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1.  Growth of etiolated barley plants in weak static and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields tuned to calcium ion cyclotron resonance 
Background
The effects of weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields in biology have been intensively studied on animals, microorganisms and humans, but comparably less on plants. Perception mechanisms were attributed originally to ferrimagnetism, but later discoveries required additional explanations like the "radical pair mechanism" and the "Ion cyclotron resonance" (ICR), primarily considered by Liboff. The latter predicts effects by small ions involved in biological processes, that occur in definite frequency- and intensity ranges ("windows") of simultaneously impacting magnetic and electromagnetic fields related by a linear equation, which meanwhile is proven by a number of in vivo and in vitro experiments.
Methods
Barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare, L. var. Steffi) were grown in the dark for 5 and 6 days under static magnetic and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields matching the ICR conditions of Ca2+. Control cultures were grown under normal geomagnetic conditions, not matching this ICR. Morphology, pigmentation and long-term development of the adult plants were subsequently investigated.
Results
The shoots of plants exposed to Ca2+-ICR exposed grew 15–20% shorter compared to the controls, the plant weight was 10–12% lower, and they had longer coleoptiles that were adhering stronger to the primary leaf tissue. The total pigment contents of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) and carotenoids were significantly decreased. The rate of PChlide regeneration after light irradiation was reduced for the Ca2+-ICR exposed plants, also the Shibata shift was slightly delayed. Even a longer subsequent natural growing phase without any additional fields could only partially eliminate these effects: the plants initially exposed to Ca2+-ICR were still significantly shorter and had a lower chlorophyll (a+b) content compared to the controls. A continued cultivation and observation of the adult plants under natural conditions without any artificial electromagnetic fields showed a retardation of the originally Ca2+-ICR exposed plants compared to control cultures lasting several weeks, with an increased tendency for dehydration.
Conclusion
A direct influence of the applied MF and EMF is discussed affecting Ca2+ levels via the ICR mechanism. It influences the available Ca2+ and thereby regulatory processes. Theoretical considerations on molecular level focus on ionic interactions with water related to models using quantum electrodynamics.
doi:10.1186/1477-044X-4-1
PMCID: PMC1403775  PMID: 16457719
2.  Action of combined magnetic fields on aqueous solution of glutamic acid: the further development of investigations 
In the present work the results of the known investigation of the influence of combined static (40 μT) and alternating (amplitude of 40 nT) parallel magnetic fields on the current through the aqueous solution of glutamic acid, were successfully replicated. Fourteen experiments were carried out by the application of the combined magnetic fields to the solution placed into a Plexiglas reaction vessel at application of static voltage to golden electrodes placed into the solution. Six experiments were carried out by the application of the combined magnetic fields to the solution placed in a Plexiglas reaction vessel, without electrodes, within an electric field, generated by means of a capacitor at the voltage of 27 mV. The frequency of the alternating field was scanned within the bounds of 1.0 Hz including the cyclotron frequency corresponding to a glutamic acid ion and to the applied static magnetic field. In this study the prominent peaks with half-width of ~0.5 Hz and with different heights (till 80 nA) were registered at the alternating magnetic field frequency equal to the cyclotron frequency (4.2 Hz). The general reproducibility of the investigated effects was 70% among the all solutions studied by us and they arose usually after 40–60 min. after preparation of the solution. In some made-up solutions the appearance of instability in the registered current was noted in 30–45 min after the solution preparation. This instability endured for 20–40 min. At the end of such instability period the effects of combined fields action appeared practically every time. The possible mechanisms of revealed effects were discussed on the basis of modern quantum electrodynamics.
doi:10.1186/1477-044X-6-1
PMCID: PMC2259351  PMID: 18218145
3.  Transient effect of weak electromagnetic fields on calcium ion concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana 
BMC Plant Biology  2009;9:47.
Background
Weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields can influence physiological processes in animals, plants and microorganisms, but the underlying way of perception is poorly understood. The ion cyclotron resonance is one of the discussed mechanisms, predicting biological effects for definite frequencies and intensities of electromagnetic fields possibly by affecting the physiological availability of small ions. Above all an influence on Calcium, which is crucial for many life processes, is in the focus of interest. We show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, changes in Ca2+-concentrations can be induced by combinations of magnetic and electromagnetic fields that match Ca2+-ion cyclotron resonance conditions.
Results
An aequorin expressing Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (Col0-1 Aeq Cy+) was subjected to a magnetic field around 65 microtesla (0.65 Gauss) and an electromagnetic field with the corresponding Ca2+ cyclotron frequency of 50 Hz. The resulting changes in free Ca2+ were monitored by aequorin bioluminescence, using a high sensitive photomultiplier unit. The experiments were referenced by the additional use of wild type plants. Transient increases of cytosolic Ca2+ were observed both after switching the electromagnetic field on and off, with the latter effect decreasing with increasing duration of the electromagnetic impact. Compared with this the uninfluenced long-term loss of bioluminescence activity without any exogenic impact was negligible. The magnetic field effect rapidly decreased if ion cyclotron resonance conditions were mismatched by varying the magnetic fieldstrength, also a dependence on the amplitude of the electromagnetic component was seen.
Conclusion
Considering the various functions of Ca2+ as a second messenger in plants, this mechanism may be relevant for perception of these combined fields. The applicability of recently hypothesized mechanisms for the ion cyclotron resonance effect in biological systems is discussed considering it's operating at magnetic field strengths weak enough, to occur occasionally in our all day environment.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-9-47
PMCID: PMC2681476  PMID: 19405943
4.  Non Ionising Radiation as a Non Chemical Strategy in Regenerative Medicine: Ca2+-ICR “In Vitro” Effect on Neuronal Differentiation and Tumorigenicity Modulation in NT2 Cells 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e61535.
In regenerative medicine finding a new method for cell differentiation without pharmacological treatment or gene modification and minimal cell manipulation is a challenging goal. In this work we reported a neuronal induced differentiation and consequent reduction of tumorigenicity in NT2 human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells exposed to an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF), matching the cyclotron frequency corresponding to the charge/mass ratio of calcium ion (Ca2+-ICR). These cells, capable of differentiating into post-mitotic neurons following treatment with Retinoic Acid (RA), were placed in a solenoid and exposed for 5 weeks to Ca2+-ICR. The solenoid was installed in a μ-metal shielded room to avoid the effect of the geomagnetic field and obtained totally controlled and reproducible conditions. Contrast microscopy analysis reveled, in the NT2 exposed cells, an important change in shape and morphology with the outgrowth of neuritic-like structures together with a lower proliferation rate and metabolic activity alike those found in the RA treated cells. A significant up-regulation of early and late neuronal differentiation markers and a significant down-regulation of the transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and the fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) were also observed in the exposed cells. The decreased protein expression of the transforming gene Cripto-1 and the reduced capability of the exposed NT2 cells to form colonies in soft agar supported these last results. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the Ca2+-ICR frequency is able to induce differentiation and reduction of tumorigenicity in NT2 exposed cells suggesting a new potential therapeutic use in regenerative medicine.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061535
PMCID: PMC3621667  PMID: 23585910
5.  An ab-initio Computational Method to Determine Dielectric Properties of Biological Materials 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:1796.
Frequency dependent dielectric properties are important for understanding the structure and dynamics of biological materials. These properties can be used to study underlying biological processes such as changes in the concentration of biological materials, and the formation of chemical species. Computer simulations can be used to determine dielectric properties and atomic details inaccessible via experimental methods. In this paper, a unified theory utilizing molecular dynamics and density functional theory is presented that is able to determine the frequency dependent dielectric properties of biological materials in an aqueous solution from their molecular structure alone. The proposed method, which uses reaction field approximations, does not require a prior knowledge of the static dielectric constant of the material. The dielectric properties obtained from our method agree well with experimental values presented in the literature.
doi:10.1038/srep01796
PMCID: PMC3667492  PMID: 23652459
6.  Effect of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on the activity of hsp70 promoter: an in vivo study 
Exposure to EMFs (electromagnetic fields) results in a number of important biological changes, including modification of genetic expression. We have investigated the effect of 60 Hz sinusoidal EMFs at a magnetic flux density of 80 μT on the expression of the luciferase gene contained in a plasmid labelled as pEMF (EMF plasmid). This gene construct contains the specific sequences for the induction of hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70) expression by EMFs, as well as the reporter for the luciferase gene. The pEMF vector was electrotransferred into quadriceps muscles of BALB/c mice that were later exposed to EMFs. Increased luciferase expression was observed in mice exposed to EMFs 2 h daily for 7 days compared with controls (P<0.05). These data along with other reports in the literature suggest that EMFs can have far-reaching effects on the genome.
doi:10.1042/CBR20110010
PMCID: PMC3476825  PMID: 23124775
60 Hz electromagnetic fields; Hsp70 promoter; gene expression; luciferase; in vivo; muscle; EMF, electromagnetic field; ETS, E twenty-six; hsp70, heat-shock protein 70; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; MCP-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1; pEMF, EMF plasmid; PEMF, pulsed EMF; NF-κB, nuclear factor κB; RLU, relative light units
7.  Inhibition of Angiogenesis Mediated by Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF-MFs) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79309.
The formation of new blood vessels is an essential therapeutic target in many diseases such as cancer, ischemic diseases, and chronic inflammation. In this regard, extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) seem able to inhibit vessel growth when used in a specific window of amplitude. To investigate the mechanism of anti-angiogenic action of ELF-EMFs we tested the effect of a sinusoidal magnetic field (MF) of 2 mT intensity and frequency of 50 Hz on endothelial cell models HUVEC and MS-1 measuring cell status and proliferation, motility and tubule formation ability. MS-1 cells when injected in mice determined a rapid tumor-like growth that was significantly reduced in mice inoculated with MF-exposed cells. In particular, histological analysis of tumors derived from mice inoculated with MF-exposed MS-1 cells indicated a reduction of hemangioma size, of blood-filled spaces, and in hemorrhage. In parallel, in vitro proliferation of MS-1 treated with MF was significantly inhibited. We also found that the MF-exposure down-regulated the process of proliferation, migration and formation of tubule-like structures in HUVECs. Using western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis, we collected data about the possible influence of MF on the signalling pathway activated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In particular, MF exposure significantly reduced the expression and activation levels of VEGFR2, suggesting a direct or indirect influence of MF on VEGF receptors placed on cellular membrane. In conclusion MF reduced, in vitro and in vivo, the ability of endothelial cells to form new vessels, most probably affecting VEGF signal transduction pathway that was less responsive to activation. These findings could not only explain the mechanism of anti-angiogenic action exerted by MFs, but also promote the possible development of new therapeutic applications for treatment of those diseases where excessive angiogenesis is involved.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079309
PMCID: PMC3828379  PMID: 24244477
8.  Biological effects of exposure to magnetic resonance imaging: an overview 
The literature on biological effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields commonly utilized in magnetic resonance imaging systems is surveyed here. After an introduction on the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging and the electric and magnetic properties of biological tissues, the basic phenomena to understand the bio-effects are described in classical terms. Values of field strengths and frequencies commonly utilized in these diagnostic systems are reported in order to allow the integration of the specific literature on the bio-effects produced by magnetic resonance systems with the vast literature concerning the bio-effects produced by electromagnetic fields. This work gives an overview of the findings about the safety concerns of exposure to static magnetic fields, radio-frequency fields, and time varying magnetic field gradients, focusing primarily on the physics of the interactions between these electromagnetic fields and biological matter. The scientific literature is summarized, integrated, and critically analyzed with the help of authoritative reviews by recognized experts, international safety guidelines are also cited.
doi:10.1186/1475-925X-3-11
PMCID: PMC419710  PMID: 15104797
9.  Effects of power frequency electromagnetic fields on melatonin and sleep in the rat 
Emerging Health Threats Journal  2012;5:10.3402/ehtj.v5i0.10904.
Background
Studies investigating the effect of power frequency (50–60 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on melatonin synthesis in rats have been inconsistent with several showing suppression of melatonin synthesis, others showing no effect and a few actually demonstrating small increases. Scant research has focused on the ensuing sleep patterns of EMF exposed rats. The present study was designed to examine the effects of extremely low power frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the production of melatonin and the subsequent sleep structure in rats.
Methods
Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a 1000 milligauss (mG) magnetic field for 1 month. Urine was collected for the final 3 days of the exposure period for analysis of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin, the major catabolic product of melatonin found in urine. Subsequent sleep was analyzed over a 24-hour period.
Results
Melatonin production was mildly increased in exposed animals. Although there were no statistically significant changes in sleep structure, exposed animals showed slight decreases in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep as compared to sham (non-exposed) animals.
Conclusions
Power frequency magnetic fields induced a marginally statistically significant increase in melatonin levels in exposed rats compared to control. Subsequent sleep analysis indicated little effect on the sleep architecture of rats, at least not within the first day after 1 month's continuous exposure. Varying results in the literature are discussed and future research suggested.
doi:10.3402/ehtj.v5i0.10904
PMCID: PMC3334267  PMID: 22529876
electromagnetic fields; 6-sulphatoxymelatonin; Sprague-Dawley; sleep
10.  Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulates Cellular Proliferation in Human Intervertebral Disc Cells 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(6):954-959.
Purpose
The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of cellular proliferation of electromagnetic field (EMF) on human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells.
Materials and Methods
Human IVD cells were cultured three-dimensionally in alginate beads. EMF was exposed to IVD cells with 650Ω, 1.8 millitesla magnetic flux density, 60 Hz sinusoidal wave. Cultures were divided into a control and EMF group. Cytotoxicity, DNA synthesis and proteoglycan synthesis were measured by MTT assay, [3H]-thymidine, and [35S]-sulfate incorporation. To detect phenotypical expression, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) were performed for aggrecan, collagen type I, and type II mRNA expression. To assess action mechanism of EMF, IVD cells were exposed to EMF with NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).
Results
There was no cytotoxicity in IVD cells with the EMF group in MTT assay. Cellular proliferation was observed in the EMF group (p < 0.05). There was no difference in newly synthesized proteoglycan normalized by DNA synthesis between the EMF group and the control. Cultures with EMF showed no significant change in the expression of aggrecan, type I, and type II collagen mRNA compared to the control group. Cultures with NMMA (blocker of nitric oxide) or ASA (blocker of prostaglandin E2) exposed to EMF demonstrated decreased DNA synthesis compared to control cultures without NMMA or ASA (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
EMF stimulated DNA synthesis in human IVD cells while no significant effect on proteoglycan synthesis and chondrogenic phenotype expressions. DNA synthesis was partially mediated by nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. EMF can be utilized to stimulate proliferation of IVD cells, which may provide efficient cell amplification in cell therapy to degenerative disc disease.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.6.954
PMCID: PMC2995961  PMID: 20879066
Electromagnetic fields; intervertebral disc; nitric oxide; prostaglandin E2
11.  Plasmonic and photonic scattering and near fields of nanoparticles 
We theoretically compare the scattering and near field of nanoparticles from different types of materials, each characterized by specific optical properties that determine the interaction with light: metals with their free charge carriers giving rise to plasmon resonances, dielectrics showing zero absorption in wide wavelength ranges, and semiconductors combining the two beforehand mentioned properties plus a band gap. Our simulations are based on Mie theory and on full 3D calculations of Maxwell’s equations with the finite element method. Scattering and absorption cross sections, their division into the different order electric and magnetic modes, electromagnetic near field distributions around the nanoparticles at various wavelengths as well as angular distributions of the scattered light were investigated. The combined information from these calculations will give guidelines for choosing adequate nanoparticles when aiming at certain scattering properties. With a special focus on the integration into thin film solar cells, we will evaluate our results.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-50
PMCID: PMC3915561  PMID: 24475923
Nanoparticles; Plasmonics; Photonics; Scattering; Near field; Mie theory; FEM simulations; Solar cells; 42.70.-a; 78.67.Bf; 73.20.Mf
12.  The Evaluation of Dielectric Resonators Containing H2O or D2O as RF Coils for High-Field MR Imaging and Spectroscopy 
Electromagnetic resonators consisting of low-loss dielectric material and/or metallic boundaries are widely used in microwave technologies. These dielectric resonators usually have high Q factors and well-defined field distributions. Magnetic resonance imaging was shown as a way of visualizing the magnetic field distribution of the resonant modes of these resonators, if the dielectric body contains NMR sensitive nuclei. Dielectric resonators have also been proposed as RF coils for magnetic resonance experiments. The feasibility of this idea in high-field MR is discussed here. Specifically, the dielectric resonances of cylindrical water columns were characterized at 170.7 MHz (4 T 1H Larmor frequency) , and evaluated as NMR transmit and receive coils. The dielectric resonance of a cylindrical volume of D2O was used to image a hand at 170.7 MHz. This study demonstrated that MRI is an effective way of visualizing the magnetic field in dielectric structures such as a water cylinder, and can potentially be generalized to solid-state dielectric devices. The possible applications of dielectric resonators other than simple cylindrical volumes in MRI and MR solution spectroscopy at high field strengths are also discussed.
PMCID: PMC2889621  PMID: 8819760
13.  A Kirkwood-Buff Derived Force Field for Aqueous Alkali Halides 
A classical nonpolarizable force field is presented for the simulation of aqueous alkali halide solutions (MX), where M = Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+ and X = F−, Cl−, Br−, I−, and their interactions with biomolecules. The models are specifically designed to reproduce the experimental Kirkwood-Buff integrals, and thereby the solution salt activities, as a function of salt concentration. Additionally, we demonstrate that these models reasonably reproduce other experimental properties including ion diffusion constants, dielectric decrements, and the excess heats of mixing. The parameters are developed by considering the properties of aqueous NaX and MCl solutions using a previously established model for NaCl. Transferability of the parameters to other salts is then established by the successful simulation of additional aqueous salt solutions, KI and CsBr, not originally included in the parameterization procedure.
doi:10.1021/ct100517z
PMCID: PMC3141341  PMID: 21789033
14.  Influence of constant, alternating and cyclotron low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in vitro 
Available data allow assuming the presence of stimulation of reparative processes under influence of low-intensity electromagnetic field, commensurable with a magnetic field of the Earth. Research of effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in human lungs in cell culture was performed.
The influence of a constant electromagnetic field, an alternating electromagnetic field by frequency of 50 Hz and cyclotron electromagnetic field with identical intensity for all kinds of fields – 80 mcTl – on value of cellular mass and a correlation of live and dead cells in culture is investigated in three series of experiments. We used the universal electromagnetic radiator generating all three kinds of fields and supplied by a magnetometer which allows measuring the intensity of accurate within 0.1 mcTl including taking into account the Earth’s magnetic field intensity.
The peak value for stimulation cellular proliferation in the present experiences was two-hour influence by any of the specified kinds of electromagnetic fields. The irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field conducts positive dynamics in growth of live cells (up to 206±22%) and decreases the number of dead cells (down to 31±6%). Application of cyclotron magnetic fields promoted creation of optimum conditions for proliferation. As a result of researches we observed the reliable 30% increase of nitro-tetrazolium index (in nitro-tetrazolium blue test) after irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field in experience that testifies to strengthening of the cell breathing of living cells.
In our opinion, it is necessary to pay attention not only to a pure gain of cells, but also to reduction of number dead cells that can be criterion of creation of optimum conditions for their specific development and valuable functioning.
doi:10.3205/dgkh000132
PMCID: PMC2831248  PMID: 20204088
electromagnetic field; human lung fibroblasts; cell culture; stimulation of growth; decrease of number of dead cells
15.  Occupational exposure of dentists to electromagnetic fields produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons alters the serum cortisol level 
Objectives:
Some studies indicate that dentistry is one of the job categories with high potential exposure to elevated levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields. In spite of this, information on occupational exposure of dentists to these fields is scarce. Studies on other common sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) such as mobile base stations have shown alterations in the cortisol level following exposure of humans to these sources. The aim of this study is to compare the level of cortisol among dentists and dentistry students who are being occupationally exposed to EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitrons (case group) and among their counterparts who are not being exposed to these fields (control group).
Materials and Methods:
In this case–control study, blood samples were collected from 41 dentists and dentistry students, 21 of whom were exposed to EMFs emitted by cavitrons as the case group and 20 who were not exposed as the control group, twice; i.e. before work (at 8:30–9:30 a.m.) and after work (11:30–12:30 a.m.). The samples were coded and the serum cortisol level was investigated using the ELISA method (Cortisol AccuBind ELISA Kits).
Results:
The serum cortisol level of dentists and dental students in the morning (before starting the work) in the control group was 189.15 ± 110.70 (mean ± SD) whereas it was 157.77 ± 112.03 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.373). In contrast, the serum cortisol level of the participants in the noon (after stopping the work) in the control group was 136.25 ± 67.91 (mean ± SD) while it was 88.58 ± 52.83 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This time, the observed difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016). In this light, while the difference between serum cortisol levels of dentists and dental students in the morning and after stopping the work was not statistically significant (P = 0.06), in the EMF-exposed group the cortisol level decreased significantly from 157.77 ± 112.03 in the morning to 88.58 ± 52.83 in the noon (P = 0.001).
Conclusions:
As far as we know, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of occupational exposure of dentists to EMFs on their serum cortisol level. The EMFs produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons can decrease the serum cortisol level in dentists. As cortisol plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, cardiovascular, and immune system function, a low cortisol level may threaten health. More studies are needed to clearly understand the effects of EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitron on the level of stress hormones. As some studies have shown that exposure to EMFs has no effect on the cortisol level, whereas other studies reported either an increase or a decrease in the cortisol level, it can be concluded that the effects of exposure to EMFs may occur only at specific absorbed energies or energy absorption rates (usually known as window) similar to that exists in the case of exposure to the low doses of ionizing radiations.
doi:10.4103/0976-9668.95958
PMCID: PMC3361780  PMID: 22690053
Cortisol; cavitrons; dentists; dentistry nurses; electromagnetic fields
16.  Reduction of Axial Kinetic Energy Induced Perturbations on Observed Cyclotron Frequency 
With Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry one determines the mass-to-charge ratio of an ion by measuring its cyclotron frequency. However, the need to confine ions to the trapping region of the ICR cell with electric fields induces deviations from the unperturbed cyclotron frequency. Additional perturbations to the observed cyclotron frequency are often attributed to changes in space charge conditions. This study presents a detailed investigation of the observed ion cyclotron frequency as a function of ion z-axis kinetic energy. In a perfect three-dimensional quadrupolar field, cyclotron frequency is independent of position within the trap. However, in most ICR cell designs, this ideality is approximated only near the trap center and deviations arise from this ideal quadrupolar field as the ion moves both radially and axially from the center of the trap. To allow differentiation between deviations in observed cyclotron frequency caused from changes in space charge conditions or differences in oscillation amplitude, ions with identical molecular weights but different axial kinetic energy, and therefore, amplitude of z-axis motion, were simultaneously trapped within the ICR cell. This allows one to attribute deviations in observed cyclotron frequency to differences in the average force from the radial electric field experienced by ions of different axial amplitude. Experimentally derived magnetron frequency is compared with the magnetron frequency calculated using SIMION 7.0 for ions of different axial amplitude. Electron Promoted Ion Coherence, or EPIC, is used to reduce the differences in radial electric fields at different axial positions. Thus with the application of EPIC, the differences in observed cyclotron frequencies are minimized for ions of different axial oscillation amplitudes.
doi:10.1016/j.jasms.2007.12.009
PMCID: PMC2387069  PMID: 18262433
17.  The frequencies of micronuclei induced by cisplatin in newborn rat astrocytes are increased by 50-Hz, 7.5- and 10-mT electromagnetic fields 
Objectives
Epidemiological studies have suggested that exposure to environmental and occupational electromagnetic fields (EMFs) contribute to the induction of brain tumors, leukemia, and other neoplasms. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effects of exposure to 50-Hz EMFs. and of co-exposure to cisplatin, a mutagen and carcinogen, and 50-Hz EMFs, using an in vivo newborn rat astrocyte micronucleus assay.
Methods
Three day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were co-exposed to 50-Hz EMFs and 1.25 or 2.5 mg/kg of cisplatin. Brain cells were dissociated into single cells and cultured for 96 hours, then stained with acridine orange and an antibody against glial fibrillary acidic protein. The frequency of micronucleated astrocytes was counted with a fluorescent microscope.
Results
The frequency of micronuclei was not increased in rat astrocytes exposed to EMFs alone. However, the frequencies of micronuclei in co-exposure to 2.5 mg/kg cisplatin and EMFs (7.5- and 10-mT) were significantly increased, compared with those in exposure to 2.5 mg/kg cisplatin alone (sham-exposure, 0-mT EMFs) for 72 hours (p<0.01).
Conclusion
Exposure to EMFs alone did not have a genotoxic effect but co-exposure to EMFs increased the genotoxic activity induced by cisplatin. Our findings suggest that EMFs enhance the genotoxic effects of cisplatin.
doi:10.1007/BF02900806
PMCID: PMC2723253  PMID: 21432152
electromagnetic fields; genotoxicity; astrocyte; cisplatin; micronucleus test
18.  Nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy for label-free detection of respiratory activity in whole cells 
Biosensors & bioelectronics  2010;25(9):2107-2114.
We report on a novel electromagnetic biosensing technique for detecting respiratory activity in whole cells suspended in aqueous solution. Application of a pure sinusoidal voltage between two outer electrodes applies an oscillatory electric field to the aqueous cell suspension at frequencies in the range of one to several kHz. The fundamental and higher order harmonic responses are measured across two inner electrodes using a dynamic signal analyzer. Aqueous suspensions of S. cerevisiae (budding yeast), with both active and inactive mitochondrial electron transport (respiratory) chains are employed for this study. We find that the measured third harmonic for certain frequency ranges shows significant temporal changes in actively respiring yeast, while little significant changes are observed in yeast with suppressed respiratory activity, i.e. mutant yeast strains or yeast in the presence of respiratory inhibitors. The method holds potential for further development to detect respiratory activity in live tissue in vitro and perhaps in vivo for clinical applications.
doi:10.1016/j.bios.2010.02.013
PMCID: PMC2896706  PMID: 20335015
mitochondria; biosensing; respiratory activity; harmonic analysis; nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy
19.  Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Modulates Na+ Currents in Rat Cerebellar Granule Cells through Increase of AA/PGE2 and EP Receptor-Mediated cAMP/PKA Pathway 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e54376.
Although the modulation of Ca2+ channel activity by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) has been studied previously, few reports have addressed the effects of such fields on the activity of voltage-activated Na+ channels (Nav). Here, we investigated the effects of ELF-EMF on Nav activity in rat cerebellar granule cells (GCs). Our results reveal that exposing cerebellar GCs to ELF-EMF for 10–60 min significantly increased Nav currents (INa) by 30–125% in a time- and intensity-dependent manner. The Nav channel steady-state activation curve, but not the steady-state inactivation curve, was significantly shifted (by 5.2 mV) towards hyperpolarization by ELF-EMF stimulation. This phenomenon is similar to the effect of intracellular application of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on INa in cerebellar GCs. Increases in intracellular AA, PGE2 and phosphorylated PKA levels in cerebellar GCs were observed following ELF-EMF exposure. Western blottings indicated that the NaV 1.2 protein on the cerebellar GCs membrane was increased, the total expression levels of NaV 1.2 protein were not affected after exposure to ELF-EMF. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and PGE2 receptor (EP) antagonists were able to eliminate this ELF-EMF-induced increase in phosphorylated PKA and INa. In addition, ELF-EMF exposure significantly enhanced the activity of PLA2 in cerebellar GCs but did not affect COX-1 or COX-2 activity. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that neuronal INa is significantly increased by ELF-EMF exposure via a cPLA2 AA PGE2 EP receptors PKA signaling pathway.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054376
PMCID: PMC3551899  PMID: 23349866
20.  Exposure to electromagnetic fields and suicide among electric utility workers: a nested case-control study 
OBJECTIVES—This nested case-control study examines mortality from suicide in relation to estimated exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in a cohort of 138 905 male electric utility workers.
METHODS—Case-control sampling included 536 deaths from suicide and 5348 eligible controls. Exposure was classified based on work in the most common jobs with increased exposure to magnetic fields and indices of cumulative exposure to magnetic fields based on a measurement survey.
RESULTS—Suicide mortality was increased relative to work in exposed jobs and with indices of exposure to magnetic fields. Increased odds ratios (ORs) were found for years of employment as an electrician (OR 2.18; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25 to 3.80) or lineman (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.18 to 2.14), whereas a decreased OR was found for power plant operators (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.33 to 1.40). A dose response gradient with exposure to magnetic fields was found for exposure in the previous year, with a mortality OR of 1.70 (95% CI 1.00 to 2.90) in the highest exposure category. Stronger associations, with ORs in the range of 2.12-3.62, were found for men <50 years of age.
CONCLUSION—These data provide evidence for an association between occupational electromagnetic fields and suicide that warrants further evaluation. A plausible mechanism related to melatonin and depression provides a direction for additional laboratory research as well as epidemiological evaluation.


Keywords: electromagnetic fields; suicide; nested case-control
doi:10.1136/oem.57.4.258
PMCID: PMC1739931  PMID: 10810112
21.  Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields 
Environmental Health  2009;8:23.
Background
The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany.
Methods
A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis), the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints.
Results
Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours), although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession.
Conclusion
The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher than those of the general public.
doi:10.1186/1476-069X-8-23
PMCID: PMC2694786  PMID: 19480652
22.  Effects of Exogenous Electromagnetic Fields on a Simplified Ion Channel Model 
Journal of Biological Physics  2008;33(3):183-194.
In this paper, we calculate the effect of an exogenous perturbation (an electromagnetic field [EMF] oscillating in the range of microwave frequencies in the range of 1 GHz) on the flux of two ion species through a cylindrical ion channel, implementing a continuous model, the Poisson–Smoluchowski system of equations, to study the dynamics of charged particle density inside the channel. The method was validated through comparison with Brownian dynamics simulations, supposed to be more accurate but computationally more demanding, obtaining a very good agreement. No EMF effects were observed for low field intensities below the level for thermal effects, as the highly viscous regime and the simplicity of the channel do not exhibit resonance phenomena. For high intensities of the external field (>105 V/m), we observed slightly different behavior of ion concentration oscillations and ion currents as a function of EMF orientation with respect to the channel axis.
doi:10.1007/s10867-007-9051-2
PMCID: PMC2374887  PMID: 19669539
Ion channel modeling; Electromagnetic field effects; Poisson–Smoluchowski equations; I–V curves
23.  Effects of Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Field on Structure and Function of Different Kinds of Cell Lines 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2006;47(6):852-861.
This study investigated that whether a 2 mT, 60 Hz, sinusoidal electromagnetic field (EMF) alters the structure and function of cells. This research compared the effects of EMF on four kinds of cell lines: hFOB 1.19 (fetal osteoblast), T/G HA-VSMC (aortic vascular smooth muscle cell), RPMI 7666 (B lymphoblast), and HCN-2 (cortical neuronal cell). Over 14 days, cells were exposed to EMF for 1, 3, or 6 hours per day (hrs/d). The results pointed to a cell type-specific reaction to EMF exposure. In addition, the cellular responses were dependent on duration of EMF exposure. In the present study, cell proliferation was the trait most sensitive to EMF. EMF treatment promoted growth of hFOB 1.19 and HCN-2 compared with control cells at 7 and 14 days of incubation. When the exposure time was 3 hrs/d, EMF enhanced the proliferation of RPMI 7666 but inhibited that of T/G HA-VSMC. On the other hand, the effects of EMF on cell cycle distribution, cell differentiation, and actin distribution were unclear. Furthermore, we hardly found any correlation between EMF exposure and gap junctional intercellular communication in hFOB 1.19. This study revealed that EMF might serve as a potential tool for manipulating cell proliferation.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2006.47.6.852
PMCID: PMC2687827  PMID: 17191316
Electromagnetic field; fetal osteoblast; aortic vascular smooth muscle cell; B lymphoblast; cortical neuronal cell; proliferation
24.  THE RELATION OF FREQUENCY TO THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ULTRA-HIGH FREQUENCY CURRENTS 
1. Biological effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by a vacuum tube oscillator have been studied at frequencis ranging from 8,300,000 to 158,000,000 cycles per second (1.9 to 38 meters wave-length). 2. The effects produced on animals can be fully explained on the basis of the heat generated by high frequency currents which are induced in them. 3. No evidence was obtained to support the theory that certain wave-lengths have a specific action on living cells. 4. At frequencies below 50,000,000 cycles, the effect of these radiations on animals is proportionate to the intensity of the electro-magnetic field. As the frequency is increased beyond this point, the amount of induced current is diminished and the apparent lethality of the radiation is decreased. This can be explained by changes occurring in the dielectric properties of tissues at low wave-lengths.
PMCID: PMC2131527  PMID: 19869549
25.  Impact of the Excitation Source and Plasmonic Material on Cylindrical Active Coated Nano-Particles 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2011;11(9):9109-9120.
Electromagnetic properties of cylindrical active coated nano-particles comprised of a silica nano-cylinder core layered with a plasmonic concentric nano-shell are investigated for potential nano-sensor applications. Particular attention is devoted to the near-field properties of these particles, as well as to their far-field radiation characteristics, in the presence of an electric or a magnetic line source. A constant frequency canonical gain model is used to account for the gain introduced in the dielectric part of the nano-particle, whereas three different plasmonic materials (silver, gold, and copper) are employed and compared for the nano-shell layers.
doi:10.3390/s110909109
PMCID: PMC3231467  PMID: 22164123
core-shell nano-particles; plasmonics; sensors

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