examinations on these participants based on the Lens Opacity Classification System III. Risk factors for developing any type of cataract, and its subtypes (nuclear, cortical, posterior subcapsular and mixed), were identified from univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.
The prevalence of cataracts was 40.1% (95% CI, 37.8 − 42.3%) in participants over 40 years old. Older age, lower monthly household income, lower education, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (DM) were independent risk factors for development of any cataract. Older age, lower monthly household income, lower education, hypercholesterolemia, and DM were independent risk factors for development of pure cortical cataracts. Older age, lower education, metabolic syndrome, and DM were independent risk factors for development of pure nuclear cataracts. Older age and DM were independent risk factors for development of pure posterior subcapsular cataracts. Older age, lower monthly household income, lower education, and DM were independent risk factors for development of mixed cataracts.
Although socioeconomic disparities are related to cataract development, this study identified several “modifiable” risk factors that may help to lower the incidence of cataracts and associated vision loss. Improved control of blood pressure, blood, glucose, and cholesterol may help to reduce the incidence of cataracts in the general Korean population.
PMCID: PMC3928645  PMID: 24410920
Cataract; Cataract subtype; Cataract risk factors; KNHANES
21.  Cataracts and avionic radiations. 
Nine cases of hertzian radiation cataracts are reported among personnel working in operational aviation environments, where they were irradiated repeatedly at subliminal non-thermal field intensities. The resultant ocular pathology evolved insidiously and slowly over a period of years in a similar way to other forms of radiational injury. By the time of consultation examination, all had progressed to a relatively late state, exhibiting not only capsular cataract but also vesiculation and opacification of the proximal subcapsular lens substance. In addition to the ocular dangers of chronic exposure to nonionising radiation reference is made to the nonthermal effect or the radiation effect per se, as this could relate to general health--for example, as a possible previously unsuspected aetiological or contributory factor in many other disease processes.
PMCID: PMC1042985  PMID: 871464
22.  EPHA2 Polymorphisms and Age-Related Cataract in India 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e33001.
We investigated whether previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of EPHA2 in European studies are associated with cataract in India.
We carried out a population-based genetic association study. We enumerated randomly sampled villages in two areas of north and south India to identify people aged 40 and over. Participants attended a clinical examination including lens photography and provided a blood sample for genotyping. Lens images were graded by the Lens Opacification Classification System (LOCS III). Cataract was defined as a LOCS III grade of nuclear ≥4, cortical ≥3, posterior sub-capsular (PSC) ≥2, or dense opacities or aphakia/pseudophakia in either eye. We genotyped SNPs rs3754334, rs7543472 and rs11260867 on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes using TaqMan assays in an ABI 7900 real-time PCR. We used logistic regression with robust standard errors to examine the association between cataract and the EPHA2 SNPs, adjusting for age, sex and location.
7418 participants had data on at least one of the SNPs investigated. Genotype frequencies of controls were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (p>0.05). There was no association of rs3754334 with cataract or type of cataract. Minor allele homozygous genotypes of rs7543472 and rs11260867 compared to the major homozygote genotype were associated with cortical cataract, Odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (1.1, 3.1) p = 0.03 and 2.9 (1.2, 7.1) p = 0.01 respectively, and with PSC cataract, OR = 1.5 (1.1, 2.2) p = 0.02 and 1.8 (0.9, 3.6) p = 0.07 respectively. There was no consistent association of SNPs with nuclear cataract or a combined variable of any type of cataract including operated cataract.
Our results in the Indian population agree with previous studies of the association of EPHA2 variants with cortical cataracts. We report new findings for the association with PSC which is particularly prevalent in Indians.
PMCID: PMC3297613  PMID: 22412971
23.  Effect of Cataract Type and Severity on Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity 
To determine the effect of cataract type and severity in eyes with pure types of age-related lens opacities on visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity in the presence and absence of glare conditions.
Sixty patients with senile cataracts aged 40 years or older with no other ocular pathologies were evaluated for VA and contrast sensitivity with and without glare. Lens opacities were classified according to the Lens Opacities Classification System (LOCS) III. VA was measured using the Snellen chart. Contrast sensitivity was measured with the Vector Vision CSV-1000E chart in the presence and absence of glare by calculating the area under log contrast sensitivity (log CS) function (AULCSF).
Cataracts were posterior subcapsular in 26 eyes, cortical in 19 eyes and nuclear in 15 eyes. VA significantly decreased with increasing cataract severity and there was significant loss of contrast sensitivity at all spatial frequencies with increasing cataract severity. AULCSF significantly decreased with increasing cataract severity in the presence and absence of glare conditions. Contrast sensitivity was significantly reduced at high spatial frequency (18 cpd) in cortical cataracts in the presence of glare in day light and at low spatial frequency (3 cpd) in night light.
Increased cataract severity is strongly associated with a decrease in both VA and AULCSF. Contrast sensitivity scores may offer additional information over standard VA tests in patients with early age-related cataracts.
PMCID: PMC3306069  PMID: 22454703
Contrast Sensitivity; Glare Sensitivity; Visual Acuity; Age-Related Cataract
24.  A Comparison of the Efficacy of Cataract Surgery Using Aqualase® with Phacoemulsification Using MicroFlow® System 
To compare the outcomes after phacoemulsification performed with the AquaLase® and phacoemulsification in MicroFlow® system, including surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), corneal endothelial cell damage and postoperative recovery of visual acuity.
The cataracts of Lens Opacities Classification System, version III (LOCS III) nuclear grade below 2 were subjected in this study. Nineteen eyes underwent cataract operation using AquaLase® (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A.). A control group (19 eyes) used the MicroFlow® system (Millenium, Stortz, U.S.A.) and was selected by matching age, sex, systemic disease, corneal astigmatism and corneal endothelial cell density. All the surgeries were performed by the same operator. SIA, corneal endothelial cell loss, visual acuity, and corneal thickness were evaluated postoperatively.
SIA in the group using AquaLase® was less than that of the group using MicroFlow® system (P=0.022) at 2 months postoperatively. Evaluation of corneal endothelial cell loss, recovery of visual acuity and corneal thickness found no statistically significant differences between the two groups.
Cataract surgery using AquaLase® induces less surgically induced astigmatism in mild to moderate cataracts.
PMCID: PMC2629670  PMID: 17804917
AquaLase; Corneal endothelial cell damage; Surgically induced astigmatism
25.  Selected Sun-Sensitizing Medications and Incident Cataract 
Archives of ophthalmology  2010;128(8):959-963.
Sunlight exposure has been found to be associated with the development of age-related cataract. Use of some medications has been related to the development of sensitization to sun exposure.
To examine the relationship of use of sun-sensitizing medication on cumulative incidence of age-related cataract.
Population-based longitudinal cohort study.
Adults in the Midwestern community of Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, who were seen at baseline and three follow-up visits each five years apart.
Sun exposure was estimated from residential history that permitted calculation of Wisconsin sun years (WISY) at the baseline examination. Medication history was reported at each examination. Cataract presence was determined by standardized lens photographs that were taken at each examination and graded according to standard protocols.
Main Outcome Measure
Cumulative incidence of age-related cataract.
There were no significant effects of WISY exposure or use of sun-sensitizing medications on cumulative incidence of any type of age-related cataract while controlling for age and gender. However, there was a significant interaction term combining WISY and use of any sun-sensitizing medication on cortical cataract (P=.04) such that risk of cataract is significantly higher for persons in both risk groups: taking sun-sensitizing medication and higher sun exposure. Further controlling for diabetes status, history of heavy drinking and hat or sunglasses use did not alter the relationships.
These data suggest that use of sun-sensitizing medications interacts with sun exposure to influence the risk of cortical cataract, a common age-related cataract. If confirmed, this finding may have important implications for medication use.
PMCID: PMC2919611  PMID: 20547934

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