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1.  Association between haptoglobin and IgM levels and the clinical progression of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep 
Background
Sheep caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp), is associated with direct economic losses and presents significant zoonotic potential. Despite the importance of the disease, a satisfactory vaccine model has not been developed. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between haptoglobin (Hp) and IgM levels and the clinical progression of CLA in primarily infected sheep and in sheep immunized with Cp- secreted antigens adjuvanted with Quillaja saponaria saponins. These animals were kept with CLA-positive sheep to simulate natural exposure that occurs in field conditions. During the experiment, the Hp and IgM levels were monitored for 21 days, and the development of internal CLA lesions was investigated through necropsies on day182 post-immunization.
Results
Primarily infected sheep in Group 2 (inoculated with 2x105 Cp virulent strain) had higher Hp values between the first and ninth days post inoculation (PI) than sheep in Group 1 (control; P < 0.05). Immunized animals in Group 3 had significantly higher Hp values between the third and seventh days PI, compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Binary logistic regression (BLR) analysis of primarily infected sheep indicated an association between Hp concentration and CLA clinical progression: animals with high Hp values had 99.9% less risk of having CLA abscesses than animals with low Hp levels (Odds ratio = 0.001, P < 0.05). Both experimental groups had significantly higher IgM titers than the control group around the ninth and eleventh days PI (P < 0.05). The BLR analysis for immunized sheep indicated an association between IgM levels and clinical progression: sheep with high IgM titers had 100.0% less risk of having CLA abscesses than animals with low IgM levels (Odds ratio = 0.000, P < 0.05).
Conclusions
Resistance to C. pseudotuberculosis infection is supported by the early acute phase response, in which up-regulation of Hp and IgM were predictive of a lower risk of CLA lesion development. Because the immunogen used in this study induced a high production of both Hp and IgM, Q. saponaria saponin should be considered a promising candidate in vaccine formulations against sheep CLA.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-254
PMCID: PMC3866939  PMID: 24330714
Caseous lymphadenitis; Small ruminants; Quillaja saponaria; Acute phase response; Haptoglobin; Immunoglobulin M
2.  Acute phase response to Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ infection in FIV-infected and non-FIV-infected cats 
The pathogenicity of Haemoplasma spp. in cats varies with ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm) causing subclinical infection while Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) often induces haemolytic anaemia. The aims of this study were to characterise the acute phase response (APR) of the cat to experimental infection with Mhf or CMhm, and to determine whether chronic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection influences this response. The acute phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations were measured pre-infection and every 7–14 days up to day 100 post-infection (pi) in cats infected with either Mhf or CMhm. Half of each group of cats (6/12) were chronically and subclinically infected with FIV. Marbofloxacin treatment was given on days 16–44 pi to half of the Mhf-infected cats, and on days 49–77 pi to half of the CMhm-infected cats.
FIV-infected animals had significantly lower AGP concentrations, and significantly greater Hp concentrations than non-FIV-infected cats when infected with CMhm and Mhf, respectively. Both CMhm and Mhf infection were associated with significant increases in SAA concentrations, while AGP concentrations were only significantly increased by Mhf infection. Mhf-infected cats had significantly greater SAA concentrations than CMhm-infected animals. Both Mhf and CMhm infections were associated with an APR, with Mhf infection inducing a greater response. Chronic FIV infection appeared to modify the APR, which varied with the infecting Haemoplasma species.
doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.12.009
PMCID: PMC3778745  PMID: 22763129
Feline; Acute phase proteins; Mycoplasma haemofelis; ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’; Feline immunodeficiency virus
3.  Specific glycosylation of α1-acid glycoprotein characterises patients with familial Mediterranean fever and obligatory carriers of MEFV 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2001;60(8):777-780.
BACKGROUND—Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a periodic febrile disorder, characterised by fever and serositis. The acute phase response during attacks of FMF results from the release of cytokines, which in turn induce increased expression and changed glycosylation of acute phase proteins. A recent study indicated that attacks in FMF are accompanied by a rise of plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) and C reactive protein (CRP), which remain significantly raised during remission relative to healthy controls. Another study suggested that obligatory heterozygotes also display an inflammatory acute phase response.
OBJECTIVE—To determine the state of inflammation in homozygotic and heterozygotic MEFV genotypes.
METHODS—CRP and SAA were studied by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The glycosylation of the acute phase protein, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), was visualised with crossed affinoimmunoelectrophoresis with concanavalin A as diantennary glycan-specific component and Aleuria aurantia lectin as fucose-specific affinity component.
RESULTS—FMF attacks were associated with an increase (p<0.05) in the serum inflammation parameters CRP, SAA, and AGP. The glycosylation of AGP showed an increase (p<0.05) in fucosylated AGP glycoforms, whereas the branching of the glycans remained unaffected. The glycosylation of AGP in the MEFV carrier group, compared with that in a healthy control group, was characterised by a significant increase (p<0.05) in branching of the glycans, whereas the fucosylation remained unaffected.
CONCLUSION—The findings suggest an FMF-specific release of cytokines, resulting in a different glycosylation of AGP between a homozygotic and heterozygotic MEFV genotype.


doi:10.1136/ard.60.8.777
PMCID: PMC1753799  PMID: 11454642
4.  Management of a caseous lymphadenitis outbreak in a new Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) stock reservoir 
Background
In 2010, an Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) stock reservoir was established for conservation purposes in north-eastern Spain. Eighteen ibexes were captured in the wild and housed in a 17 hectare enclosure. Once in captivity, a caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) outbreak occurred and ibex handlings were carried out at six-month intervals between 2010 and 2013 to perform health examinations and sampling. Treatment with a bacterin-based autovaccine and penicillin G benzatine was added during the third and subsequent handlings, when infection by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was confirmed. Changes in lesion score, serum anti-C. pseudotuberculosis antibodies and haematological parameters were analyzed to assess captivity effects, disease emergence and treatment efficacy. Serum acute phase proteins (APP) Haptoglobin (Hp), Amyloid A (SAA) and Acid Soluble Glycoprotein (ASG) concentrations were also determined to evaluate their usefulness as indicators of clinical status.
Once in captivity, 12 out of 14 ibexes (85.7%) seroconverted, preceding the emergence of clinical signs; moreover, TP, WBC, eosinophil and platelet cell counts increased while monocyte and basophil cell counts decreased. After treatment, casualties and fistulas disappeared and both packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin concentration significantly increased. Hp, SAA and ASG values were under the limit of detection or showed no significant differences.
Conclusions
A role for captivity in contagion rate is suggested by the increase in antibody levels against C. pseudotuberculosis and the emergence of clinical signs. Although boosted by captivity, this is the first report of an outbreak of caseous lymphadenitis displaying high morbidity and mortality in wild ungulates. Treatment consisting of both vaccination and antibiotic therapy seemed to prevent mortality and alleviate disease severity, but was not reflected in the humoural response. Haematology and APP were not useful indicators in our study, perhaps due to the sampling frequency. Presumably endemic and irrelevant in the wild, this common disease of domestic small ruminants is complicating conservation efforts for the Iberian ibex in north-eastern Spain.
doi:10.1186/s13028-014-0083-x
PMCID: PMC4280031  PMID: 25492129
Capra pyrenaica; Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; Caseous lymphadenitis; Antibodies; Autovaccine; Acute phase proteins
5.  Acute-phase serum amyloid A production by rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue 
Arthritis Research  2000;2(2):142-144.
Acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) is a major component of the acute-phase response. A sustained acute-phase response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased joint damage. A-SAA mRNA expression was confirmed in all samples obtained from patients with RA, but not in normal synovium. A-SAA mRNA expression was also demonstrated in cultured RA synoviocytes. A-SAA protein was identified in the supernatants of primary synoviocyte cultures, and its expression colocalized with sites of macrophage accumulation and with some vascular endothelial cells. It is concluded that A-SAA is produced by inflamed RA synovial tissue. The known association between the acute-phase response and progressive joint damage may be the direct result of synovial A-SAA-induced effects on cartilage degradation.
Introduction:
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is the circulating precursor of amyloid A protein, the fibrillar component of amyloid deposits. In humans, four SAA genes have been described. Two genes (SAA1 and SAA2) encode A-SAA and are coordinately induced in response to inflammation. SAA1 and SAA2 are 95% homologous in both coding and noncoding regions. SAA3 is a pseudogene. SAA4 encodes constitutive SAA and is minimally inducible. A-SAA increases dramatically during acute inflammation and may reach levels that are 1000-fold greater than normal. A-SAA is mainly synthesized in the liver, but extrahepatic production has been demonstrated in many species, including humans. A-SAA mRNA is expressed in RA synoviocytes and in monocyte/macrophage cell lines such as THP-1 cells, in endothelial cells and in smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic lesions. A-SAA has also been localized to a wide range of histologically normal tissues, including breast, stomach, intestine, pancreas, kidney, lung, tonsil, thyroid, pituitary, placenta, skin and brain.
Aims:
To identify the cell types that produce A-SAA mRNA and protein, and their location in RA synovium.
Materials and methods:
Rheumatoid synovial tissue was obtained from eight patients undergoing arthroscopic biopsy and at joint replacement surgery. Total RNA was analyzed by reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for A-SAA mRNA. PCR products generated were confirmed by Southern blot analysis using human A-SAA cDNA. Localization of A-SAA production was examined by immunohistochemistry using a rabbit antihuman A-SAA polyclonal antibody. PrimaryRA synoviocytes were cultured to examine endogenous A-SAA mRNA expression and protein production.
Results:
A-SAA mRNA expression was detected using RT-PCR in all eight synovial tissue samples studied. Figure 1 demonstrates RT-PCR products generated using synovial tissue from three representative RA patients. Analysis of RA synovial tissue revealed differences in A-SAA mRNA levels between individual RA patients.
In order to identify the cells that expressed A-SAA mRNA in RA synovial tissue, we analyzed primary human synoviocytes (n = 2). RT-PCR analysis revealed A-SAA mRNA expression in primary RA synoviocytes (n = 2; Fig. 2). The endogenous A-SAA mRNA levels detected in individual primary RA synoviocytes varied between patients. These findings are consistent with A-SAA expression in RA synovial tissue (Fig. 1). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) levels were relatively similar in the RA synoviocytes examined (Fig. 2). A-SAA protein in the supernatants of primary synoviocyte cultures from four RA patients was measured using ELISA. Mean values of a control and four RA samples were 77.85, 162.5, 249.8, 321.5 and 339.04 μg/l A-SAA, respectively, confirming the production of A-SAA protein by the primary RA synoviocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to localize sites of A-SAA production in RA synovial tissue. Positive staining was present in both the lining and sublining layers of all eight RA tissues examined (Fig. 3a). Staining was intense and most prominent in the cells closest to the surface of the synovial lining layer. Positively stained cells were evident in the perivascular areas of the sublining layer. In serial sections stained with anti-CD68 monoclonal antibody, positive staining of macrophages appeared to colocalize with A-SAA-positive cells (Fig. 3b). Immunohistochemical studies of cultured primary RA synoviocytes confirmed specific cytoplasmic A-SAA expression in these cells. The specificity of the staining was confirmed by the absence of staining found on serial sections and synoviocyte cells treated with IgG (Fig. 3c).
Discussion:
This study demonstrates that A-SAA mRNA is expressed in several cell populations infiltrating RA synovial tissue. A-SAA mRNA expression was observed in all eight unseparated RA tissue samples studied. A-SAA mRNA expression and protein production was demonstrated in primary cultures of purified RA synoviocytes. Using immunohistochemical techniques, A-SAA protein appeared to colocalize with both lining layer and sublining layer synoviocytes, macrophages and some endothelial cells. The detection of A-SAA protein in culture media supernatants harvested from unstimulated synoviocytes confirms endogenous A-SAA production, and is consistent with A-SAA mRNA expression and translation by the same cells. Moreover, the demonstration of A-SAA protein in RA synovial tissue, RA cultured synoviocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells is consistent with previous studies that demonstrated A-SAA production by a variety of human cell populations.
The RA synovial lining layer is composed of activated macrophages and fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The macrophage is the predominant cell type and it has been shown to accumulate preferentially in the surface of the lining layer and in the perivascular areas of the sublining layer. Nevertheless, our observations strongly suggest that A-SAA is produced not only by synoviocytes, but also by synovial tissue macrophage populations. Local A-SAA protein production by vascular endothelial cells was detected in some, but not all, of the tissues examined. The reason for the variability in vascular A-SAA staining is unknown, but may be due to differences in endothelial cell activation, events related to angiogenesis or the intensity of local inflammation.
The value of measuring serum A-SAA levels as a reliable surrogate marker of inflammation has been demonstrated for several diseases including RA, juvenile chronic arthritis, psoriatic arthropathy, ankylosing spondylitis, Behçet's disease, reactive arthritis and Crohn's disease. It has been suggested that serum A-SAA levels may represent the most sensitive measurement of the acute-phase reaction. In RA, A-SAA levels provide the strongest correlations with clinical measurements of disease activity, and changes in serum levels best reflect the clinical course.
A number of biologic activities have been described for A-SAA, including several that are relevant to the understanding of inflammatory and tissue-degrading mechanisms in human arthritis. A-SAA induces migration, adhesion and tissue infiltration of circulating monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In addition, human A-SAA can induce interleukin-1β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and soluble type II tumour necrosis factor receptor production by a monocyte cell line. Moreover, A-SAA can stimulate the production of cartilage-degrading proteases by both human and rabbit synoviocytes. The effects of A-SAA on protease production are interesting, because in RA a sustained acute-phase reaction has been strongly associated with progressive joint damage. The known association between the acute-phase response and progressive joint damage may be the direct result of synovial A-SAA-induced effects on cartilage degradation.
Conclusion:
In contrast to noninflamed synovium, A-SAA mRNA expression was identified in all RA tissues examined. A-SAA appeared to be produced by synovial tissue synoviocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells. The observation of A-SAA mRNA expression in cultured RA synoviocytes and human RA synovial tissue confirms and extends recently published findings that demonstrated A-SAA mRNA expression in stimulated RA synoviocytes, but not in unstimulated RA synoviocytes.
PMCID: PMC17807  PMID: 11062604
acute-phase response; rheumatoid arthritis; serum amyloid A; synovial tissue
6.  Pig α1-Acid Glycoprotein: Characterization and First Description in Any Species as a Negative Acute Phase Protein 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68110.
The serum protein α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), also known as orosomucoid, is generally described as an archetypical positive acute phase protein. Here, porcine AGP was identified, purified and characterized from pooled pig serum. It was found to circulate as a single chain glycoprotein having an apparent molecular weight of 43 kDa by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, of which approximately 17 kDa were accounted for by N-bound oligosaccharides. Those data correspond well with the properties of the protein predicted from the single porcine AGP gene (ORM1, Q29014 (UniProt)), containing 5 putative glycosylation sites. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) was produced and shown to quantitatively and specifically react with all microheterogenous forms of pig AGP as analyzed by 2-D electrophoresis. This MAb was used to develop an immunoassay (ELISA) for quantification of AGP in pig serum samples. The adult serum concentrations of pig AGP were in the range of 1–3 mg/ml in a number of conventional pig breeds while it was lower in Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs (in the 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml range) and higher in young (2–5 days old) conventional pigs (mean: 6.6 mg/ml). Surprisingly, pig AGP was found to behave as a negative acute phase protein during a range of experimental infections and aseptic inflammation with significant decreases in serum concentration and in hepatic ORM1 expression during the acute phase response. To our knowledge this is the first description in any species of AGP being a negative acute phase protein.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068110
PMCID: PMC3699587  PMID: 23844161
7.  Characterization of the contributions of Hp-MMP 9 to the serum acute phase protein response of lipopolysaccharide challenged calves 
BMC Veterinary Research  2014;10(1):261.
Background
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a costly feature of modern cattle production. Early and accurate detection of BRD may prove useful in the successful management of this disease. The primary objective of the study was to define the time course of covalent complexes of neutrophil, haptoglobin (Hp) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-MMP 9) in serum after intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in comparison to traditional markers. Our hypothesis was that serum concentrations of neutrophil Hp-MMP 9 provides information distinct from traditional acute phase protein markers. To characterize the neutrophil responses to lipopolysaccharide (E. coli; O111:B4; 2.5 μg/kg body weight), nine healthy, Jersey calves (65-82 days of age; 74.5 ± 13.1 kg) were challenged and physiologic parameters, peripheral blood cell counts and serum cortisol (C), Hp-MMP 9, Hp, alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), serum amyloid A (SAA) were obtained starting 24 hours before to 96 hours post-LPS challenge.
Results
Physiologic parameters (temperature, pulse, respiratory rate) and attitude assessed at each time point indicated that LPS challenge resulted in rapid onset of depression, tachypnea, leukopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia within 1 hour. Serum C concentrations were significantly increased by 1 hour post-LPS. Serum Hp-MMP 9 complexes were detectable in serum by 0.5 hours and peaked at 16 h, serum total Hp remained <10 μg/mL until 8 hours post LPS infusion and were significantly greater than baseline by 12 hours post-LPS infusion. Serum amyloid A concentrations increased significantly by 8 hours post LPS. Serum concentrations of AGP increased significantly by 16 hours post LPS. Serum concentrations of Hp, SAA and AGP remained significantly greater than baseline out to 96 hours post-LPS. The total systemic exposure to traditional makers is significantly greater than from Hp-MMP 9
Conclusion
Using a well described model for acute phase protein responses, the data demonstrate that serum neutrophil Hp-MMP 9 complexes appear sooner and decline more rapidly than other acute phase proteins (APP). Since Hp-MMP9 is stored pre-formed, it provides information specifically addressing the LPS-induced activation of bovine neutrophils. Contributions of Hp-MMP 9 to the serum acute phase protein response may provide useful information, independent of hepatic responses, in diagnosis of acute inflammation.
doi:10.1186/s12917-014-0261-0
PMCID: PMC4220046  PMID: 25358728
Bovine; Neutrophil; Haptoglobin-MMP 9 complexes; Acute phase response; Cortisol
8.  Serum IgA, acute phase proteins, and glycosylation of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in ankylosing spondylitis. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1989;48(2):99-103.
Several investigators have suggested that gastrointestinal inflammation has a role in the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis. To test this hypothesis markers of gastrointestinal immunostimulation, as manifested by serum IgA concentrations, were compared with serum markers of inflammation, as manifested by acute phase proteins. Serum samples from 45 unrelated Caucasian patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were tested for correlation of serum IgA and six acute phase proteins: C reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, caeruloplasmin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and haptoglobin. Serum IgA was shown to be significantly positively correlated with four of these six acute phase proteins: CRP (r = 0.58, p less than 0.001), alpha 1-antitrypsin (r = 0.29, p less than 0.05), AGP (r = 0.61, p less than 0.01), and haptoglobin (r = 0.58, p less than 0.001), suggesting that gastrointestinal immunostimulation does have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammation in AS. In addition, the microheterogeneity of the pattern of glycosylation of AGP, expressed as reactivity coefficients, was examined. The AGP reactivity coefficient has been shown to increase in infection, remain the same in systemic lupus erythematosus, and decrease in rheumatoid arthritis. It was found that the AGP reactivity coefficient was significantly decreased in patients with AS as compared with healthy controls (p less than 0.006). As recent studies have indicated that patterns of glycosylation reflect intrahepatocellular biosynthetic processes induced by cytokines our data suggest that cytokine-hepatocellular mechanisms in AS may be similar to those occurring in rheumatoid arthritis, but different from those in systemic lupus erythematosus or infection.
Images
PMCID: PMC1003692  PMID: 2467628
9.  α1-Acid glycoprotein production in rat dorsal air pouch in response to inflammatory stimuli, dexamethasone and honey bee venom 
This study shows the rapid and differential production of the 40–43 kDa and the 70–90 kDa α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) fucosylated glycoforms after treatment of the dorsal air pouch with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HgCl2 or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). The 40–43 kDa and the 70–90 kDa AGP production is peaked 1–3 h post-LPS treatment. We observed that the responses to LPS and FCA are similar in that both AGP isoforms are induced whereas they differ in that the FCA exhibits a 6 h lag period. The response to HgCl2, however, exhibits the specific biphasic induction only of the 40–43 kDa AGP. The serum 40–43 kDa AGP glycoform gradually increases in response to all of the above stimulants and peaks by 24 h post- treatment. The increase of the 70–90 kDa AGP levels in the air pouch occurs in association with the accumulation of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells while dexamethasone (DEX) increases only the 40–43 kDa AGP production in the absence of PMN accumulation. Macrophage–monocyte lineage cells forming the air pouch lining tissue may potentially be the cells that secrete the 40–43 kDa AGP while polymorphonuclear cells that infiltrate the air pouch secrete the 70–90 kDa AGP. The 40–43 kDa and 70–90 kDa AGP production induced by LPS in the air pouch precedes that of interleukin-1 (IL-1) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) while the 40–43 kDa AGP glycoform potentially increases IL-6 production by air pouch PMN exudate cells. These significant differences suggest a local pro-inflammatory role of AGP. Honeybee venom suppressed arthritis development and exhibited differential local or systemic regulation of AGP in serum vs. air pouch exudate or synovial fluid. This study with the air pouch model of facsimile synovium tissue suggests that local α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) production may contribute to pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities during the local acute phase response or during chronic inflammatory stress as in arthritis.
doi:10.1016/j.yexmp.2010.03.008
PMCID: PMC2900460  PMID: 20363221
α-Acid glycoprotein; Air pouch; Synovial fluid; Cytokines; Inflammation; Adjuvant arthritis
10.  High sero-prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis identified in slaughterhouse samples as a consequence of deficiencies in sheep farm management in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil 
Background
Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, is one of the most important diseases of sheep and goats, causing considerable economic losses for herd owners.
Results
We assessed the seroprevalence of infection with C. pseudotuberculosis in 805 sheep from 23 sheep farms that supply slaughterhouses in the state of Minas Gerais; we also analyzed management practices that could be associated with CLA occurrence, used on these and nearby farms that also supplied animals to the slaughterhouse (n = 60). The serum samples for assaying CLA infection were taken at the slaughterhouse. Frequency of infection with C. pseudotuberculosis was estimated at 43.7%, and farm frequency was estimated at 100%. Management practices were analyzed through a questionnaire. All farmers (60/60) had extensive/semi-extensive rearing system; 70.0% (42/60) identified sheep individually; 11.7% (7/60) had periodical technical assistance; 41.7% (25/60) disinfected the facilities; 86.7% (52/60) used barbed wire fences and did not implement adequate CLA control measures; only 11.7% (7/60) of breeders reported vaccination against C. pseudotuberculosis; 13.3% (8/60) took note of animals with clinical signs of CLA; 1.7% (1/60) opened and sanitized abscesses, and isolated the infected animals; 10.0% (6/60) knew the zoonotic potential of this disease and 1.7% (1/60) of the farmers culled animals in case of recurrence of abscesses.
Conclusions
It can be concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis infection is widely spread in sheep flocks in Minas Gerais state in Brazil and that there is a lack of good management measures and vaccination, allowing transmission of this infectious agent throughout the production network.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-7-68
PMCID: PMC3256107  PMID: 22067701
Caseous lymphadenitis; Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; sheep; slaughterhouse; Minas Gerais
11.  Acute-Phase Serum Amyloid A: An Inflammatory Adipokine and Potential Link between Obesity and Its Metabolic Complications 
PLoS Medicine  2006;3(6):e287.
Background
Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, and serum markers of inflammation are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that link obesity to chronic inflammation and CVD are poorly understood.
Methods and Findings
Acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) mRNA levels, and A-SAA adipose secretion and serum levels were measured in obese and nonobese individuals, obese participants who underwent weight-loss, and persons treated with the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone. Inflammation-eliciting activity of A-SAA was investigated in human adipose stromal vascular cells, coronary vascular endothelial cells and a murine monocyte cell line. We demonstrate that A-SAA was highly and selectively expressed in human adipocytes. Moreover, A-SAA mRNA levels and A-SAA secretion from adipose tissue were significantly correlated with body mass index ( r = 0.47; p = 0.028 and r = 0.80; p = 0.0002, respectively). Serum A-SAA levels decreased significantly after weight loss in obese participants ( p = 0.006), as well as in those treated with rosiglitazone ( p = 0.033). The magnitude of the improvement in insulin sensitivity after weight loss was significantly correlated with decreases in serum A-SAA ( r = −0.74; p = 0.034). SAA treatment of vascular endothelial cells and monocytes markedly increased the production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, SAA increased basal lipolysis in adipose tissue culture by 47%.
Conclusions
A-SAA is a proinflammatory and lipolytic adipokine in humans. The increased expression of A-SAA by adipocytes in obesity suggests that it may play a critical role in local and systemic inflammation and free fatty acid production and could be a direct link between obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Accordingly, improvements in systemic inflammation and insulin resistance with weight loss and rosiglitazone therapy may in part be mediated by decreases in adipocyte A-SAA production.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Obesity often alters an individual's overall metabolism, which in turn leads to complications like diabetes, high blood pressure, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (disease of the heart and blood vessels, such as stroke or heart attacks). Having established a strong link between inflammation and cardiovascular disease, scientists now think that obesity might cause persistent low-level inflammation, and that this is the reason for the cardiovascular problems seen in many obese people. By better understanding the links between obesity, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease, the hope is that scientists may be able to find medications that can be given to obese people to reduce their risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Why Was This Study Done?
Previous research had suggested that a substance in the blood called A-SAA, which is raised by inflammation, might be a “missing link” between inflammation and cardiovascular disease, since an individual's baseline level of A-SAA is associated with the risk for cardiovascular disease (in other words, the higher the A-SAA, the higher the risk of cardiovascular disease). In the new study, researchers wanted to know whether the reason that obese people have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease is because they have higher blood levels of A-SAA.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
They found that obese people had higher levels of A-SAA in their blood. A-SAA appears to be produced in fat cells (or adipocytes) and then released into the blood. Obese people have higher numbers of fat cells, which could by itself account for the higher blood levels of A-SAA, but the researchers also found that the average fat cell from an obese individual produces and secretes higher levels of A-SAA than fat cells from lean individuals. When the researchers studied people who underwent weight loss, they found that A-SAA levels fell in response to weight loss, and this was associated with improvements in their metabolism. They then studied obese individuals who received the diabetes drug rosiglitazone (which is known to reduce inflammation). They found that even though these individuals did not lose weight, their A-SAA levels dropped as their metabolism improved. Trying to get at the mechanisms by which A-SAA might cause inflammation and diabetes, the researchers found that exposure to A-SAA can stimulate the activation of proinflammation molecules in a number of different cells, including blood vessel cells. It can also stimulate cells to break down fat stores and release fats, which could lead to metabolic complications and ultimately contribute to diabetes.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Together with similar results from other studies, the findings here suggest that A-SAA could promote inflammation, and that elevated levels of A-SAA in obese individuals could contribute to the chronic low-level inflammatory state that puts them at higher risk for cardiovascular complications. The authors speculate that drugs that reduce the blood levels of A-SAA might be useful as treatments for obese patients (to lower their risk of heart attacks and strokes). However, as they acknowledge, additional studies are needed to establish that A-SAA is indeed a causal link between obesity and inflammation and whether it plays a major role before it could be considered a promising drug target.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030287.
• MedlinePlus pages on obesity and cardiovascular disease
• US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention pages on obesity and cardiovascular disease
• Wikipedia pages on obesity and cardiovascular disease (note: Wikipedia is a free Internet encyclopedia that anyone can edit)
Higher levels of Acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA), a proinflammatory adipokine, in obese individuals may contribute to the chronic low-level inflammatory state that puts them at higher risk for cardiovascular complications.
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030287
PMCID: PMC1472697  PMID: 16737350
12.  Plasma α1-Acid Glycoprotein Can Be Used to Adjust Inflammation-Induced Hyporetinolemia in Vitamin A-Sufficient, but Not Vitamin A-Deficient or -Supplemented Rats12 
The Journal of nutrition  2006;136(7):1904-1909.
We examined the association between α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), all-trans-retinol (retinol), and albumin concentrations in a longitudinal animal model of IL-6–induced inflammation. Vitamin A–sufficient (VAS) male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered recombinant human IL-6 [n = 4, 65 μg/(kg·d)] or PBS (n = 4) continuously for 7 d via osmotic minipumps. Plasma samples were obtained daily and concentrations of retinol, AGP, albumin, and total protein were measured. Compared with both baseline and controls, retinol and albumin decreased (P < 0.05), AGP increased (P < 0.05), and total protein concentrations were unaffected in IL-6–treated rats. In vitamin A–deficient (VAD) rats, AGP concentrations were significantly lower at all time points and increased only to one-third of that in VAS rats. The AGP cut-off value indicative of inflammation was 0.11 g/L (i.e., 95% upper limit of baseline concentrations). After 20.5 h, there was an inverse linear correlation between AGP concentrations and the relative change in retinol to baseline (y = −0.18x + 0.48, r = −0.84, P < 0.001). However, changes in AGP and albumin were not correlated (P = 0.94). The application of this function to retinol concentrations in rats from separate experiments showed that hyporetinolemia cannot be adjusted using plasma AGP in VAD or vitamin A–supplemented rats. In conclusion, correcting inflammation-induced hyporetinolemia using an acute-phase protein requires longitudinally derived data, knowledge of vitamin A status, and a common underlying mechanism of change.
PMCID: PMC1569889  PMID: 16772457
α1-acid glycoprotein; correction factor; hyporetinolemia; inflammation; vitamin A
13.  Overexpression of α1-acid glycoprotein in transgenic mice leads to sensitisation to acute colitis 
Gut  2002;51(3):398-404.
Background: α1-Acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP) is an acute phase protein in most mammalian species whose concentration rises 2–5-fold during an acute phase reaction. Its serum concentration has often been used as a marker of disease, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). High α1-AGP levels were found to have a prognostic value for an increased risk of relapse in IBD.
Aims: To investigate a possible role for increased serum levels of α1-AGP in the development of IBD.
Methods: Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) 2% was added to the drinking water of transgenic mice, overexpressing the rat α1-AGP gene, to induce acute colitis, thus mimicking the conditions of relapse. Clinical parameters, inflammatory parameters, and histological analyses on colon sections were performed.
Results: Homozygous α1-AGP-transgenic mice started losing weight and showed rectal bleeding significantly earlier than heterozygous transgenic or wild-type mice. Survival time of homozygous transgenic mice was significantly shorter compared with heterozygous and wild-type mice. The higher susceptibility of homozygous α1-AGP-transgenic mice to DSS induced acute colitis was also reflected in higher local myeloperoxidase levels, higher inflammation scores of the colon, and higher systemic levels of interleukin 6 and serum amyloid P component. Local inflammatory parameters were also significantly different in heterozygous transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice, indicating a local dosage effect. In homozygous transgenic mice, significantly higher amounts of bacteria were found in organs but IgA levels were only slightly lower than those of control mice.
Conclusion: Sufficiently high serum levels of α1-AGP result in a more aggressive development of acute colitis.
PMCID: PMC1773348  PMID: 12171963
acute phase proteins; dextran sodium sulphate; inflammatory bowel disease; interleukin; liver
14.  Deletion of Serum Amyloid A3 Improves High Fat High Sucrose Diet-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Hyperlipidemia in Female Mice 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e108564.
Serum amyloid A (SAA) increases in response to acute inflammatory stimuli and is modestly and chronically elevated in obesity. SAA3, an inducible form of SAA, is highly expressed in adipose tissue in obese mice where it promotes monocyte chemotaxis, providing a mechanism for the macrophage accumulation that occurs with adipose tissue expansion in obesity. Humans do not express functional SAA3 protein, but instead express SAA1 and SAA2 in hepatic as well as extrahepatic tissues, making it difficult to distinguish between liver and adipose tissue-specific SAA effects. SAA3 does not circulate in plasma, but may exert local effects that impact systemic inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that SAA3 contributes to chronic systemic inflammation and adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in obesity using mice deficient for Saa3 (Saa3−/−). Mice were rendered obese by feeding a pro-inflammatory high fat, high sucrose diet with added cholesterol (HFHSC). Both male and female Saa3−/− mice gained less weight on the HFHSC diet compared to Saa3+/+ littermate controls, with no differences in body composition or resting metabolism. Female Saa3−/− mice, but not males, had reduced HFHSC diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage content. Both male and female Saa3−/− mice had reduced liver Saa1 and Saa2 expression in association with reduced plasma SAA. Additionally, female Saa3−/− mice, but not males, showed improved plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein profiles, with no changes in glucose metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that the absence of Saa3 attenuates liver-specific SAA (i.e., SAA1/2) secretion into plasma and blunts weight gain induced by an obesogenic diet. Furthermore, adipose tissue-specific inflammation and macrophage accumulation are attenuated in female Saa3−/− mice, suggesting a novel sexually dimorphic role for this protein. These results also suggest that Saa3 influences liver-specific SAA1/2 expression, and that SAA3 could play a larger role in the acute phase response than previously thought.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108564
PMCID: PMC4177399  PMID: 25251243
15.  Synthesis of acute phase proteins in rats with cirrhosis exposed to lipopolysaccharide 
Background
In patients with cirrhosis, infection is frequent and a leading cause of death. This is secondary to various immunologic abnormalities in both the innate and the adaptive immune system. However, it remains unclear whether cirrhosis affects the inflammatory systemic component of the innate immunity, 'the acute phase response', mostly effectuated by the liver itself. We hypothesized that rats with cirrhosis raise a reduced acute phase response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Results
We examined the acute phase response induced by intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of LPS, in sham operated control animals and in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). We measured the serum concentrations of the most important acute phase proteins and their liver tissue gene expressions, assessed by mRNA levels. The BDL-model itself increased the serum concentration of α1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGP) and haptoglobin. LPS was lethal to 25% of the cirrhotic animals and to none of the controls. Twenty-four hours after LPS, the serum concentration of α1AGP and haptoglobin, the mRNA level of these acute phase proteins and of α2-macroglobulin and thiostatin rose to the same level in the animals with cirrhosis and in controls.
Conclusion
In rats with experimental cirrhosis LPS caused high mortality. In the survivors, the cirrhotic liver still synthesized acute phase proteins as the normal liver, indicating a normal hepatic contribution to this part of the acute phase response.
doi:10.1186/1476-5926-5-3
PMCID: PMC1579229  PMID: 16968543
16.  The incidence of caseous lymphadenitis in Alberta sheep and assessment of impact by vaccination with commercial and experimental vaccines. 
In Alberta, caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is one of the leading causes of lamb and mutton carcass condemnation. In this study, serologic results confirmed a high (50-94%) incidence of exposure to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the causative agent of CLA, in mature, unvaccinated sheep in southern Alberta. To assess the efficacy and impact of vaccination with 2 commercial (Glanvac-6 and Case-Vac) and 1 experimental (WC+ MDP-GDP) CLA vaccines, a series of 3 field trials in 3249 ewes and lambs was conducted in affected flocks from 1992-1996. Efficacy was assessed from the serological response to vaccination, prevalence and size of injection site reactions by treatment, and the incidence of CLA abscesses. Overall, agglutinating antibody titres to C. pseudotuberculosis in lambs vaccinated with WC+MDP-GDP and Case-Vac remained significantly elevated above nonvaccinated control lambs for the 12 mo period after the initial vaccination. Lambs vaccinated with the WC/MDP-GDP maintained higher titres (P < 0.06) than those vaccinated with Case-Vac for the period from 6 to 12 mo after vaccination. Agglutinating antibody titres for lambs vaccinated with Glanvac did not differ from those of controls at any point during the 12 mo period after vaccination. The number of injection site reactions was elevated in lambs vaccinated with Glanvac as compared to those vaccinated with WC+MDP-GDP but the size of injection site reactions did not significantly differ. Sheep vaccinated with WC+ MDP-GDP also had a reduced incidence of putative CLA abscesses, although confirmation of the presence of C. pseudotuberculosis was only successful in a small number of instances.
PMCID: PMC1189440  PMID: 9442938
17.  Maternal undernutrition and the ovine acute phase response to vaccination 
Background
The acute phase response is the immediate host response to infection, inflammation and trauma and can be monitored by measuring the acute phase proteins (APP) such as haptoglobin (Hp) or serum amyloid A (SAA). The plane of nutrition during pregnancy is known to affect many mechanisms including the neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems in neonatal animals but effects on the APP are unknown. To investigate this phenomenon the serum concentration of Hp and SAA was initially determined in non-stimulated lambs from 3 groups (n = 10/group). The dams of the lambs of the respective groups were fed 100% of requirements throughout gestation (High/High; HH); 100% of requirements for the first 65 d of gestation followed by 70% of requirements until 125 d from when they were fed 100% of requirements (High/Low; HL); 65% of liveweight maintenance requirements for the first 65 d gestation followed by 100% of requirements for the remainder of pregnancy (Low/High; LH). The dynamic APP response in the lambs was estimated by measuring the concentration of Hp and SAA following routine vaccination with a multivalent clostridial vaccine with a Pasteurella component, Heptavac P™ following primary and secondary vaccination.
Results
The Hp and SAA concentrations were significantly lower at the time of vaccination (day 8–14) than on the day of birth. Vaccination stimulated the acute phase response in lambs with increases found in both Hp and SAA. Maternal undernutrition led to the SAA response to vaccination being significantly lower in the HL group than in the HH group. The LH group did not differ significantly from either the HH or HL groups. No significant effects of maternal undernutrition were found on the Hp concentrations. A significant reduction was found in all groups in the response of SAA following the second vaccination compared to the response after the primary vaccination but no change occurred in the Hp response.
Conclusion
Decreased SAA concentrations, post-vaccination, in lambs born to ewes on the HL diet shows that maternal undernutrition prior to parturition affects the innate immune system of the offspring. The differences in response of Hp and SAA to primary and secondary vaccinations indicate that the cytokine driven APP response mechanisms vary with individual APP.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-4-1
PMCID: PMC2233616  PMID: 18197966
18.  Frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep slaughtered in an abattoir in Tabriz: comparison of bacterial culture and pathological study 
Comparative Clinical Pathology  2011;21(5):667-671.
From January to February 2008, 468 sheep carcasses (335 male and 133 female) in a Khosroshahr (suburb of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan province, Iran) abattoir were randomly selected for inspection. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and to compare the results of bacterial cultures and histopathology of suspected cases. The mean age of the population was 2.5 years. One hundred ninety-seven cases containing 153 (77.7%) males and 44 (22.3%) females had prominent enlargement of one of the lymph nodes (i.e., prescapular, prefemoral, inguinal, supramammary, or midiastinal); these were removed with the surrounding tissue for further evaluation. For confirmed diagnosis of CLA, samples were sent for microbiology and pathology analysis. Standard bacteriological culture methods for isolation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and tissue preparations for histopathological sections were performed. To evaluate the effect of age on the frequency of CLA, animals were categorized in four groups: under 1, 1–2, 2–3, and over 3 years of age. Based on the results, in 59 (12.60%) carcasses C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated, and in 94 (20.08%) of the cases histopathological studies revealed pathognomonic signs (lamellated exudates or onion ring) of CLA. The frequency of CLA based on bacteriological culture was 12.60% and on histopathological study 20.08%. In 37 (18.8%) of the carcasses, both bacteriological and histopathological studies confirmed CLA. The frequency of CLA following microscopic examination (20.08%) presented a more precise diagnosis compared to bacteriological culture (12.60%) and macroscopic evaluation of the lymph nodes (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation rate between the bacteriological culture and histopathological study (r = 0.196, P = 0.006). The prescapular lymph node had the highest infection rate with 54 (1.70 ± 0.97) and supramammary lymph node had the lowest with two (0.07 ± 0.41) (P < 0.05). There was an increase in CLA detection with increasing age (P < 0.05), the mean age of animals with a positive CLA test were 2.92 years and in the oldest age group 31 (47%) cases had the highest infection.
doi:10.1007/s00580-010-1154-7
PMCID: PMC3461251  PMID: 23049493
Caseous lymphadenitis; Sheep; Frequency; Tabriz; Iran
19.  Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows 
Background
Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model.
Methods
Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) were determined in serum and milk.
Results
In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli.
Conclusion
Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary induction of the same animals with E. coli is used in cross-over studies, the interval between challenges should be longer than 2 weeks, due to the carry-over effect from the first infection.
doi:10.1186/1751-0147-50-18
PMCID: PMC2440372  PMID: 18554387
20.  Vaccine Potential of Attenuated Mutants of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in Sheep 
Infection and Immunity  1998;66(2):474-479.
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, a gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, is the etiological agent of the economically important disease caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in both sheep and goats. Attenuated mutants of C. pseudotuberculosis have the potential to act as novel vaccines against CLA and as veterinary vaccine vectors. In this report, we have assessed the virulence of both aroQ and pld mutants of C. pseudotuberculosis in sheep and concurrently their capacity to act as vaccines against homologous challenge. The results suggest that aroQ mutants of C. pseudotuberculosis are attenuated with regard to both lymph node persistence and vaccination site reactogenicity. Immunologically, aroQ mutants failed to elicit detectable specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-secreting lymphocytes and induced low levels of antibodies to C. pseudotuberculosis culture supernatant antigens. Following subcutaneous vaccination, the immune responses induced by aroQ mutants did not protect sheep from infection with the wild-type strain but did appear to reduce the clinical severity of disease resulting from challenge. Conversely, an attenuated C. pseudotuberculosis strain expressing an enzymatically inactive phospholipase D exotoxin, when used as a vaccine, elicited a protective immune response. Protection appeared to correlate with in vivo persistence of the vaccine strain, the induction of IFN-γ-secreting lymphocytes, and relatively high levels of antibodies to culture supernatant antigens. The results suggest that aroQ mutants of C. pseudotuberculosis may be overly attenuated for use as a CLA vaccines or as vaccine vectors.
PMCID: PMC107930  PMID: 9453598
21.  An iron-acquisition-deficient mutant of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis efficiently protects mice against challenge 
Veterinary Research  2014;45(1):28.
Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic disease that affects sheep and goats worldwide, and its etiological agent is Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Despite the economic losses caused by CLA, there is little information about the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis, and current immune prophylaxis against infection has been unable to reduce the incidence of CLA in goats. Recently, 21 different mutant strains of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified by random mutagenesis. In this study, these previously generated mutants were used in mice vaccination trials to develop new immunogens against CLA. Based on this analysis, CZ171053, an iron-acquisition-deficient mutant strain, was selected. After challenge with a virulent strain, 80% of the animals that were immunized with the CZ171053 strain survived. Furthermore, this vaccination elicited both humoral and cellular responses. Intracellular survival of the bacterium was determined using murine J774 cells; in this assay, the CZ171053 had reduced intracellular viability. Because iron acquisition in intracellular bacteria is considered one of their most important virulence factors during infection, these results demonstrate the immunogenic potential of this mutant against CLA.
doi:10.1186/1297-9716-45-28
PMCID: PMC4234458  PMID: 24597857
22.  Two major ruminant acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, as serum biomarkers during active sheep scab infestation 
Veterinary Research  2013;44(1):103.
Two ruminant acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were evaluated as serum biomarkers (BMs) for sheep scab–a highly contagious ectoparasitic disease caused by the mite Psoroptes ovis, which is a major welfare and production threat worldwide. The levels of both APPs increased in serum following experimental infestation of sheep with P. ovis, becoming statistically significantly elevated from pre-infestation levels at 4 weeks post-infestation. Following successful treatment of infested sheep with an endectocide, Hp and SAA serum levels declined rapidly, with half lives of less than 3 days. In contrast, serum IgG levels which specifically bound the P. ovis-derived diagnostic antigen Pso o 2 had a half-life of 56 days. Taking into account pre-infestation serum levels, rapidity of response to infestation and test sensitivity at the estimated optimum cut-off values, SAA was the more discriminatory marker. These studies illustrated the potential of SAA and Hp to indicate current sheep scab infestation status and to augment the existing Pso o 2 serological assay to give disease-specific indications of both infestation and successful treatment.
doi:10.1186/1297-9716-44-103
PMCID: PMC3832035  PMID: 24176040
23.  Endogenous Acute Phase Serum Amyloid A Lacks Pro-Inflammatory Activity, Contrasting the Two Recombinant Variants That Activate Human Neutrophils through Different Receptors 
Most notable among the acute phase proteins is serum amyloid A (SAA), levels of which can increase 1000-fold during infections, aseptic inflammation, and/or trauma. Chronically elevated SAA levels are associated with a wide variety of pathological conditions, including obesity and rheumatic diseases. Using a recombinant hybrid of the two human SAA isoforms (SAA1 and 2) that does not exist in vivo, numerous in vitro studies have given rise to the notion that acute phase SAA is a pro-inflammatory molecule with cytokine-like properties. It is however unclear whether endogenous acute phase SAA per se mediates pro-inflammatory effects. We tested this in samples from patients with inflammatory arthritis and in a transgenic mouse model that expresses human SAA1. Endogenous human SAA did not drive production of pro-inflammatory IL-8/KC in either of these settings. Human neutrophils derived from arthritis patients displayed no signs of activation, despite being exposed to severely elevated SAA levels in circulation, and SAA-rich sera also failed to activate cells in vitro. In contrast, two recombinant SAA variants (the hybrid SAA and SAA1) both activated human neutrophils, inducing L-selectin shedding, production of reactive oxygen species, and production of IL-8. The hybrid SAA was approximately 100-fold more potent than recombinant SAA1. Recombinant hybrid SAA and SAA1 activated neutrophils through different receptors, with recombinant SAA1 being a ligand for formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). We conclude that even though recombinant SAAs can be valuable tools for studying neutrophil activation, they do not reflect the nature of the endogenous protein.
doi:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00092
PMCID: PMC3631709  PMID: 23626589
inflammation; neutrophils; acute phase proteins; arthritis
24.  Changes in Human Serum Amyloid A and C-Reactive Protein after Etiocholanolone-Induced Inflammation 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1978;61(2):390-394.
Secondary amyloidosis is a complication of diseases characterized by recurrent acute inflammation. In this study, a standardized stimulus which induced fever and inflammation was given to six normal subjects (19-24 yr old) to follow the fluctuation in concentration of serum amyloid A (SAA), the precursor of the secondary amyloid fibril protein. After a single intramuscular injection of etiocholanolone (0.3 mg/kg), blood samples were drawn twice a day for 12 days for determination of SAA by solid phase radioimmunoassay. From a base line of <100 μg/ml, the SAA concentration began rising within 12 h to a maximum value at about 48 h of 1,350-1,800 μg/ml in three males and 380-900 μg/ml in three females and returned to base line by 4-5 days. The SAA response showed a similar time response to C-reactive protein (CRP), a well-documented acute phase protein which was assayed semiquantitatively by capillary tube precipitin reaction. CRP, but not SAA, showed a quantitative correlation with the amount of fever induced by etiocholanolone. One subject exhibited a second rise in SAA and CRP concentrations after acute over-indulgence with alcohol, suggesting that acute liver damage may have caused an acute phase reaction. Thus, a controlled episode of fever and inflammation produced a prompt and prolonged elevation of SAA and CRP concentrations. Unlike SAA, CRP has not been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyloidosis, although its relationship to the P component of amyloid has recently been established.
PMCID: PMC372549  PMID: 621279
25.  C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and pig major acute phase protein response in pigs simultaneously infected with H1N1 swine influenza virus and Pasteurella multocida 
Background
Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Swine influenza is generally characterized by acute onset of fever and respiratory symptoms. The most frequent complications of influenza are secondary bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this work was to study the acute phase proteins (APP) responses after coinfection of piglets with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) and Pasteurella multocida (Pm) in order to identify whether the individual APP response correlate with disease severity and whether APP could be used as markers of the health status of coinfected pigs.
Results
In all coinfected pigs clinical sings, including fever, coughing and dyspnea, were seen. Viral shedding was observed from 2 to 7 dpi. The mean level of antibodies against Pm dermonecrotoxin in infected piglets increase significantly from 7 dpi. Anti-SwH1N1 antibodies in the serum were detected from 7 dpi. The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) increased significantly at 1 dpi as compared to control pigs, and remained significantly higher to 3 dpi. Level of serum amyloid A (SAA) was significantly higher from 2 to 3 dpi. Haptoglobin (Hp) was significantly elevated from 3 dpi to the end of study, while pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) from 3 to 7 dpi. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA significantly increased before specific antibodies were detected. Positive correlations were found between serum concentration of Hp and SAA and lung scores, and between clinical score and concentrations of Pig-MAP and SAA.
Conclusions
The results of current study confirmed that monitoring of APP may revealed ongoing infection, and in this way may be useful in selecting clinically healthy pigs (i.e. before integration into an uninfected herd). Present results corroborated our previous findings that SAA could be a potentially useful indicator in experimental infection studies (e.g. vaccine efficiency investigations) or as a marker for disease severity, because of correlation observed between its concentration in serum and disease severity (lung scores, clinical scores).
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-14
PMCID: PMC3554491  PMID: 23332090
Acute phase proteins; Experimental coinfection; Swine influenza; Pasteurella multocida

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