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1.  Examination of Cholesterol oxidase attachment to magnetic nanoparticles 
Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized by thermal co-precipitation of ferric and ferrous chlorides. The sizes and structure of the particles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size of the particles was in the range between 9.7 and 56.4 nm. Cholesterol oxidase (CHO) was successfully bound to the particles via carbodiimide activation. FTIR spectroscopy was used to confirm the binding of CHO to the particles. The binding efficiency was between 98 and 100% irrespective of the amount of particles used. Kinetic studies of the free and bound CHO revealed that the stability and activity of the enzyme were significantly improved upon binding to the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the bound enzyme exhibited a better tolerance to pH, temperature and substrate concentration. The activation energy for free and bound CHO was 13.6 and 9.3 kJ/mol, respectively. This indicated that the energy barrier of CHO activity was reduced upon binding onto Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The improvements observed in activity, stability, and functionality of CHO resulted from structural and conformational changes of the bound enzyme. The study indicates that the stability and activity of CHO could be enhanced via attachment to magnetic nanoparticles and subsequently will contribute to better uses of this enzyme in various biological and clinical applications.
doi:10.1186/1477-3155-3-1
PMCID: PMC548673  PMID: 15661076
2.  A nanoparticle-based immobilization assay for prion-kinetics study 
Magnetic and gold coated magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric chlorides, and by the micromicelles method, respectively. Synthesized nanoparticles were functionalized to bear carboxyl and amino acid moieties and used as prion protein carriers after carbodiimide activation in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide. The binding of human recombinant prion protein (huPrPrec) to the surface of these nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR and the size and structures of the particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Findings indicate that the rate of prion binding increased only slightly when the concentration of prion in the reaction medium was increased. Rate constants of binding were very similar on Fe3O4@Au and Fe3O4-LAA when the concentrations of protein were 1, 2, 1.5, 2.25 and 3.57 μg/ml. For a 5 μg/ml concentration of huPrPrec the binding rate constant was higher for the Fe3O4-LAA particles. This study paves the way towards the formation of prion protein complexes onto a 3-dimensional structure that could reveal obscure physiological and pathological structure and prion protein kinetics.
doi:10.1186/1477-3155-4-8
PMCID: PMC1564407  PMID: 16916458
3.  Self-aggregated nanoparticles based on amphiphilic poly(lactic acid)-grafted-chitosan copolymer for ocular delivery of amphotericin B 
Background
The purpose of this study was to develop a self-aggregated nanoparticulate vehicle using an amphiphilic poly(lactic acid)-grafted-chitosan (PLA-g-CS) copolymer and to evaluate its potential for ocular delivery of amphotericin B.
Methods
A PLA-g-CS copolymer was synthesized via a “protection-graft-deprotection” procedure and its structure was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray diffraction spectra. Amphotericin B-loaded nanoparticles based on PLA-g-CS (AmB/PLA-g-CS) were prepared by the dialysis method and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. Studies of these AmB/PLA-g-CS nanoparticles, including their mucoadhesive strength, drug release properties, antifungal activity, ocular irritation, ocular pharmacokinetics, and corneal penetration were performed in vitro and in vivo.
Results
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray diffraction spectra showed that the PLA chains were successfully grafted onto chitosan molecules and that crystallization of chitosan was suppressed. The self-aggregated PLA-g-CS nanoparticles had a core-shell structure with an average particle size of approximately 200 nm and zeta potentials higher than 30 mV. Amphotericin B was incorporated into the hydrophobic core of the nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency. Sustained drug release from the nanoparticles was observed in vitro. The ocular irritation study showed no sign of irritation after instillation of the PLA-g-CS nanoparticles into rabbit eyes. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the AmB/PLA-g-CS nanoparticles showed antifungal activity similar to that of free amphotericin B against Candida albicans. The in vivo ocular pharmacokinetic study suggested that the PLA-g-CS nanoparticles have the advantage of prolonging residence time at the ocular surface. The corneal penetration study showed that the PLA-g-CS nanoparticles could penetrate into the cornea.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that this nanoparticulate vehicle based on a PLA-g-CS copolymer might be a promising system for effective ocular delivery of amphotericin B.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S51186
PMCID: PMC3792006  PMID: 24106427
chitosan; poly(lactic acid); nanoparticles; amphotericin B
4.  Covalent Immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase on Aldehyde-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles 
This work presents the synthesis and use of surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles for the covalent immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (BlGGT). Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by an alkaline solution of divalent and trivalent iron ions, and they were subsequently treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) to obtain the aminosilane-coated nanoparticles. The functional group on the particle surface and the amino group of BlGGT was then cross-linked using glutaraldehyde as the coupling reagent. The loading capacity of the prepared nanoparticles for BlGGT was 34.2 mg/g support, corresponding to 52.4% recovery of the initial activity. Monographs of transmission electron microscopy revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles had a mean diameter of 15.1 ± 3.7 nm, and the covalent cross-linking of the enzyme did not significantly change their particle size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the immobilization of BlGGT on the magnetic nanoparticles. The chemical and kinetic behaviors of immobilized BlGGT are mostly consistent with those of the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme could be recycled ten times with 36.2% retention of the initial activity and had a comparable stability respective to free enzyme during the storage period of 30 days. Collectively, the straightforward synthesis of aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticles and the efficiency of enzyme immobilization offer wide perspectives for the practical use of surface-bound BlGGT.
doi:10.3390/ijms14034613
PMCID: PMC3634462  PMID: 23443161
Bacillus licheniformis; γ-glutamyl transpeptidase; magnetic nanoparticle; 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane; covalent immobilization
5.  BIODEGRADABLE NANOPARTICLES MIMICKING PLATELET BINDING AS A TARGETED AND CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM 
This research aims to develop targeted nanoparticles as drug carriers to the injured arterial wall under fluid shear stress by mimicking the natural binding ability of platelets via interactions of glycoprotein Ib-alpha (GP Ibα) of platelets with P-selectin of damaged endothelial cells (ECs) and/or with von Willebrand factor (vWF) of the subendothelium. Drug-loaded poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were formulated using a standard emulsion method and conjugated with glycocalicin, the external fraction of platelet GPIbα, via carbodiimide chemistry. Surface-coated and cellular uptake studies in ECs showed that conjugation of PLGA nanoparticles with GPIb significantly increased nanoparticle adhesion to P-selectin- and vWF-coated surfaces as well as nanoparticle uptake by activated ECs under fluid shear stresses. In addition, effects of nanoparticle size and shear stress on adhesion efficiency were characterized through parallel flow chamber studies. The observed decrease in bound nanoparticle density with increased particle sizes and shear stresses is also explained through a computational model. Our results demonstrate that the GPIb-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles can be used as a targeted and controlled drug delivery system under flow conditions at the site of vascular injury.
doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2011.11.043
PMCID: PMC3273581  PMID: 22172292
Biodegradable Nanoparticles; Endothelial Cells; Platelets; Glycoprotein Ib; Parallel Plate Flow System
6.  Catalase coupled gold nanoparticles: Comparison between carbodiimide and biotin-streptavidin methods 
Acta biomaterialia  2011;7(7):2865-2872.
The use of proteins for therapeutic applications requires the protein to maintain sufficient activity for the period of in vivo treatment. Many proteins exhibit a short half-life in vivo and, thus, require delivery systems for them to be applied as therapeutics. The relative biocompatibility and the ability to form functionalized bioconjugates via simple chemistry make gold nanoparticles excellent candidates as protein delivery systems. Herein, two protocols for coupling proteins to gold nanoparticles were compared. In the first, the strong biomolecular binding between biotin and streptavidin was used to couple catalase to the surface of gold nanoparticles. In the second protocol, the formation of an amide bond between carboxylic acid coated gold nanoparticles and free surface amines of catalase using carbodiimide chemistry was performed. The stability and kinetics of the different steps involved in these protocols were studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The addition of mercaptoundecanoic acid in conjugation with (N-(6-(biotinamido)hexyl)-3′-(2′-pyridyldithio)-propionamide increased the stability of biotinylated gold nanoparticles. Although the carbodiimide chemistry based bioconjugation approach exhibited a decrease in catalase activity, the carbodiimide chemistry based bioconjugation approach resulted in more active catalase per gold nanoparticle compared to that of mercaptoundecanoic acid stabilized biotinylated gold nanoparticles. Both coupling protocols resulted in gold nanoparticles loaded with active catalase. Thus, these gold nanoparticle systems and coupling protocols represent promising methods for the application of gold nanoparticles for protein delivery.
doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2011.01.003
PMCID: PMC3412123  PMID: 21232642
Gold nanoparticles; carbodiimide chemistry; biotin-streptavidin binding; catalase
7.  Targeted delivery of doxorubicin-utilizing chitosan nanoparticles surface-functionalized with anti-Her2 trastuzumab 
Background
Targeting drugs to their sites of action to overcome the systemic side effects associated with most antineoplastic agents is still a major challenge in pharmaceutical research. In this study, the monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, was used as a targeting agent in nanoparticles carrying the antitumor drug, doxorubicin, specifically to its site of action.
Methods
Chitosan-doxorubicin conjugation was carried out using succinic anhydride as a crosslinker. Trastuzumab was conjugated to self-assembled chitosan-doxorubin conjugate (CS-DOX) nanoparticles (particle size, 200 nm) via thiolation of lysine residues and subsequent linking of the resulted thiols to chitosan. Conjugation was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential determination were used to characterize the nanoparticles.
Results
CS-DOX conjugated nanoparticles had a spherical shape and smooth surface with a narrow size distribution and core-shell structure. Increasing the ratio of doxorubicin to chitosan in the conjugation reaction gave rise to a higher doxorubicin content but lower conjugation efficiency. Trastuzumab-decorated nanoparticles (CS-DOX-mAb) contained 47 μg/mg doxorubicin and 33.5 μg/mg trastuzumab. Binding of trastuzumab to the nanoparticles was further probed thermodynamically by isothermal titration calorimetry. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated enhanced and selective uptake of CS-DOX-mAb by Her2+ cancer cells compared with nontargeted CS-DOX nanoparticles and free drug.
Conclusion
Antibody-conjugated nanoparticles were shown to discriminate between Her2+ and Her2− cells, and thus have the potential to be used in active targeted drug delivery, with reduction of drug side effects in Her2+ breast and ovarian cancers.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S21523
PMCID: PMC3181058  PMID: 21976974
chitosan; doxorubicin; self-assembled nanoparticles; active targeting; trastuzumab
8.  Study on antibacterial alginate-stabilized copper nanoparticles by FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy 
Background
The objective of this study was to clarify the intermolecular interaction between antibacterial copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) and sodium alginate (NaAlg) by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and to process the spectra applying two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) correlation analysis. To our knowledge, the addition of NaAlg as a stabilizer of copper nanoparticles has not been previously reported. It is expected that the obtained results will provide valuable additional information on: (1) the influence of reducing agent ratio on the formation of copper nanoparticles in order to design functional nanomaterials with increased antibacterial activity, and (2) structural changes related to the incorporation of Cu NPs into the polymer matrix.
Methods
Cu NPs were prepared by microwave heating using ascorbic acid as reducing agent and NaAlg as stabilizing agent. The characterization of synthesized Cu NPs by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and semiquantitative analysis of the weight percentage composition indicated that the average particle sizes of Cu NPs are about 3–10 nm, they are spherical in shape, and consist of zerovalent Cu and Cu2O. Also, crystallite size and relative particle size of stabilized Cu NPs were calculated by XRD using Scherrer’s formula and FT from the X-ray diffraction data. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR, second-derivative spectra, and 2D-IR correlation analysis were applied to studying the stabilization mechanism of Cu NPs by NaAlg molecules. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of stabilized Cu NPs against five bacterial strains (Staphylococccus aureus ATCC 6538P, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and O157: H7, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 13311 and 14028) were evaluated with macrodilution, agar dilution plate count, and well-diffusion methods.
Results
On the basis of the semiquantitative analysis, there was a direct correlation between the reducing agent ratio and the percentage of zerovalent Cu. This was confirmed with the statistical analysis of population of Cu NPs from TEM micrographs. At lower reducing agent ratios, two phases coexist (Cu2O and zerovalent Cu) due to incomplete reduction of copper ions by the reducing agent; however, at higher reducing agent ratios, the Cu NPs consist mainly of zerovalent Cu. Crystallite size and relative particle size of stabilized Cu NPs showed considerable differences in results and tendencies in respect to TEM analysis. However, the relative particle size values obtained from FT of XRD data agreed well with the histograms from the TEM observations. From FT results, the relative particle size and reducing agent ratio of stabilized Cu NPs showed an inverse correlation. The incomplete reduction of copper ions at lower reducing agent ratios was also confirmed by DSC studies. FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra analysis suggested the first event involved in the stabilization of Cu NPs is their electrostatic interaction with –C=O of carboxylate groups of NaAlg, followed by the interaction with the available O–C–O−, and finally with the –OH groups. Bacterial susceptibility to stabilized nanoparticles was found to vary depending on the bacterial strains. The lowest MIC and MBC of stabilized Cu NPs ranged between 2 mg/L and 8 mg/L for all studied strains. Disk-diffusion studies with both E. coli strains revealed greater effectiveness of the stabilized Cu NPs compared to the positive controls (cloxacillin, amoxicillin, and nitrofurantoin). S. aureus showed the highest sensitivity to stabilized Cu NPs compared to the other studied strains.
Conclusion
Cu NPs were successfully synthesized via chemical reduction assisted with microwave heating. Average particle size, polydispersity, and phase composition of Cu NPs depended mainly on the reducing agent ratio. Likewise, thermal stability and antibacterial activity of stabilized Cu NPs were affected by their phase composition. Because of the carboxylate groups in polymer chains, the structural changes of stabilized Cu NPs are different from those of NaAlg. NaAlg acted as a size controller and stabilizing agent of Cu NPs, due to their ability to bind strongly to the metal surface. Our study on the stabilizing agent–dependent structural changes of stabilized NPs is helpful for wide application of NaAlg as an important biopolymer.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S32648
PMCID: PMC3405878  PMID: 22848180
stabilized copper nanoparticles; sodium alginate; 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy; antibacterial activity
9.  Acceleration of gene transfection efficiency in neuroblastoma cells through polyethyleneimine/poly(methyl methacrylate) core-shell magnetic nanoparticles 
Background
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential of magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) core/polyethyleneimine (PEI) shell (mag-PEI) nanoparticles, which possess high saturation magnetization for gene delivery. By using mag-PEI nanoparticles as a gene carrier, this study focused on evaluation of transfection efficiency under magnetic induction. The potential role of this newly synthesized nanosphere for therapeutic delivery of the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2) gene was also investigated in cultured neuronal LAN-5 cells.
Methods
The mag-PEI nanoparticles were prepared by one-step emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization, generating highly loaded and monodispersed magnetic polymeric nanoparticles bearing an amine group. The physicochemical properties of the mag-PEI nanoparticles and DNA-bound mag-PEI nanoparticles were investigated using the gel retardation assay, atomic force microscopy, and zeta size measurements. The gene transfection efficiencies of mag-PEI nanoparticles were evaluated at different transfection times. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed intracellular uptake of the magnetoplex. The optimal conditions for transfection of TPH-2 were selected for therapeutic gene transfection. We isolated the TPH-2 gene from the total RNA of the human medulla oblongata and cloned it into an expression vector. The plasmid containing TPH-2 was subsequently bound onto the surfaces of the mag-PEI nanoparticles via electrostatic interaction. Finally, the mag-PEI nanoparticle magnetoplex was delivered into LAN-5 cells. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate TPH-2 expression in a quantitative manner.
Results
The study demonstrated the role of newly synthesized high-magnetization mag-PEI nanoparticles for gene transfection in vitro. The expression signals of a model gene, luciferase, and a therapeutic gene, TPH-2, were enhanced under magnetic-assisted transfection. An in vitro study in neuronal cells confirmed that using mag-PEI nanoparticles as a DNA carrier for gene delivery provided high transfection efficiency with low cytotoxicity.
Conclusion
The mag-PEI nanoparticle is a promising alternative gene transfection reagent due to its ease of use, effectiveness, and low cellular toxicity. The mag-PEI nanoparticle is not only practical for gene transfection in cultured neuronal cells but may also be suitable for transfection in other cells as well.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S32311
PMCID: PMC3373300  PMID: 22701321
magnetic nanoparticle; non-viral vector; gene delivery; tryptophan hydroxylase-2; LAN-5; neuronal cells
10.  Catalytically active bovine serum amine oxidase bound to fluorescent and magnetically drivable nanoparticles 
Novel superparamagnetic surface-active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) characterized by a diameter of 10 ± 2 nm were modified with bovine serum amine oxidase, which used rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) adduct as a fluorescent spacer-arm. A fluorescent and magnetically drivable adduct comprised of bovine serum copper-containing amine oxidase (SAMN–RITC–BSAO) that immobilized on the surface of specifically functionalized magnetic nanoparticles was developed. The multifunctional nanomaterial was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and activity measurements. The results of this study demonstrated that bare magnetic nanoparticles form stable colloidal suspensions in aqueous solutions. The maximum binding capacity of bovine serum amine oxidase was approximately 6.4 mg g−1 nanoparticles. The immobilization procedure reduced the catalytic activity of the native enzyme to 30% ± 10% and the Michaelis constant was increased by a factor of 2. We suggest that the SAMN–RITC–BSAO complex, characterized by a specific activity of 0.81 IU g−1, could be used in the presence of polyamines to create a fluorescent magnetically drivable H2O2 and aldehydes-producing system. Selective tumor cell destruction is suggested as a potential future application of this system.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S28237
PMCID: PMC3356201  PMID: 22619559
amine oxidase; hydrogen peroxide production; superparamagnetic nanoparticles; rhodamine isothiocyanate; fluorescent nanoparticles; fluorescent nanocatalyst
11.  Preparation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-human chorionic gonadotropin, a new generation choriocarcinoma-specific gene vector 
Objective:
To evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4)-dextran-anti-β-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) nanoparticles as a gene vector for cellular transfections.
Study design:
Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation. The configuration, diameter, and iron content of the nanoparticles were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), light scatter, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence were used to evaluate immunoreactivity. The efficiency of absorbing DNA and resisting deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) digestion when bound to Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles was examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. The ability of Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles to absorb heparanase antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODN) nanoparticles in different cell lines was evaluated by flow cytometry. The tissue distribution of heparanase AS-ODN magnetic nanoparticles in choriocarcinoma tumors transplanted in nude mice was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Results:
TEM demonstrated that the shape of nanoparticles is irregular. Light scatter revealed nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 75.5 nm and an iron content of 37.5 μg/mL. No cytotoxicity was observed when the concentration of Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles was <37.5 μg/mL. Fe3O4-dextran nanoparticles have a satisfactory potential to combine with β-HCG antibody. Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of binding experiments showed that after treatment with sodium periodate, Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles have a satisfactory potential to absorb DNA, and the protection experiment showed that nanoparticles can effectively protect DNA from DNase I digestion. Aldehyde Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles can transfect reporter genes, and the transfection efficiency of these nanoparticles is greater than that of liposomes (P < 0.05). Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles can concentrate in choriocarcinoma cells and in transplanted choriocarcinoma tumors.
Conclusions:
The results confirm that Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles have potential as a secure, effective, and choriocarcinoma-specific targeting gene vector.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S13410
PMCID: PMC3044181  PMID: 21383853
magnetic nanoparticles; Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG; choriocarcinoma; targeting vector; gene vector
12.  Thrombin-inhibiting perfluorocarbon nanoparticles provide a novel strategy for treatment and magnetic resonance imaging of acute thrombosis 
Background
As a regulator of the penultimate step in the coagulation cascade, thrombin represents a principal target of direct and specific anticoagulants.
Objective
A potent thrombin inhibitor complexed with a colloidal nanoparticle was devised as a first-in-class anticoagulant with prolonged and highly localized therapeutic impact conferred by its multivalent thrombin-absorbing particle surface.
Methods
PPACK (Phe(D)-Pro-Arg-Chloromethylketone) was secured covalently to the surface of perfluorocarbon-core nanoparticle structures. PPACK and PPACK nanoparticle inhibition of thrombin were assessed in vitro via thrombin activity against a chromogenic substrate. In vivo antithrombotic activity of PPACK, heparin, non-functionalized nanoparticles, and PPACK nanoparticles was assessed through IV administration prior to acute photochemical injury of the common carotid artery. Perfluorocarbon particle retention in extracted carotid arteries from injured mice was assessed via 19F magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and imaging (MRI) at 11.7 T. APTT measurements determined the systemic effects of the PPACK nanoparticles at various times after injection.
Results
Optical assay verified that PPACK nanoparticles exceeded PPACK’s intrinsic activity against thrombin. Application of the an in vivo acute arterial thrombosis model demonstrated that PPACK nanoparticles outperformed both heparin (p=.001) and uncomplexed PPACK (p=.0006) in inhibiting thrombosis. 19F MRS confirmed that PPACK nanoparticles specifically bound to sites of acute thrombotic injury. APTT normalized within twenty minutes of PPACK nanoparticles injection.
Conclusions
PPACK nanoparticles present thrombin-inhibiting surfaces at sites of acutely forming thrombi that continue to manifest local clot inhibition even as systemic effects rapidly diminish and thus represent a new platform for localized control of acute thrombosis.
doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04339.x
PMCID: PMC3686484  PMID: 21605330
imaging; inhibitors; nanotechnology; pharmacology; thrombin; thrombosis
13.  A novel technique for in situ aggregation of Gluconobacter oxydans using bio-adhesive magnetic nanoparticles 
Biotechnology and bioengineering  2012;109(12):2970-2977.
Here, we present a novel technique to immobilize magnetic particles onto whole G. oxydans in situ via a synthetic adhesive biomimetic material inspired by the protein glues of marine mussels. Our approach involves simple coating of a cell adherent polydopamine film onto magnetic nanoparticles, followed by conjugation of the polydopamine-coated nanoparticles to G. oxydans which resulted in cell aggregation. After optimization, 21.3 mg (wet cell weight) G. oxydans per milligram of nanoparticle was aggregated and separated with a magnet. Importantly, the G. oxydan aggregates showed high specific activity and good reusability. The facile approach offers the potential advantages of low cost, easy cell separation, low diffusion resistance and high efficiency. Furthermore, the approach is a convenient platform technique for magnetization of cells in situ by direct mixing of nanoparticles with a cell suspension.
doi:10.1002/bit.24582
PMCID: PMC3477288  PMID: 22729662
cell aggregation; iron oxide nanoparticles; Gluconobacter oxydans; polydopamine
14.  Detection of breast cancer cells using targeted magnetic nanoparticles and ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensors 
Breast Cancer Research : BCR  2011;13(5):R108.
Introduction
Breast cancer detection using mammography has improved clinical outcomes for many women, because mammography can detect very small (5 mm) tumors early in the course of the disease. However, mammography fails to detect 10 - 25% of tumors, and the results do not distinguish benign and malignant tumors. Reducing the false positive rate, even by a modest 10%, while improving the sensitivity, will lead to improved screening, and is a desirable and attainable goal. The emerging application of magnetic relaxometry, in particular using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors, is fast and potentially more specific than mammography because it is designed to detect tumor-targeted iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, magnetic relaxometry is theoretically more specific than MRI detection, because only target-bound nanoparticles are detected. Our group is developing antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles targeted to breast cancer cells that can be detected using magnetic relaxometry.
Methods
To accomplish this, we identified a series of breast cancer cell lines expressing varying levels of the plasma membrane-expressed human epidermal growth factor-like receptor 2 (Her2) by flow cytometry. Anti-Her2 antibody was then conjugated to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the carbodiimide method. Labeled nanoparticles were incubated with breast cancer cell lines and visualized by confocal microscopy, Prussian blue histochemistry, and magnetic relaxometry.
Results
We demonstrated a time- and antigen concentration-dependent increase in the number of antibody-conjugated nanoparticles bound to cells. Next, anti Her2-conjugated nanoparticles injected into highly Her2-expressing tumor xenograft explants yielded a significantly higher SQUID relaxometry signal relative to unconjugated nanoparticles. Finally, labeled cells introduced into breast phantoms were measured by magnetic relaxometry, and as few as 1 million labeled cells were detected at a distance of 4.5 cm using our early prototype system.
Conclusions
These results suggest that the antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles are promising reagents to apply to in vivo breast tumor cell detection, and that SQUID-detected magnetic relaxometry is a viable, rapid, and highly sensitive method for in vitro nanoparticle development and eventual in vivo tumor detection.
doi:10.1186/bcr3050
PMCID: PMC3262221  PMID: 22035507
15.  Silica nanoparticles for the layer-by-layer assembly of fully electro-active cytochrome c multilayers 
Background
For bioanalytical systems sensitivity and biomolecule activity are critical issues. The immobilization of proteins into multilayer systems by the layer-by-layer deposition has become one of the favorite methods with this respect. Moreover, the combination of nanoparticles with biomolecules on electrodes is a matter of particular interest since several examples with high activities and direct electron transfer have been found. Our study describes the investigation on silica nanoparticles and the redox protein cytochrome c for the construction of electro-active multilayer architectures, and the electron transfer within such systems. The novelty of this work is the construction of such artificial architectures with a non-conducting building block. Furthermore a detailed study of the size influence of silica nanoparticles is performed with regard to formation and electrochemical behavior of these systems.
Results
We report on interprotein electron transfer (IET) reaction cascades of cytochrome c (cyt c) immobilized by the use of modified silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) to act as an artificial matrix. The layer-by-layer deposition technique has been used for the formation of silica particles/cytochrome c multilayer assemblies on electrodes. The silica particles are characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Zeta-potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The modified particles have been studied with respect to act as an artificial network for cytochrome c and to allow efficient interprotein electron transfer reactions. We demonstrate that it is possible to form electro-active assemblies with these non-conducting particles. The electrochemical response is increasing linearly with the number of layers deposited, reaching a cyt c surface concentration of about 80 pmol/cm2 with a 5 layer architecture. The interprotein electron transfer through the layer system and the influence of particle size are discussed.
Conclusions
This study demonstrates the ability to construct fully electro-active cyt c multilayer assemblies by using carboxy-modified silica nanoparticles. Thus it can be shown that functional, artificial systems can be build up following natural examples of protein arrangements. The absence of any conductive properties in the second building block clearly demonstrates that mechanisms for electron transfer through such protein multilayer assemblies is based on interprotein electron exchange, rather than on wiring of the protein to the electrode.
The construction strategy of this multilayer system provides a new controllable route to immobilize proteins in multiple layers featuring direct electrochemistry without mediating shuttle molecules and controlling the electro-active amount by the number of deposition steps.
doi:10.1186/1477-3155-9-59
PMCID: PMC3278367  PMID: 22208693
16.  Improvement of thermal stability of polypropylene using DOPO-immobilized silica nanoparticles 
Colloid and polymer science  2012;290(14):1371-1380.
After the surface silylation with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, silica nanoparticles were further modified by 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO). The immobilization of DOPO on silica nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, and thermogravimetric analysis. By incorporating the DOPO-immobilized silica nanoparticles (5 wt%) into polypropylene matrix, the thermal oxidative stability exhibited an improvement of 62 °C for the half weight loss temperature, while that was only 26 °C increment with incorporation of virgin silica nanoparticles (5 wt%). Apparent activation energies of the polymer nanocomposites were estimated via Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method. It was found that the incorporation of DOPO-immobilized silica nanoparticles improved activation energies of the degradation reaction. Based on the results, it was speculated that DOPO-immobilized silica nanoparticles could inhibit the degradation of polypropylene and catalyze the formation of carbonaceous char on the surface. Thus, thermal stability was significantly improved.
doi:10.1007/s00396-012-2631-0
PMCID: PMC3981559  PMID: 24729654
Polypropylene; DOPO; Silica; Nanocomposites; Kinetic
17.  Engineering of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for in vivo detection of colon cancer 
Background
The use of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging techniques has gained great interest for early detection of cancer because water and other intrinsic biomolecules display negligible absorption or autofluorescence in this region. Novel fluorescent nanoparticles with potential to improve neoplasm detection sensitivity may prove to be a valuable tool in early detection of colon tumors.
Methods
The present study describes the synthesis and use of NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles as a diagnostic tool for detection of colon cancer. These fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation process of human serum albumin (HSA) in aqueous solution in the presence of a carboxylic acid derivative of the NIR dye IR-783 (CANIR). Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA), anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA) and tumor associated glycoprotein-72 monoclonal antibodies (anti-TAG-72) were covalently conjugated to the albumin nanoparticles via the surface carboxylate groups by using the carbodiimide activation method.
Results and discussion
Leakage of the encapsulated dye into PBS containing 4% HSA or human bowel juice was not detected. This study also demonstrates that the encapsulation of the NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles reduces the photobleaching of the dye significantly. Specific colon tumor detection in a mouse model was demonstrated for PNA, anti-CEA and anti-TAG-72 conjugated NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles. These bioactive NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles also detected invisible tumors that were revealed as pathological only subsequent to histological analysis.
Conclusions
These results may suggest a significant advantage of NIR fluorescence imaging using NIR fluorescent nanoparticles over regular colonoscopy. In future work we plan to broaden this study by encapsulating cancer drugs, such as paclitaxel and doxorubicin, within these biodegradable NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles, in order to use them for both detection as well as therapy of colon cancer and others.
doi:10.1186/1477-3155-10-36
PMCID: PMC3477047  PMID: 22891637
HSA nanoparticles; Fluorescent nanoparticles; NIR fluorescence; Optical imaging; Colon cancer
18.  Zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine-Fe3O4 nanoparticle composite for laccase immobilization 
Zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine-Fe3O4 nanoparticle composites were prepared by organic-inorganic complex technology and characterized. It has been proved that the ZnTAPc dispersed randomly onto the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles to form molecular dispersion layer and there was a relatively strong bond between central zinc cation and oxygen. The nanoparticle composite took the shape of roundish spheres with the mean diameter of about 15 nm. Active amino groups of magnetic carriers could be used to bind laccase via glutaraldehyde. The optimal pH for the activity of the immobilized laccases and free laccase were the same at pH 3.0 and the optimal temperature for laccase immobilization on ZnTAPc-Fe3O4 nanoparticle composite was 45°. The immobilization yields and Km value of the laccase immobilized on ZnTAPc-Fe3O4 nanoparticle composite were 25% and 20.1 μM, respectively. This kind of immobilized laccase has good thermal, storage and operation stability, and could be used as the sensing biocomponent for the fiber optic biosensor based on enzyme catalysis.
PMCID: PMC2676805  PMID: 18203444
ZnTAPc-Fe3O4 nanoparticles composite; organic-inorganic complex; laccase immobilization
19.  Multifunctional nanocomposites of superparamagnetic (Fe3O4) and NIR-responsive rare earth-doped up-conversion fluorescent (NaYF4 : Yb,Er) nanoparticles and their applications in biolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells 
Nanoscale  2010;2(7):1141-1148.
A new kind of magnetic/luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles was synthesized by covalently linking multiple carboxyl-functionalized superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and individual amino-functionalized silica-coated fluorescent NaYF4 : Yb,Er up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). The resultant nanocomposites bear active carboxylic and amino groups on the surface that were proved to be chemically active and useful for further facile bioconjugation with biomolecules. The UCNPs in the nanocomposite particles can emit visible light in response to the irradiation by near infrared (NIR) light, enabling the application of the nanocomposites in bioimaging. X-Ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, luminescence spectroscopy, and magnetometry were applied to characterize the multifunctional nanocomposites. The nanocomposites exhibited good superparamagnetic and excellent green up-conversion photoluminescent properties that can be exploited in magnetic separation and guiding as well as bioimaging. Due to the presence of active functional groups on the nanocomposite surface, the Fe3O4/NaYF4 : Yb,Er magnetic/luminescent nanocomposites were successfully conjugated with a protein called transferrin, which specifically recognizes the transferrin receptors overexpressed on HeLa cells, and can be employed for biolabeling and fluorescent imaging of HeLa cells. Because NIR light can penetrate biological samples with good depth without damaging them and can avoid autofluorescence from them, the presence of both NIR-responsive UCNPs and superparamagnetic nanoparticles in the nanocomposite particles will enable the practical application of the nanocomposites in bioimaging and separation.
doi:10.1039/c0nr00102c
PMCID: PMC3099179  PMID: 20648340
20.  Nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapy: Evolving strategies for prostate cancer therapy 
Purpose
Recent advances in nanotechnology have resulted in the manufacture of a plethora of nanoparticles with different sizes, shapes, core physicochemical properties and surface modifications that are being investigated for potential medical applications, particularly for the treatment of cancer. This review focuses on the therapeutic use of customized gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes that efficiently generate heat upon electromagnetic (light and magnetic fields) stimulation after direct injection into tumors or preferential accumulation in tumors following systemic administration. This review will also focus on the evolving strategies to improve the therapeutic index of prostate cancer treatment using nanoparticle-mediated hyperthermia.
Conclusions
Nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapy is a new and minimally invasive tool in the armamentarium for the treatment of cancers. Unique challenges posed by this form of hyperthermia include the non-target biodistribution of nanoparticles in the reticuloendothelial system when administered systemically, the inability to visualize or quantify the global concentration and spatial distribution of these particles within tumors, the lack of standardized thermal modeling and dosimetry algorithms, and the concerns regarding their biocompatibility. Nevertheless, novel particle compositions, geometries, activation strategies, targeting techniques, payload delivery strategies, and radiation dose enhancement concepts are unique attributes of this form of hyperthermia that warrant further exploration. Capitalizing on these opportunities and overcoming these challenges offers the possibility of seamless and logical translation of this nanoparticle-mediated hyperthermia paradigm from the bench to the bedside.
doi:10.3109/02656736.2010.485593
PMCID: PMC3071560  PMID: 20858069
Nanoparticles; magnetic; optical; activatable; hyperthermia; prostate cancer
21.  Alternative Modes of Binding of Recombinant Human Histone Deacetylase 8 to Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles † 
Histone deacetylases are intimately involved in the transcriptional regulation of genes, and they are high priority drug targets for cancer therapy. Due to prevalence of several sulfhydryl groups on the surface of histone deacetylase 8, we explored the possibility of its binding to colloidal gold nanoparticles by determining its potentials to inhibit the flocculation as well as retaining the enzyme activity. It was observed that although both these processes conformed to the binding affinity of the gold-histone deacetylase 8 conjugate as being equal to 15–20 nM, only 30% of the nanoparticle-bound enzyme exhibited the enzymatic activity. In the light of the structural features of histone deacetylase 8, we propose that the enzyme interacts with the gold nanoparticles via the surface exposed thiol groups, and such interaction occurs in two alternative modes. Whereas the enzyme bound via mode-1 is catalytically inactive (presumably due to the orientation of the enzyme’s active site toward the gold nanoparticle surface), and it prevents the flocculation of the nanoparticles, the enzyme bound via mode-2 shows the full catalytic activity (as its active site is believed to be oriented away from the nanoparticle surface). Although the histone deacetylase 8 bound to AuNP via mode-2 exhibits the same inhibitory potency against Trichostatin A as the free enzyme, the former is more susceptible to thermal denaturation. The potential of potent interaction between gold nanoparticles and histone deacetylase 8 via alternative modes may find diagnostic and/or therapeutic applications for different forms of cancers.
doi:10.1166/jbn.2008.011
PMCID: PMC2759753  PMID: 19956788
Histone Deacetylase; Gold Nanoparticles; Binding; Cancer
22.  Identification of Molecular-Mimicry-Based Ligands for Cholera Diagnostics using Magnetic Relaxation 
Bioconjugate chemistry  2011;22(2):307-314.
When covalently bound to an appropriate ligand, iron oxide nanoparticles can bind to a specific target of interest. This interaction can be detected through changes in the solution’s spin-spin relaxation times (T2) via magnetic relaxation measurements. In this report, a strategy of molecular mimicry was used in order to identify targeting ligands that bind to the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). The cellular CTB-receptor, ganglioside GM1, contains a pentasaccharide moiety consisting in part of galactose and glucose units. We therefore predicted that CTB would recognize carbohydrate-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles as GM1 mimics, thus producing a detectable change in the T2 relaxation times. Magnetic relaxation experiments demonstrated that CTB interacted with the galactose-conjugated nanoparticles. This interaction was confirmed via surface plasmon resonance studies using either the free or nanoparticle-conjugated galactose molecule. The galactose conjugated nanoparticles were then used as CTB sensors achieving a detection limit of 40 pM. Via magnetic relaxation studies, we found that CTB also interacted with dextran-coated nanoparticles and surface plasmon resonance studies also confirmed this interaction. Additional experiments demonstrated that the dextran-coated nanoparticle can also be used as CTB sensors and that dextran can prevent the internalization of CTB into GM1-expressing cells. Our work indicates that magnetic nanoparticle conjugates and magnetic relaxation detection can be used as a simple and fast method to identify targeting ligands via molecular mimicry. Furthermore, our results show that the dextran-coated nanoparticles represent a low-cost approach for CTB detection.
doi:10.1021/bc100442q
PMCID: PMC3040288  PMID: 21226491
23.  Convection-enhanced delivery of methotrexate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles 
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a novel approach for delivering drugs directly into brain tumors by intracranial infusion, enabling the distribution of high drug concentrations over large tissue volumes. This study was designed to present a method for binding methotrexate (MTX) to unique crystalline, highly ordered and superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles via human serum albumin (HSA) coating, optimized for CED treatments of gliomas. Naked nanoparticles and HSA- or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated nanoparticles with/without MTX were studied. In vitro results showed no toxicity and a similar cell-kill efficacy of the MTX-loaded particles via HSA coating to that of free MTX, while MTX-loaded particles via PEG coating showed low efficacy. In vivo, the PEG-coated nanoparticles provided the largest distributions in normal rat brain and long clearance times, but due to their low efficacy in vitro, were not considered optimal. The naked nanoparticles provided the smallest distributions and shortest clearance times. The HSA-coated nanoparticles (with/without MTX) provided good distributions and long clearance times (nearly 50% of the distribution volume remained in the brain 3 weeks post treatment). No MTX-related toxicity was noted. These results suggest that the formulation in which HSA was bound to our nanoparticles via a unique precipitation method, and MTX was bound covalently to the HSA, could enable efficient and stable drug loading with no apparent toxicity. The cell-kill efficacy of the bound MTX remained similar to that of free MTX, and the nanoparticles presented efficient distribution volumes and slow clearance times in vivo, suggesting that these particles are optimal for CED.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S23025
PMCID: PMC3160945  PMID: 21904449
convection-enhanced delivery; nanoparticles; methotrexate; magnetic resonance imaging; rat brain
24.  Enhanced and selective delivery of enzyme therapy to 9L-glioma tumor via magnetic targeting of PEG-modified, β-glucosidase-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles 
The stability of enzyme-conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in plasma is of great importance for in vivo delivery of the conjugated enzyme. In this study, β-glucosidase was conjugated on aminated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the glutaraldehyde method (β-Glu-MNP), and further PEGylated via N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. The PEG-modified, β-glucosidase-immobilized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PEG-β-Glu-MNPs) were characterized by hydrodynamic diameter distribution, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device. The results showed that the multidomain structure and magnetization properties of these nanoparticles were conserved well throughout the synthesis steps, with an expected diameter increase and zeta potential shifts. The Michaelis constant was calculated to evaluate the activity of conjugated β-glucosidase on the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, indicating 73.0% and 65.4% of enzyme activity remaining for β-Glu-MNP and PEG-β-Glu-MNP, respectively. Both magnetophoretic mobility analysis and pharmacokinetics showed improved in vitro/in vivo stability of PEG-β-Glu-MNP compared with β-Glu-MNP. In vivo magnetic targeting of PEG-β-Glu-MNP was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and electron spin resonance analysis in a mouse model of subcutaneous 9L-glioma. Satisfactory accumulation of PEG-β-Glu-MNP in tumor tissue was successfully achieved, with an iron content of 627±45 nmol Fe/g tissue and β-glucosidase activity of 32.2±8.0 mU/g tissue.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S59556
PMCID: PMC4061166  PMID: 24959078
β-glucosidase; enzyme/prodrug therapy; magnetic nanoparticles; magnetic targeting; 9L-glioma
25.  Multiplexed Enrichment and Detection of Malarial Biomarkers Using a Stimuli-Responsive Iron Oxide and Gold Nanoparticle Reagent System 
ACS nano  2012;6(8):6776-6785.
There is a need for simple yet robust biomarker and antigen purification and enrichment strategies that are compatible with current rapid diagnostic modalities. Here, a stimuli-responsive nanoparticle system is presented for multiplexed magneto-enrichment and non-instrumented lateral flow strip detection of model antigens from spiked pooled plasma. The integrated reagent system allows purification and enrichment of the gold-labeled biomarker half-sandwich that can be applied directly to lateral flow test strips. A linear diblock copolymer with a thermally-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm) segment and a gold-binding block composed of NIPAm-co-N,N-dimethylaminoethylacrylamide (DMAEAm) was prepared by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The diblock copolymer was used to functionalize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), with subsequent bioconjugation to yield thermally-responsive pNIPAm-AuNPs that were co-decorated with streptavidin. These AuNPs efficiently complexed biotinylated capture antibody reagents that were bound to picomolar quantities of pan-aldolase and Plasmodium Falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) in spiked pooled plasma samples. The gold-labeled biomarker half-sandwich was then purified and enriched using 10 nm thermally-responsive magnetic nanoparticles that were similarly decorated with pNIPAm. When a thermal stimulus was applied in conjunction with a magnetic field, co-aggregation of the AuNP-half-sandwiches with the pNIPAm-coated iron oxide nanoparticles created large aggregates that were efficiently magnetophoresed and separated from bulk serum. The purified biomarkers from a spiked pooled plasma sample could be concentrated 50-fold into a small volume and applied directly to a commercial multiplexed lateral flow strip to dramatically improve the signal-to-noise ratio and test sensitivity.
doi:10.1021/nn3015008
PMCID: PMC4085275  PMID: 22804625
magnetic; gold; nanoparticles; diagnostics; immunochromatography; malaria

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