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1.  Major and minor discordance in the diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis among Indian women using hip and spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 
Journal of Mid-Life Health  2012;3(2):76-80.
To determine discordance in the diagnosis of osteoporosis among postmenopausal Indian women using hip and spine Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry.
Materials and Methods:
The study included postmenopausal women who underwent bone mineral densitometry (BMD) for suspected osteoporosis at a referral hospital at Hyderabad, India. The BMD measures at the hip and spine were used to derive T-scores and to determine the prevalence of discordance. Factors potentially associated with discordance were explored in univariate and a multivariate regression model.
The mean age of the 348 postmenopausal women in the study was 53.62 ± 8.94 years (median 53.00 years, range 27.00 to 84.00 years). Major discordance was seen in 16.67% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 12.73, 20.60) of the study population and minor discordance in 34.48% (95% CI: 29.46, 39.50%) of the study population. Age >50 years (adjusted odds ratios [OR]: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.24, 5.46, P value = 0.01), premature menopause (adjusted OR: 2.94, 95% CI: 1.27, 6.81, P value = 0.03), and multiple pregnancies (adjusted OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.28, 5.41, P value = 0.008) were found to be significantly associated with major discordance.
The large prevalence of discordance may reflect the differences in osteoporosis in different populations and suggests the need to redefine ranges and risk factors used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in India.
PMCID: PMC3555030  PMID: 23372323
Bone mineral density; discordance; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; osteoporosis
2.  Prevalence of Low Bone Mineral Density in a Low-Income Inner-City Population 
Bone mineral density (BMD) is an important factor linked to bone health. Little is known of the prevalence of low BMD and its associated risk factors in an urban underserved population. Between 2001 and 2004, we recruited 338 subjects who completed drug use and medical history questionnaires, underwent hormonal measurements, and underwent whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for evaluation of BMD and body composition. Of these, 132 subjects had site-specific DXA (lumbar spine and hip) performed. Osteoporosis was defined as a T-score of –2.5 or less for men 50 years of age and older and postmenopausal women and a Z-score of –2.0 or less in men younger than 50 years of age and premenopausal women at either the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck, according to National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) guidelines. The cohort consisted of mostly African-American, middle-aged people with a high prevalence of illicit drug use, 50% HIV+, and 39% hepatitis C+. Osteoporosis was identified in 22% of subjects (24 men, 5 women), with the majority of cases (90%) attributable to osteoporosis at the lumbar spine. Osteoporosis was more common in men than in women. Lower whole-body BMD among women was associated with multiple risk factors, but only with lower lean mass among men. Osteoporosis was highly prevalent in men, mainly at the spine. The risk factors for bone loss in this population need to be further clarified. Screening men for osteoporosis starting at age 50 might be warranted in this population given the multiple risk factors and the unexpectedly high prevalence of low BMD. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
PMCID: PMC3179342  PMID: 20721937
3.  The Correlation between Phalangeal Quantitative Ultrasonography and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in Women with Premature Ovarian Failure 
McGill Journal of Medicine : MJM  2008;11(2):132-140.
With the growing demand for bone densitometry services there is a need for simple, cost-effective and ideally mobile devices which can identify individuals who are at risk of osteoporotic fracture. When new devices are evaluated, it is useful to examine the correlation with the established ‘gold standard’ technique of dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This study examined the correlation between quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements performed at the phalanges and conventional DXA measurements of the spine and hip in women with premature ovarian failure – a known risk factor for osteoporosis.
Thirteen white Caucasian women suffering from premature ovarian failure and 19 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited into the study. DXA measurements were performed at the spine and hip, followed by quantitative ultrasonography at phalanges II–V of the non-dominant hand.
Significant correlations were observed between the bone transit time (BTT) value from the Bone Profiler and bone mineral density measured at the spine (r=0.66). The spine Z-scores also correlated with many of the ultrasound values (r=0.44 – 0.63). Significant inverse correlations were observed between BMI, weight and ultrasound parameters (r = −0.48 to −0.78).
We have reported moderate but significant correlations between phalangeal QUS and DXA parameters. The strongest correlation was observed between BTT and spine BMD, as well as between the Z-scores from the two devices. QUS parameters also demonstrated an inverse correlation with weight and BMI.
PMCID: PMC2582660  PMID: 19148311
Bone mineral density; osteoporosis; premature ovarian failure; DXA; quantitative ultrasound
4.  The Clinical Utility of Spine Bone Density in Elderly Women 
It is common clinical practice to obtain bone mass measurement at both the hip and spine to evaluate for osteoporosis. With aging, degenerative changes in the lumbar spine may elevate the bone mineral density (BMD) results giving false assurances that the fracture risk at the spine is low. We examined the association of spine osteoarthritis and bone mineral density in 1082 community-dwelling ambulatory older women aged 50–96 years who participated in a 1992–1996 osteoporosis research clinic visit. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the hip, PA and lateral lumbar spine using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Spine osteoarthritis was identified on the PA lumbar spine DXA images by a musculoskeletal radiologist. Forty percent of women had evidence of spine osteoarthritis (OA). Women with spine OA had mean age of 77.4 years (95% CI, 76.5–78.2), were significantly older than women without (mean age 66.8; 95% CI, 65.9–67.7), and were more likely to have prevalent radiographic fractures (14.2% vs. 9.5%, p< 0.05). Age-adjusted BMD at the femoral neck, total hip, PA spine, and lateral spine was significantly higher in women with spine OA. Women with spine OA were more likely to have osteoporosis by WHO classification at the femoral neck and total hip than those without spine OA, but less likely based on the PA spine site (14.4% vs 24.5%). Despite higher BMD levels, women with OA of the lumbar spine had higher prevalence of osteoporosis at the hip and radiographic vertebral fractures. In elderly women 65 years and older who are likely to have spine OA, DXA measurement of the spine may be not useful in assessing fracture risk and DXA of the hip is recommended for identification of osteoporosis.
PMCID: PMC2642644  PMID: 16931341
Spine osteoarthritis; bone mineral density; osteoporosis; elderly
5.  Differences in Site-Specific Fracture Risk Among Older Women with Discordant Results for Osteoporosis at Hip and Spine: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures 
To examine the fracture pattern in older women whose bone mineral density (BMD) T-score criteria for osteoporosis at hip and spine disagree, hip and spine BMD were measured in Study of Osteoporotic Fractures participants using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Hip osteoporosis was defined as T-score ≤-2.5 at femoral neck or total hip, and spine osteoporosis as T-score ≤-2.5 at lumbar spine. Incident clinical fractures were self-reported and centrally adjudicated. Incident radiographic spine fractures were defined morphometrically. Compared to women with osteoporosis at neither hip nor spine, those osteoporotic only at hip had a 3.0-fold age and weight-adjusted increased risk for hip fracture (95%CI 2.4-3.6), and smaller increases in risk of nonhip nonspine (HR=1.6), clinical spine (OR=2.2), and radiographic spine fractures (OR=1.5). Women osteoporotic only at spine had a 2.8-fold increased odds of radiographic spine fracture (95%CI 2.1-3.8), and smaller increases in risk of clinical spine (OR=1.4), nonhip nonspine (HR=1.6), and hip fractures (HR=1.2). Discordant BMD results predict different fracture patterns. DXA fracture risk estimation in these patients should be site-specific. Women osteoporotic only at spine would not have been identified from hip BMD measurement alone, and may have a sufficiently high fracture risk to warrant preventive treatment.
PMCID: PMC2724071  PMID: 18296090
Osteoporosis; bone density; fractures; prospective studies; DXA
6.  The role of DXA bone density scans in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2007;83(982):509-517.
Dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans to measure bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine and hip have an important role in the evaluation of individuals at risk of osteoporosis, and in helping clinicians advise patients about the appropriate use of antifracture treatment. Compared with alternative bone densitometry techniques, hip and spine DXA examinations have a number of advantages that include a consensus that BMD results can be interpreted using the World Health Organization T‐score definition of osteoporosis, a proven ability to predict fracture risk, proven effectiveness at targeting antifracture therapies, and the ability to monitor response to treatment. This review discusses the evidence for these and other clinical aspects of DXA scanning, including its role in the new WHO algorithm for treating patients on the basis of their individual fracture risk.
PMCID: PMC2600106  PMID: 17675543
7.  Development and validation of the Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument to facilitate selection of women for bone densitometry 
BACKGROUND: Although mass screening for osteoporosis is not recommended among postmenopausal women, there is no consensus on which women should undergo testing for low bone mineral density. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a clinical tool to help clinicians identify which women are at increased risk for osteoporosis and should therefore undergo further testing with bone densitometry. METHODS: Using Ontario baseline data from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, we identified all cognitively normal women aged 45 years or more who had undergone testing with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at both the femoral neck and the lumbar spine (L1-L4). Participants who had a previous diagnosis of osteoporosis or were taking bone active medication other than ovarian hormones were excluded. The main outcome measure was low bone mineral density (T score of 2 or more standard deviations below the mean for young Canadian women) at either the femoral neck or the lumbar spine. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to identify the simplest algorithm that would identify women at increased risk for low bone mineral density. RESULTS: The study population comprised 1376 women, of whom 926 were allocated to the development of the tool and 450 to its validation. A simple algorithm based on age, weight and current estrogen use (yes or no) was developed. Validation of this 3-item Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI) showed that the tool had a sensitivity of 93.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 86.3%-97.0%) and a specificity of 46.4% (95% CI 41.0%-51.8%) for selecting women with low bone mineral density. The sensitivity of the instrument for selecting women with osteoporosis was 94.4% (95% CI 83.7%-98.6%). Use of the ORAI represented a 38.7% reduction in DXA testing compared with screening all women in our study. INTERPRETATION: The ORAI accurately identifies the vast majority of women likely to have low bone mineral density and is effective in substantially decreasing the need for all women to undergo DXA testing.
PMCID: PMC1232411  PMID: 10813010
8.  Comparison of QCT and DXA: Osteoporosis Detection Rates in Postmenopausal Women 
Objective. To compare the osteoporosis detection rates in postmenopausal women when measuring bone mineral density (BMD) with quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in the spine versus dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the spine and hip and to investigate the reasons for the discrepancy between the two techniques. Methods. Spinal volumetric BMD was measured with QCT, and areal spinal and hip BMDs were measured with DXA in 140 postmenopausal women. We calculated the osteoporosis detection rate for the two methods. Lumbar CT images of patients who had a discrepancy between QCT and DXA findings were reviewed to evaluate vertebral fractures, spinal degeneration, and abdominal aortic calcification. Results. For the entire 140 patients, the detection rate was 17.1% for DXA and 46.4% for QCT, a significant difference (P < 0.01). Of the 41 patients with conflicting diagnoses, 7 whose diagnosis by QCT was osteoporosis had vertebral fractures even though their DXA findings did not indicate osteoporosis. Varying degrees of spinal degeneration were seen in all of the 41 patients. Conclusion. QCT may avoid the overestimation of BMD by DXA associated with spinal degeneration, abdominal aortic calcification, and other sclerotic lesions. It may be more sensitive than DXA for detecting osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
PMCID: PMC3623474  PMID: 23606843
9.  Bone mineral density in patients with recently diagnosed, active rheumatoid arthritis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2007;66(11):1508-1512.
Osteoporosis is a well‐known extra‐articular phenomenon in patients with uncontrolled, long‐standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, the extent of osteoporosis and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and the disease‐related and demographic factors that are associated with osteoporosis and reduced BMD were examined in patients with recently diagnosed, active RA.
BMD of the total hip and the lumbar spine was measured using dual‐energy x ray absorptiometry in 381 patients with recently diagnosed active RA, who had never been treated with DMARDs or corticosteroids. Osteoporosis was defined as a T score ⩽−2.5 SD and reduced BMD as Z score ⩽−1 SD. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to detect associations of osteoporosis and reduced BMD with disease activity, functional disability, joint damage (Sharp–van der Heijde score) and demographic factors.
Osteoporosis and reduced BMD were found in the spine and/or the hip in 11% and 25%, respectively, of the patients. Longer symptom duration and presence of rheumatoid factor (RF) were the only RA‐specific markers for osteoporosis and reduced BMD. Further, postmenopausal status in women, a low body mass index, familial osteoporosis, and, remarkably, male gender, were independently associated with osteoporosis and reduced BMD.
In patients with recently diagnosed active RA who had never been treated with DMARDs or corticosteroids, BMD seems to be well‐preserved and predominantly related to demographic factors. Longer symptom duration and a positive RF, but not higher disease activity or more joint damage, were related to osteoporosis and reduced BMD.
PMCID: PMC2111640  PMID: 17456523
early rheumatoid arthritis; bone mineral density; osteoporosis
10.  Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool Performance in a Large Sample of Postmenopausal Women of Mendoza, Argentina 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2013;2013:150154.
The Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool (OST) is a clinical instrument designed to select patients at risk of osteoporosis, who would benefit from a bone mineral density measurement. The OST only takes into account the age and weight of the subject. It was developed for Asian women and later validated for European and North American white women. The performance of the OST in a sample of 4343 women from Greater Mendoza, a large metropolitan area of Argentina, was assessed. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of lumbar spine and hip were obtained. Patients were classified as either osteoporotic (N = 1830) or nonosteoporotic (n = 2513) according to their lowest T-score at any site. Osteoporotic patients had lower OST scores (P < 0.0001). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed an area under the curve of 71% (P < 0.0001), with a sensitivity of 83.7% and a specificity of 44% for a cut-off value of 2. Positive predictive value was 52% and negative predictive value was 79%. The odds ratio for the diagnosis of osteoporosis was 4.06 (CI95 3.51 to 4.71; P < 0.0001). It is concluded that the OST is useful for selecting postmenopausal women for DXA testing in the studied population.
PMCID: PMC3603273  PMID: 23533947
11.  Parathyroid hormone treatment can reverse corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1998;102(8):1627-1633.
Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most common secondary cause of osteoporosis. We conducted a 12-mo, randomized clinical trial of human parathyroid hormone 1-34 (hPTH 1-34) in postmenopausal women (mean age was 63 yr) with osteoporosis who were taking corticosteroids and hormone replacement therapy. Response to the treatment was assessed with bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the lumbar spine by quantitative computed tomography (QCT); BMD measurements of the lumbar spine, hip, and forearm by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The mean (+/-SE) changes in BMD of the lumbar spine by QCT and DXA in the PTH group were 35+/-5.5% and 11+/-1.4%, respectively, compared with a relatively small change of 1.7+/-1.8% and 0+/-0.9% in the estrogen-only group. The differences in mean percentage between the groups at 1 yr were 33.5% for the lumbar spine by QCT (P < 0.001) and 9.8% for the lumbar spine by DXA (P < 0.001). The changes in the hip and forearm were not significantly different between or within the groups. During the first 3 mo of PTH treatment, markers of bone formation increased to nearly 150%, whereas markers of bone resorption increased only 100%, suggesting an early uncoupling of bone turnover in favor of formation. These results suggest that parathyroid hormone dramatically increases bone mass in the central skeleton of postmenopausal women with corticosteroid- induced osteoporosis who are taking hormone replacement.
PMCID: PMC509014  PMID: 9788977
12.  Bone mass and mineral metabolism in HIV+ postmenopausal women 
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for osteoporosis in HIV+ postmenopausal women. Bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and biochemical indices of mineral metabolism were measured in 31 Hispanic and African American HIV+ postmenopausal women. BMD was compared with 186 historical controls, matched for age, ethnicity and postmenopausal status. Mean BMD was significantly lower at the lumbar spine and total hip in the HIV+ group, as compared with controls. Prevalence of osteoporosis was higher in the HIV+ group than controls at the lumbar spine (42% vs 23%, p=0.03) and total hip (10% vs 1%, p=0.003). Among HIV+ women, time since menopause and weight were significant predictors of BMD, while duration or class of antiretroviral therapy (ART), AIDS diagnosis, nadir CD4, steroid use, and vitamin D deficiency were not. Prevalence of osteoporosis is substantially higher in HIV+ Hispanic and African-American postmenopausal women than in controls. Established osteoporosis risk factors were more important in predicting BMD than factors associated with HIV infection and ART. Long-term management of the growing female HIV population should include the evaluation for and management of osteoporosis.
PMCID: PMC3108020  PMID: 15754081
Bone metabolism; HIV; Osteoporosis; Postmenopausal women
13.  Osteoporosis in ankylosing spondylitis - prevalence, risk factors and methods of assessment 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(3):R108.
Osteoporosis can be a complication of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but diagnosing spinal osteoporosis can be difficult since pathologic new bone formation interferes with the assessment of the bone mineral density (BMD). The aims of the current study were to investigate prevalence and risk factors for reduced BMD in a Swedish cohort of AS patients, and to examine how progressive ankylosis influences BMD with the use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine in different projections.
Methods of assessment were questionnaires, back mobility tests, blood samples, lateral spine radiographs for syndesmophyte grading (mSASSS), DXA of the hip, radius and lumbar spine in anteroposterior (AP) and lateral projections with estimation of volumetric BMD (vBMD).
AS patients (modified New York criteria), 87 women and 117 men, mean age 50 ± 13 years and disease duration 15 ± 11 years were included. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria 21% osteoporosis and 44% osteopenia was diagnosed in patients > = 50 years. Under age 50 BMD below expected range for age was found in 5%. Interestingly lateral lumbar DXA showed significantly lower BMD and revealed significantly more cases with osteoporosis as compared with AP DXA. Lumbar vBMD was not different between sexes, but women had significantly more lumbar osteoporosis measured with AP DXA (P < 0.001). Men had significantly higher mSASSS (P < 0.001). Low BMD was associated with high age, disease duration, mSASSS, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), inflammatory parameters and low body mass index (BMI). Increasing mSASSS correlated significantly with decreasing lateral and volumetric lumbar BMD, while AP lumbar BMD showed tendency to increase.
Osteoporosis and osteopenia is common in AS and associated with high disease burden. Lateral and volumetric lumbar DXA are more sensitive than AP DXA in detecting osteoporosis and are less affected by syndesmophyte formation.
PMCID: PMC3446485  PMID: 22569245
14.  Controlled HIV Viral Replication, Not Liver Disease Severity Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in HIV/HCV Co-Infection 
Journal of hepatology  2011;55(4):770-776.
To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in persons co-infected with HIV and Hepatitis C.
HIV/HCV co-infected study participants (n=179) were recruited into a prospective cohort and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) within 1 year of a liver biopsy. Fibrosis staging was evaluated according to the METAVIR system. Osteoporosis was defined as a T-score ≤ −2.5. Z-scores at the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were used as the primary outcome variables to assess the association between degree of liver disease, HIV-related variables, and BMD.
The population was 65% male, 85% Black with mean age 50.3 years. The prevalence of osteoporosis at either at the total hip, femoral neck, or lumbar spine was 28%, with 5% having osteoporosis of the total hip, 6% at the femoral neck, 25% at the spine. The mean Z-scores (standard deviation) were −0.42 (1.01) at the total hip, −0.16 (1.05) at the femoral neck, and −0.82 (1.55) at the lumbar spine. In multivariable models, controlled HIV replication (HIV RNA < 400 copies/mL vs ≥400 copies/mL) was associated with lower Z-scores (mean ± standard error) at the total hip (−0.44±0.17, p=0.01), femoral neck (−0.59±0.18, p=0.001), and the spine (−0.98±0.27, p=0.0005). There was no association between degree of liver fibrosis and Z-score.
Osteoporosis was very common in this population of predominately African-American HIV/HCV co-infected patients, particularly at the spine. Lower BMD was associated with controlled HIV replication, but not liver disease severity.
PMCID: PMC3113457  PMID: 21338640
hepatitis C; bone mineral density; hepatic fibrosis; HIV
15.  Differences in Bone Mineral Density between the Right and Left Hips in Postmenopausal Women 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(6):686-690.
Bone mineral density (BMD) using dual energy radiography absorptiometry are commonly used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. It is usually measured at the spine and also at one hip joint. Controversy still exists regarding the use of bilateral hip scanning. We analyzed the difference of BMD at bilateral hips in 384 postmenopausal women, retrospectively. The concordance and discordance rates of the lowest T-score and BMD between both hips were evaluated. The BMDs of the femoral neck and trochanter were significantly different between both hips (P < 0.05). There were also discrepancies between the lowest T-scores of both hips (P < 0.05). The discordance rates were about 30%. Due to significant differences in BMD between both hips at the femoral neck and trochanter and high discordance rate, bilateral hip measurements using DEXA are recommended to avoid underestimating osteoporosis.
PMCID: PMC3369457  PMID: 22690102
Osteoporosis; Diagnosis; Bone Mineral Density; Hip
16.  Experience with alendronate treatment for four years among Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures 
A retrospective study based on a conventional medical practice was performed to evaluate the outcome of alendronate treatment for four years in Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures.
Twenty-nine Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures (mean age at baseline 61.0 years) who had been treated with alendronate for over four years in our outpatient clinic were studied. Lumbar spine or total hip bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase were monitored during the four-year treatment period.
Urinary NTX and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels decreased (−44.4% at three months and −61.2% at four years, respectively) and lumbar spine and total hip BMD increased (+13.9% and +9.2% at four years, respectively), compared with baseline values. No serious adverse events were observed, including osteonecrosis of the jaw, femoral diaphysis atypical fractures, or atrial fibrillation.
To our knowledge, this is the first report of the outcome of alendronate treatment for four years in Japanese men with an increased risk for fractures. Alendronate suppressed bone turnover and increased lumbar spine and total hip BMD from baseline over the course of the four-year treatment period without causing any severe adverse events in Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia and clinical risk factors for fractures.
PMCID: PMC3012448  PMID: 21206758
alendronate; bone mineral density; fracture risk; men; osteoporosis; osteopenia
17.  Effect of including historical height and radius BMD measurement on sarco-osteoporosis prevalence 
A clinical need exists to improve identification of those who will sustain fragility fractures. Individuals with both osteoporosis (OP) and sarcopenia (SP), so-called “sarco-osteoporosis” (SOP), might be at higher fracture risk than those with OP or SP alone. Approaches to facilitate SOP identification, e.g., use of tallest historical rather than current height and inclusion of radius bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, may be of benefit. This study examined the effect of advancing age on SOP prevalence with and without use of historical tallest height and radius BMD measurement.
Adults age 60+ underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) BMD and total body composition measurement. OP and SP were defined using standard criteria: T-score ≤−2.5 at the lumbar spine or hip and appendicular lean mass (ALM)/current height2 <5.45 kg/m2 (female) and <7.26 kg/m2 (male). Proposed “sensitive” SP criteria used historical tallest height instead of current height, while “sensitive” OP criteria added the 1/3rd radius T-score. The primary outcome was SOP prevalence by decade (60–69, 70–79, 80+).
A total of 304 individuals (146 M/158 F) participated. OP, SP and SOP prevalence were higher in older adults and increased (p < 0.05) with the “sensitive” criteria. SOP prevalence was lower than that of OP or SP and increased (standard/sensitive) criteria from 1.1 % / 4.5 % in the 60–69 years age group to 10.4 % / 21.9 % in the 80+ years age group.
SOP prevalence is higher in older adults. Use of historical tallest height and 1/3rd radius BMD increases SOP prevalence. Future studies need to assess whether having SOP increases fracture risk and whether use of tallest height and/or one-third radius BMD improves fracture risk prediction.
PMCID: PMC3581618  PMID: 22872366
Sarcopenia; Osteoporosis; Age; Radius BMD; Sarco-osteoporosis
18.  Vertebral Fractures and the Misclassification of Osteoporosis in Men with Prostate Cancer 
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has become the cornerstone of treatment for both advanced and non-metastatic prostate cancer. The presence of a non-traumatic vertebral fracture (VF) identifies a patient who has clinical osteoporosis. Vertebral Fracture Analysis (VFA), a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based technology identifies VFs in conjunction with a standard bone mineral densitometry (BMD) exam. The objective of this study is to determine if VFA will increase the diagnosis of osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer on ADT.
Materials and Methods
116 men ≥ 60 years of age with non-metastatic prostate cancer receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for ≥ 6 months underwent DXA of the spine, hip, and one-third distal radius, VFA), and conventional vertebral x-rays.
Approximately 40% of the men had clinically defined osteoporosis. The use of conventional DXA criteria (spine and hip) alone resulted in the misdiagnosis of approximately 75% of patients. VFA and addition of the one-third distal radius site performed by DXA both increased the rate of diagnosis and reduces the misclassification of osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer, compared to conventional DXA criteria alone. Analysis indicated that VFA assessment of mild, moderate, and severe fractures from all readable vertebrae (T5-L4) had a kappa, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.92, 100% and 95%, respectively, with semi-quantitative radiography.
Men with prostate cancer on ADT should be screened for osteoporosis at the initiation of therapy, and evaluation should include DXA of the one-third distal radius in addition to the spine and hip, as well as evaluation for VFs.
PMCID: PMC3150288  PMID: 21723763
androgen deprivation therapy; vertebral fractures; vertebral fracture assessment; osteoporosis; bone mineral density
19.  Simultaneous screening for osteoporosis at CT colonography 
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research  2011;26(9):2194-2203.
To evaluate the utility of lumbar spine attenuation measurement for bone mineral density (BMD) assessment at screening CT colonography (CTC), using central dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference standard.
Material and Methods
252 adults (240 women, 12 men; mean age, 58.9 years) underwent CTC screening and central DXA BMD measurement within 2 months (mean interval, 25.0 days). The lowest DXA T-score between the spine and hip served as the reference standard, with low BMD defined per WHO as osteoporosis (DXA T-score ≤-2.5) or osteopenia (DXA T-score between −1.0 and −2.4). Both phantomless QCT and simple non-angled ROI MDCT attenuation measurements were applied to T12-L5 levels. Ability to predict osteoporosis and low BMD (osteoporosis or osteopenia) by DXA was assessed.
A BMD cut-off of 90 mg/cc at phantomless QCT yielded 100% sensitivity for osteoporosis (29/29) and specificity of 63.8% (143/224); 87.2% (96/110) below this threshold had low BMD and 49.6% (69/139) above this threshold had normal BMD at DXA. At L1, a trabecular ROI attenuation cut-off of 160 HU was 100% sensitive for osteoporosis (29/29), with a specificity of 46.4% (104/224); 83.9% (125/149) below this threshold had low BMD and 57.5% (59/103) above had normal BMD at DXA. ROI performance was similar at all individual T12-L5 levels. At ROC analysis, AUC for osteoporosis was 0.888 for phantomless QCT (95% CI: 0.780–0.946) and ranged from 0.825–0.853 using trabecular ROIs at single lumbar levels (0.864 [0.752–0.930] at multivariate analysis). Supine-prone reproducibility was better with simple ROI method compared with QCT.
Both phantomless QCT and simple ROI attenuation measurements of the lumbar spine are effective for BMD screening at CTC, with high sensitivity for osteoporosis as defined by the DXA T-score.
PMCID: PMC3304444  PMID: 21590738
Osteoporosis; Screening; Bone mineral density; Computed tomography; CT colonography
20.  Concordane of OSTA and lumbar spine BMD by DXA in identifying risk of osteoporosis 
To investigate the accuracy of Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in identifying the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. To validate use of OSTA risk index by comparing it with the bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).
The data of lumbar spine BMD (LS BMD) measurements by DXA of 218 postmenopausal women of Han nationality in Sichuan province were compared with OSTA risk index. The concordance of OSTA and LS BMD were calculated and analyzed by fourfold table and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.
The prevalence of osteoporosis in these women was 40.4% and 61.5%, with the LS BMD T score cutoffs -2.5 and -2.0, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of OSTA risk index compared with T score cutoff -2.5 of LS BMD were 59.1%, 56.9% and 57.8%, respectively, while they were 57.5%, 63.1%, 59.6% by T score cutoff -2.0.
For identifying risk of osteoporosis, the concurrence was lower than those reported studies when comparing LS BMD measurements to OSTA risk index in Chinese Han nationality postmenopausal women of Sichuan province. Physicians should identify women who need BMD measurement according to more factors rather than age and body weight.
PMCID: PMC1693545  PMID: 17150121
21.  Height Loss, Vertebral Fractures, and the Misclassification of Osteoporosis 
Bone  2010;48(2):307-311.
The presence of a vertebral fracture identifies a patient who has clinical osteoporosis. However, approximately 2/3 to 3/4 of VFs are asymptomatic. Vertebral Fracture Assessment is a method derived from dual-xray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess vertebral fractures. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the association between the degree of height loss in older men and women and risk of a vertebral fracture, and 2) to determine if knowledge of vertebral fractures will alter the classification of osteoporosis based on bone mineral density alone.
231 men and women over the age of 65 underwent DXA scan of their spine and hip (including bone mineral density and Vertebral Fracture Assessment), measurement of their height, and a questionnaire.
We found that height loss was significantly associated with a vertebral fracture (p=0.0160). The magnitude of the association translates to a 19% increase in odds for 1/2 inch and 177% for 3 inches. Although 45% had osteoporosis by either bone mineral density or fracture criteria, 30% would have been misclassified if bone mineral density criteria were used alone.
Height loss is an indicator for the presence of vertebral fractures. Bone mineral density criteria alone may misclassify older patients who have osteoporosis.
PMCID: PMC3021585  PMID: 20870048
vertebral fractures; vertebral fracture assessment; osteoporosis; bone mineral density
22.  Radiographic Emphysema Predicts Low Bone Mineral Density in a Tobacco-exposed Cohort 
Rationale: Studies demonstrating an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and low bone mineral density (BMD) implicate factors distinct from treatments and severity of lung disease in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Whereas emphysema has been independently associated with vascular disease and other comorbidities, its association with BMD has not been well studied.
Objectives: We explored the associations of BMD with computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and other risk factors in current and former smokers.
Methods: One hundred ninety subjects completed a CT scan, pulmonary function testing, questionnaires, and dual x-ray absorptiometry measurements of hip and lumbar spine BMD. Subjects were classified as having normal BMD, osteopenia, or osteoporosis. Demographic, physiologic, and radiographic characteristics were compared and the association of BMD with radiographic emphysema, airflow obstruction, and osteoporosis risk factors was assessed.
Measurements and Main Results: No difference existed in age, tobacco exposure, oral steroid use, or physical activity across BMD categories. Both osteopenia and osteoporosis were associated with the presence of airflow obstruction, inhaled corticosteroid use, and female sex, and demonstrated a significant relationship with the presence of visual emphysema (P = 0.0003). Quantitative emphysema, but not CT-measured indices of airway wall thickness, was inversely associated with BMD. Visual emphysema alone was a significant predictor of osteopenia/osteoporosis (odds ratio = 2.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.24–5.25) in a model including obstruction severity, age, sex, and inhaled and oral steroid use.
Conclusions: Radiographic emphysema is a strong, independent predictor of low BMD in current and former smokers. This relationship suggests a common mechanistic link between emphysema and osteopenia/osteoporosis.
PMCID: PMC3086755  PMID: 20935108
pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; emphysema; osteoporosis
23.  Alendronate increases BMD at appendicular and axial skeletons in patients with established osteoporosis 
To identify high-risk patients and provide pharmacological treatment is one of the effective approaches in prevention of osteoporotic fractures. This study investigated the effect of 12-month Alendronate treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover biochemical markers in postmenopausal women with one or more non-traumatic fractures, i.e. patients with established osteoporosis.
A total of 118 Hong Kong postmenopausal Chinese women aged 50 to 75 with low-energy fracture at distal radius (Colles' fracture) were recruited for BMD measurement at lumbar spine and non-dominant hip using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). 47 women with BMD T-score below -2 SD at either side were identified as patients with established osteoporosis and then randomized into Alendronate group (n = 22) and placebo control group (n = 25) for BMD measurement at spine and hip using DXA and distal radius of the non-fracture side by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and bone turnover markers, including bone forming alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and bone resorbing urinary Deoxypyridinoline (DPD). All measurements were repeated at 6 and 12 months.
Alendronate treatment significantly increased BMD, more in weight-bearing skeletons (5.1% at spine and 2.5% at hip) than in non-weight bearing skeleton (0.9% at distal radius) after 12 months treatment. Spine T-score was significant improved in Alendronate group (p < 0.01) (from -2.2 to -1.9) but not in control placebo group. The Alendronate treatment effect was explained by significant suppression of bone turnover.
12 months Alendronate treatment was effective to increase BMD at both axial and appendicular skeletons in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis.
PMCID: PMC1885425  PMID: 17511887
24.  Influence of bone densitometry results on the treatment of osteoporosis 
Measurement of bone mineral density is widely used to diagnose osteoporosis. The objectives of this study are to determine how bone densitometry affects subsequent treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis with either hormone replacement therapy or bisphosphonates and to examine clinical factors associated with starting either therapy after bone densitometry.
We conducted a prospective study involving women over 50 years of age who were referred to a tertiary care hospital for the first time to undergo bone density measurement using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Baseline clinical data were collected through face-to-face interviews before the test. Subsequently, the scans were reviewed and categorized as showing no bone loss, osteopenia or osteoporosis, based on World Health Organization criteria. Three months after DXA, subjects were contacted by telephone to determine their understanding of the test results and any new treatments started or recommended since the scan.
Of 383 women recruited at the time of their DXA, 335 (87.5%) completed the 3-month follow-up. Among those reached at follow-up, DXA results showed no bone loss in 119 (35.5%), osteopenia in 137 (40.9%) and osteoporosis in 79 (23.6%). The proportion of subjects with osteoporosis receiving either hormone replacement therapy or bisphosphonate therapy was 15.2% before the test, increasing to 63.3% after the scan. The following factors were independently associated with the initiation of either therapy: actual DXA result showing osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR] 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–30.3), compared with a normal scan; subjects' perception that their scan showed bone loss (osteopenia or osteoporosis) (OR 13.5; 95% CI 4.0–45.5) or that they were unclear about the results (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.6–18.8), compared with the perception that the results were normal; and discussion of the DXA results with a physician (OR 5.5; 95% CI 1.9–16.0).
The proportion of women with osteoporosis receiving hormone replacement therapy or bisphosphonate therapy increases after diagnosis with densitometry. However, communication by physicians so that patients understand their test results is a critical component in the initiation of therapy after bone densitometry.
PMCID: PMC80872  PMID: 11276543
25.  Bone Mineral Density of Adolescent Female Tennis Players and Nontennis Players 
Journal of Osteoporosis  2012;2012:423910.
The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD) among adolescent female tennis players (TPs) and nontennis players (NTPs) and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.37 and 0.12, resp.). TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (P = 0.02). This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.
PMCID: PMC3395175  PMID: 22811951

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