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1.  Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan/Feldspar Biohybrid as an Adsorbent: Optimization of Adsorption Process via Response Surface Modeling 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:370260.
Chitosan/feldspar biobased beads were synthesized, characterized, and tested for the removal of Acid Black 1 dye from aquatic phases. A four-factor central composite design (CCD) accompanied by response surface modeling (RSM) and optimization was used to optimize the dye adsorption by the adsorbent (chitosan/feldspar composite) in 31 different batch experiments. Independent variables of temperature, pH, initial dye concentration, and adsorbent dose were used to change to coded values. To anticipate the responses, a quadratic model was applied. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested the significance of the process factors and their interactions. The adequacy of the model was investigated by the correlation between experimental and predicted data of the adsorption and the calculation of prediction errors. The results showed that the predicted maximum adsorption amount of 21.63 mg/g under the optimum conditions (pH 3, temperature 15°C, initial dye concentration 125 mg/L, and dose 0.2 g/50 mL) was close to the experimental value of 19.85 mg/g. In addition, the results of adsorption behaviors of the dye illustrated that the adsorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Langmuir sorption capacity was found to be 17.86 mg/g. Besides, thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and revealed that the adsorption process was exothermic and favourable.
doi:10.1155/2014/370260
PMCID: PMC3920676  PMID: 24587722
2.  Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Analysis on Adsorption of Cr(VI) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic-Poly(divinylbenzene-vinylimidazole) Microbeads 
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution  2011;223(5):2387-2403.
The magnetic-poly(divinylbenzene-1-vinylimidazole) [m-poly(DVB-VIM)] microbeads (average diameter 53–212 μm) were synthesized and characterized; their use as adsorbent in removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions was investigated. The m-poly(DVB-VIM) microbeads were prepared by copolymerizing of divinylbenzene (DVB) with 1-vinylimidazole (VIM). The m-poly(DVB-VIM) microbeads were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, ESR, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and swelling studies. At fixed solid/solution ratio the various factors affecting adsorption of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature were analyzed. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkvich isotherms were used as the model adsorption equilibrium data. Langmuir isotherm model was the most adequate. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Ritch-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the adsorption kinetics. The apparent activation energy was found to be 5.024 kJ mol−1, which is characteristic of a chemically controlled reaction. The experimental data fitted to pseudo-second-order kinetic. The study of temperature effect was quantified by calculating various thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes. The thermodynamic parameters obtained indicated the endothermic nature of adsorption of Cr(VI) ions. Morever, after the use in adsorption, the m-poly(DVB-VIM) microbeads with paramagnetic property were separeted via the applied magnetic force. The magnetic beads could be desorbed up to about 97% by treating with 1.0 M NaOH. These features make the m-poly(DVB-VIM) microbeads a potential candidate for support of Cr(VI) ions removal under magnetic field.
doi:10.1007/s11270-011-1032-1
PMCID: PMC3359449  PMID: 22707803
Magnetic polymers; Adsorption isotherm; Adsorption kinetic; Adsorption thermodynamic; Cr(VI) ions
3.  Synthesis and application of Amberlite xad-4 functionalized with alizarin red-s for preconcentration and adsorption of rhodium (III) 
A new chelating resin was prepared by coupling Amberlite XAD-4 with alizarin red-s through an azo spacer, characterized by infra-red spectroscopy and thermal analysis and studied for Rh(III) preconcentration using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for rhodium monitoring in the environment. The optimum pH for sorption of the metal ion was 6.5. The sorption capacity was found 2.1 mg/g of resin for Rh(III). A recovery of 88% was obtained for the metal ion with 1.5 M HCl as eluting agent. Kinetic adsorption data were analyzed by adsorption and desorption times of Rh(III) on modified resin. Scat chard analysis revealed that the homogeneous binding sites were formed in the polymers. The linear regression equation was Q/C = –1.3169Q + 27.222 (R2 = 0.9239), for Rh were formed in the SPE sorbent,Kd and Qmax for the affinity binding sites were calculated to be 0.76 μmol/mL and 20.67 μmol/g, respectively. The equilibrium data and parameters of Rh(III) adsorption on modified resin were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Redlich–Peterson models. The experimental adsorption isotherm was in good concordance with Langmuir and Freundlich models (R2 > 0.998) and based on the Langmuir isotherm the maximum amount of adsorption (qmax) was 4.842 mg/g. The method was applied for rhodium ions determination in environmental samples. with high recovery (>80%).
doi:10.1186/1735-2746-9-7
PMCID: PMC3561113  PMID: 23369526
Environmental measurement; Solid phase extraction; Amberlite XAD-4; Rhodium, Immobilization
4.  Biosorption of Zinc from Aqueous Solution Using Chemically Treated Rice Husk 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:365163.
In this study, adsorption of zinc onto the adsorbent (untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk) was examined. During the removal process, batch technique was used, and the effects of pH and contact time were investigated. Langmuir isotherm was applied in order to determine the efficiency of NaOH-treated rice husk used as an adsorbent. The zinc adsorption was fast, and equilibrium was attained within 30 min. The maximum removal ratios of zinc for untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk after 1.5 h were 52.3% and 95.2%, respectively, with initial zinc concentration of 25 mg/L and optimum pH of 4.0. Data obtained from batch adsorption experiments fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacity of zinc onto untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk was 12.41 mg/g, and 20.08 mg/g respectively, at adsorbent dosage of 1 g/L at 25°C. The nature of functional groups (i.e., amino, carboxyl, and hydroxyl) and metal ion interactions was examined by the FT-IR technique. It was concluded that the NaOH-treated rice husk had stronger adsorption capacity for Zn2+ compared with the untreated rice husk. The NaOH-treated rice husk is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly adsorbent for Zn2+ removal from aqueous solutions.
doi:10.1155/2013/365163
PMCID: PMC3693117  PMID: 23841065
5.  Synthesis and properties of Fe3O4-activated carbon magnetic nanoparticles for removal of aniline from aqueous solution: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies 
In this study, powder activated carbon (PAC) and magnetic nanoparticles of iron (III) oxide were used for synthesis of Fe3O4-activated carbon magnetic nanoparticles (AC-Fe3O4 MNPs) as an adsorbent for the removal of aniline. The characteristics of adsorbent were evaluated by SEM, TEM, XRD and BET. Also, the impact of different parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, aniline initials concentration and solution temperature were studied. The experimental data investigated by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and two models kinetically of pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order. The results indicated that the adsorption followed Langmuir and pseudo second-order models with correlation r2 > 0.98 and r2 > 0.99, respectively. The equilibrium time was obtained after 5 h. According to Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity was 90.91 mg/g at pH = 6, and 20°C. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that adsorption of aniline on magnetic activated carbon was exothermic and spontaneous. This synthesized AC-Fe3O4 MNPs due to have advantages such as easy and rapid separation from solution could be applied as an adsorbent effective for removal of pollutants such as aniline from water and wastewater.
doi:10.1186/1735-2746-10-19
PMCID: PMC3606349  PMID: 23414171
Fe3O4-activated carbon magnetic nanoparticles; Adsorption; Aniline; Kinetics; Thermodynamic
6.  Removal of Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions by polymer based 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate: thermodynamics and desorption studies 
Removal thermodynamics and desorption studies of some heavy metal ions such as Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) by polymeric surfaces such as poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) and copolymer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with monomer methyl methacrylate P(MMA-HEMA) as adsorbent surfaces from aqueous single solution were investigated with respect to the changes in pH of solution, adsorbent composition, contact time and temperature in the individual aqueous solution. The linear correlation coefficients of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were obtained and the results revealed that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experiment results better than Freundlich isotherm. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer removal capacity of PHEMA surface was found to be 0.7388, 0.8396 and 3.0367 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions and removal capacity of P(MMA-HEMA) was found to be 28.8442, 31.1526 and 31.4465 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. Changes in the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0) and standard entropy (ΔS0) showed that the removals of mentioned ions onto PHEMA and P(MMA-HEMA) are spontaneous and exothermic at 293–323 K. The maximum desorption efficiency was 75.26% for Pb(II) using 0.100 M HNO3, 70.10% for Cu(II) using 0.100 M HCl, 59.20% for 0.100 M HCl 63.67% Co(II).
doi:10.1186/1735-2746-9-31
PMCID: PMC3561097  PMID: 23369255
Removal; Polymeric surfaces; Langmuir isotherm; Heavy metal ions; Thermodynamics parameters
7.  Effective and Selective Recovery of Precious Metals by Thiourea Modified Magnetic Nanoparticles 
Adsorption of precious metals in acidic aqueous solutions using thiourea modified magnetic magnetite nanoparticle (MNP-Tu) was examined. The MNP-Tu was synthesized, characterized and examined as a reusable adsorbent for the recovery of precious metals. The adsorption kinetics were well fitted with pseudo second-order equation while the adsorption isotherms were fitted with both Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The maximum adsorption capacity of precious metals for MNP-Tu determined by Langmuir model was 43.34, 118.46 and 111.58 mg/g for Pt(IV), Au(III) and Pd(II), respectively at pH 2 and 25 °C. MNP-Tu has high adsorption selectivity towards precious metals even in the presence of competing ions (Cu(II)) at high concentrations. In addition, the MNP-Tu can be regenerated using an aqueous solution containing 0.7 M thiourea and 2% HCl where precious metals can be recovered in a concentrated form. It was found that the MNP-Tu undergoing seven consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles still retained the original adsorption capacity of precious metals. A reductive adsorption resulting in the formation of elemental gold and palladium at the surface of MNP-Tu was observed.
doi:10.3390/ijms14059834
PMCID: PMC3676816  PMID: 23698770
magnetic nanoparticle; thiourea; precious metals; reuse; recycle; green material; adsorption; nanotechnology
8.  Kinetics and thermodynamic studies for removal of acid blue 129 from aqueous solution by almond shell 
Efficiency and performance of Almond shell (AS) adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Acid Blue 129 (AB129) from wastewater is presented in this report. The influence of variables including pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, particle size, contact time and temperature on the dye removal have been investigated in batch method by one at a time optimization method. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by four widely used isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D–R). It was found that adsorption of AB129 on AS well with the Langmuir isotherm model, implying monolayer coverage of dye molecules onto the surface of the adsorbent. More than 98% removal efficiency was obtained within 14 min at adsorbent dose of 0.4 g for initial dye concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 2. Kinetics of the adsorption process was tested by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data studied in comparison to the pseudo-first-order model. Calculation of various thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibb’s free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process indicate feasibility and endothermic nature of AB129 adsorption on all adsorbents. This work can be used in design of adsorption columns for dyes removal.
doi:10.1186/2052-336X-12-62
PMCID: PMC3995661  PMID: 24620822
Acid blue 129; Almond shell; Equilibrium studies; Kinetics; Thermodynamics
9.  Removal of tetracycline from wastewater using pumice stone: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies 
In this study, pumice stone was used for the removal of tetracyline (TC) from aqueous solutions. It was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM and BET analyses. Cation exchange capacity of pumice stone was found to be 9.9 meq/100 g. Effect of various parameters such as solution pH (2–11), adsorbent dosage (0.5-10 g/L), contact time (2.5-120 min), initial TC concentration (5–300 mg/L) and temperature (20–50°C) on TC adsorption onto pumice was investigated. Also the adsorption of TC on pumice stone was studied as a function of Na+ and Cu2+ cations changing pH from 2 to 11 using batch experiments. The best removal efficiency performance was exhibited at adsorbent dosage 10 g/L, pH 3, contact time 120 min. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models were applied to the equilibrium data. The result has shown that the adsorption was favorable, physicochemical in nature and agrees well with Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 20.02 mg/g. The adsorption behavior of TC on pumices stone was fitted well in the pseudo-second order kinetics model. Thermodynamic parameters calculated from the adsorption data at different temperature showed that the adsorption reaction was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic.
doi:10.1186/2052-336X-12-79
PMCID: PMC4038404  PMID: 24936305
Tetracyline; Antibiotic; Adsorption; Pumice stone; Na+; Cu2+
10.  Synergistic Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Humic Acid by Fe3O4@Mesoporous Silica-Graphene Oxide Composites 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e65634.
The synergistic adsorption of heavy metal ions and humic acid can be very challenging. This is largely because of their competitive adsorption onto most adsorbent materials. Hierarchically structured composites containing polyethylenimine-modified magnetic mesoporous silica and graphene oxide (MMSP-GO) were here prepared to address this. Magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres were synthesized and functionalized with PEI molecules, providing many amine groups for chemical conjugation with the carboxyl groups on GO sheets and enhanced the affinity between the pollutants and the mesoporous silica. The features of the composites were characterized using TEM, SEM, TGA, DLS, and VSM measurements. Series adsorption results proved that this system was suitable for simultaneous and efficient removal of heavy metal ions and humic acid using MMSP-GO composites as adsorbents. The maximum adsorption capacities of MMSP-GO for Pb(II) and Cd (II) were 333 and 167 mg g−1 caculated by Langmuir model, respectively. HA enhances adsorption of heavy metals by MMSP-GO composites due to their interactions in aqueous solutions. The underlying mechanism of synergistic adsorption of heavy metal ions and humic acid were discussed. MMSP-GO composites have shown promise for use as adsorbents in the simultaneous removal of heavy metals and humic acid in wastewater treatment processes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065634
PMCID: PMC3679167  PMID: 23776514
11.  MCM-41 impregnated with A zeolite precursor: Synthesis, characterization and tetracycline antibiotics removal from aqueous solution 
Chemical Engineering Journal  2013;223(100):678-687.
Highlights
► Adsorption of tetracycline antibiotics. ► Impregnation of one weight percentage of A zeolite on MCM-41. ► Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of adsorption of tetracycline antibiotics onto modified MCM-41.
In this paper, the MCM-41 has been modified by impregnation with zeolite A to prepare a kind of new adsorbent. The adsorption of TC from aqueous solutions onto modified MCM-41 has been studied. It was discovered that the adsorption capability of zeolite A modified MCM-41 (A-MCM-41) increased dramatically after modification. The modified MCM-41 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, and 29Si and 27Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) spectra. The modified MCM-41 structure was still retained after impregnated with zeolite A but the surface area and pore diameter decreased due to pore blockage. The adsorption of TC on modified MCM-41 was discussed regarding various parameters such as pH, initial TC concentration, and the reaction time. The pH effects on TC adsorption indicated that the adsorbents had better adsorption performances in acidic and neutral conditions. The adsorption isotherms were fitted well by the Langmuir model. The adsorption kinetics was well described by both pseudo-second order equation and the intra-particle diffusion model. The adsorption behavior in a fixed-bed column system followed Thomas model. The adsorption behavior of TC was the chemical adsorption with an ion exchange process and electrostatic adsorption.
doi:10.1016/j.cej.2013.02.088
PMCID: PMC4068708  PMID: 24976787
MCM-41; Tetracycline; Isotherms; Mesoporous sieve
12.  Biosorption of methyl blue onto tartaric acid modified wheat bran from aqueous solution 
Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made this material a suitable adsorbent to remove methyl blue. The adsorption capacity of modified wheat bran was about 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that the overall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methyl blue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment.
doi:10.1186/1735-2746-9-16
PMCID: PMC3561116  PMID: 23369295
Modified wheat bran; Biosorption; Methyl blue
13.  Adsorption of allopurinol and ketotifen by chitosan 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2001;2(1):27-33.
The experimental work of studying the adsorption of ketotifen and allopurinol by chitosan focused on determining the solubilities and the adsorption isotherms of the adsorbates employed in this study. The adsorption of the aforementioned compounds by chitosan was studied using the rotating bottle method. The concentrations, both before and after the attainment of equilibrium, were determined with the aid of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography column. The results of these studies demonstrated that ketotifen and allopurinol are both adsorbed by chitosan. The nonlinear Langmuir-like and the Freundlich models both were applied to the experimental data. The correlation coefficients obtained from the nonlinear Langmuir-like model were better than those obtained from Freundlich model, suggesting that allopurinol and ketotifen interacted with certain specific binding sites on the chitosan surface. The allopurinol adsorption experiments indicated that the particle size of chitosan and therefore the surface area can significantly affect the Langmuir capacity constant, while the affinity constants are statistically the same. As expected from the solubility studies, the ketotifen adsorption experiments at 2 different pHs (7 and 10) showed that the adsorption affinity at pH 10 was much higher than at pH 7. What was not expected was that the capacity constants were significantly different, suggesting that further studies are needed using common ion buffers and multicomponent adsorption for the proper mechanism to be determined.
doi:10.1208/pt020103
PMCID: PMC2750257  PMID: 14727864
Adsorption; Chitosan; Allopurinol; Ketotifen; Particle Size
14.  Adsorption kinetics of Rhodamine-B on used black tea leaves 
Rhodamine B (Rh-B) is one of the most common pollutants in the effluents of textile industries effluents in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the applicability of used black tea leaves (UBTL) for the adsorptive removal of Rh-B from aqueous system by investigating the adsorption kinetics in batch process. The effects of concentration and temperature on adsorption kinetics were examined. First-, second- and pseudo-second order kinetic equations were used to investigate the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The equilibrium amount adsorbed and the equilibrium concentration were calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots for different initial concentrations of Rh-B to construct the adsorption isotherm. The adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of UBTL to Rh-B was found to be 53.2 mg/g at pH = 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots, increased with temperature increase. The positive value of enthalpy of adsorption, ΔHads = 31.22 kJ/mol, suggested that the adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL at pH = 2.0 is an endothermic process.
doi:10.1186/1735-2746-9-2
PMCID: PMC3555128  PMID: 23369452
Adsorption kinetics; Rhodamine B; Used black tea leaves; Adsorption enthalpy
15.  Thermodynamic, Kinetic, and Equilibrium Parameters for the Removal of Lead and Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions with Calcium Alginate Beads 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:647512.
The sorption of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by calcium alginate beads (CAB) from aqueous solutions in batch systems was investigated. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, as well as the sorption capacities of CAB in each system at different temperatures, were evaluated. The rate of sorption for both metals was rapid in the first 10 minutes and reached a maximum in 50 minutes. Sorption kinetic data were fitted to Lagergren, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models and it was found that the second-order kinetic model describes these data for the two metals; comparing kinetic parameters for Cd and Pb sorption a higher kinetic rate (K2) for Pb was observed, indicating that the interaction between lead cations and alginate beads was faster than for cadmium. Similarly, isotherm data were fitted to different models reported in literature and it was found that the Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F) and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models describe the isotherms in all cases. CAB sorption capacity for cadmium was 27.4 mg/g and 150.4 mg/g for lead, at 25°C. Sorption capacities of Cd and Pb increase as temperature rises. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the cadmium and lead adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. It was also found that pH has an important effect on the adsorption of these metals by CAB, as more were removed at pH values between 6 and 7.
doi:10.1155/2014/647512
PMCID: PMC3921947  PMID: 24587740
16.  Determination of Equilibrium and Kinetic Parameters of the Adsorption of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solutions to Agave Lechuguilla Biomass 
This investigation reveals the capability of Agave lechuguilla for trivalent and hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions. Experimentation included pH profile, time dependence, adsorption capacity (KF and QL), adsorption intensity (n and RL) and saturation capacity (q s) studies. Batch experiments were conducted at 22∘C to characterize and model the adsorption equilibrium as well as biomass adsorption rates. pH 4 was the optimum for Cr(III) binding, while Cr(VI) optimum binding was at pH 2. Time profile experiments indicated that the adsorption of Cr(VI) by lechuguilla biomass was time-dependent and that of Cr(III) was not. Kinetic models demonstrated that a pseudo-second order reaction model best described the kinetic data for Cr(VI). The adsorption isotherms showed that the binding pattern for Cr(VI) followed the Freundlich isotherm model, while that for Cr(III) followed the Langmuir isotherm.
doi:10.1155/BCA.2005.55
PMCID: PMC2267092  PMID: 18365089
Adsorption; Cr(III); Cr(VI); kinetic; equilibrium; lechuguilla
17.  Growth Kinetics of Thiobacillus thiooxidans on the Surface of Elemental Sulfur 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1995;61(10):3617-3622.
The growth kinetics of Thiobacillus thiooxidans on elemental sulfur in batch cultures at 30(deg)C and pH 1.5 was studied by measuring the time courses of the concentration of adsorbed cells on sulfur, the concentration of free cells suspended in liquid medium, and the amount of sulfur oxidized. As the elemental sulfur was oxidized to sulfate ions, the surface concentration of adsorbed cells per unit mass of sulfur approached a maximum value (maximum adsorption capacity of sulfur particles) whereas the concentration of free cells continued to increase with time. There was a close relationship between the concentrations of free and adsorbed cells during the microbial sulfur oxidation, and the two cell concentrations were well correlated by the Langmuir isotherm with adsorption equilibrium constant K(infA) and maximum adsorption capacity X(infAm) of 2.10 x 10(sup-9) ml per cell and 4.57 x 10(sup10) cells per g, respectively. The total concentration of free and adsorbed cells increased in parallel with the amount of sulfate formed. The total growth on elemental sulfur gave a characteristic growth curve in which a linear-growth phase followed the period of an initial exponential phase. The batch rate data collected under a wide variety of inoculum levels (about 10(sup5) to 10(sup8) cells per ml) were consistent with a kinetic model assuming that the growth rate of adsorbed bacteria is proportional to the product of the concentration, X(infA), of adsorbed cells and the fraction, (theta)(infV), of adsorption sites unoccupied by cells. The kinetic and stoichiometric parameters appearing in the model were estimated from the experimental data, and the specific growth rate, (mu)(infA), and growth yield, Y(infA), were 2.58 day(sup-1) and 2.05 x 10(sup11) cells per g, respectively. The proposed model and the parameter values allowed us to predict quantitatively the surface attachment of T. thiooxidans cells on elemental sulfur and the bacterial growth in both initial exponential and subsequent linear phases. The transition from exponential to linear growth was a result of two competing factors: an increase in the adsorbed-cell concentration, X(infA), permitted a decrease in the unoccupied-site fraction, (theta)(infV).
PMCID: PMC1388707  PMID: 16535145
18.  Synthesis of nano- alumina powder from impure kaolin and its application for arsenite removal from aqueous solutions 
Adsorption is considered a cost-effective procedure, safer to handle with high removal efficiency. Activated alumina is the most commonly used adsorbent for the removal of arsenic from aqueous solutions. However, activated alumina has a low adsorption capacity and acts kinetically in a slow manner. An ideal adsorbent should have a high surface area, physical and/or chemical stability and be inexpensive. To meet this requirement, nanomeso porous γ-alumina with a high surface area (201.53 m2/g) and small particle size (22–36 nm) was prepared from inexpensive kaolin as the raw material, by precipitation method. The research results showed that adsorbent has the high adsorption capacity (for initial arsenite concentration up to 10 mg/L, in which 97.65% recovery was achieved). Optimal experimental conditions including pH, initial arsenite concentration and contact time were determined. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin– Radushkevich isotherm models were applied to analyze the experimental data. The best interpretation for the experimental data was given by Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation and the maximum arsenite adsorbed by synthesized nano γ–alumina (qe) was found to be 40 (mg/g).
doi:10.1186/2052-336X-11-19
PMCID: PMC3776295  PMID: 24499635
Nano- alumina; Arsenite; Removal; Isotherm; Kaolin
19.  Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory 
The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29) by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min). The optimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs) as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for color removal (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8) was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs.
doi:10.1186/1735-2746-10-5
PMCID: PMC3561066  PMID: 23369540
Reactive blue29; Peroxy acid; Adsorption isotherm; Single wall carbon nanotubes; Equilibrium time; Kinetic studies
20.  Removal of Arsenic (III, V) from aqueous solution by nanoscale zero-valent iron stabilized with starch and carboxymethyl cellulose 
In this work, synthetic nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) stabilized with two polymers, Starch and Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were examined and compared for their ability in removing As (III) and As (V) from aqueous solutions as the most promising iron nanoparticles form for arsenic removal.
Batch operations were conducted with different process parameters such as contact time, nanoparticles concentration, initial arsenic concentration and pH.
Results revealed that starch stabilized particles (S-nZVI) presented an outstanding ability to remove both arsenate and arsenite and displayed ~ 36.5% greater removal for As (V) and 30% for As (III) in comparison with CMC-stabilized nanoparticles (C-nZVI). However, from the particle stabilization viewpoint, there is a clear trade off to choosing the best stabilized nanoparticles form. Removal efficiency was enhanced with increasing the contact time and iron loading but reduced with increasing initial As (III, V) concentrations and pH. Almost complete removal of arsenic (up to 500 μg/L) was achieved in just 5 min when the S-nZVI mass concentration was 0.3 g/L and initial solution pH of 7 ± 0.1. The maximum removal efficiency of both arsenic species was obtained at pH = 5 ± 0.1 and starched nanoparticles was effective in slightly acidic and natural pH values. The adsorption kinetics fitted well with pseudo-second-order model and the adsorption data obeyed the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 14 mg/g for arsenic (V), and 12.2 mg/g for arsenic (III).
It could be concluded that starch stabilized Fe0 nanoparticles showed remarkable potential for As (III, V) removal from aqueous solution e.g. contaminated water.
doi:10.1186/2052-336X-12-74
PMCID: PMC4013818  PMID: 24860660
Metallic iron; Nanoparticles; Water purification; Arsenic; Adsorption
21.  In Vitro Evaluation of Ferrihydrite as an Enterosorbent for Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water 
Environmental science & technology  2009;43(14):5501-5506.
Arsenic (As) is a toxic trace element found in groundwater due to natural and industrial processes. Exposure has been linked to cancers of the bladder, lungs, skin, kidneys, nasal passages, liver, and the prostate. Arsenic in drinking water is a problem in many countries, notably Bangladesh and Taiwan. The purpose of this research was to utilize binding isotherms, a simulated gastrointestinal (GI) model, and the adult Hydra bioassay to evaluate ferrihydrite’s potential to bind As and serve as a potential enterosorbent for As found in drinking water. A variety of clay minerals and synthesized iron oxides including ferrihydrite were screened for their ability to bind As(III), as sodium arsenite, and As(V), as sodium arsenate. After ferrihydrite was demonstrated to be the most effective sorbent for both As species, adsorption isotherms were performed. All isotherm data were fit to the Langmuir equation to determine adsorption capacity (Qmax). Ferrihydrite bound 96% of As(III) and 97% of As(V) in the screening studies and had a Qmax of 1.288 mol/kg for As(III) and 0.744 mol/kg for As(V). Using a simulated GI model, ferrihydrite was found to effectively adsorb As(V) and As(III) in the stomach and intestine. Ferrihydrite (0.25% w/w) protected adult hydra at levels up to 200 times the minimal effective concentration (MEC) for As(III) and up to 2.5 times the MEC for As(V). These experiments confirm that ferrihydrite is a high capacity sorbent of As, and that it is effective at removing As in a simulated GI model. These results suggest that ferrihydrite could be used as a potential enterosorbent for As found in drinking water. Future work will focus on verifying ferrihydrite’s safety and efficacy in vivo.
PMCID: PMC2735052  PMID: 19708388
22.  Direct dyes removal using modified magnetic ferrite nanoparticle 
The magnetic adsorbent nanoparticle was modified using cationic surface active agent. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide were used as an adsorbent and a surface active agent, respectively. Dye removal ability of the surface modified nanoparticle as an adsorbent was investigated. Direct Green 6 (DG6), Direct Red 31 (DR31) and Direct Red 23 (DR23) were used. The characteristics of the adsorbent were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and salt was evaluated. In ternary system, dye removal of the adsorbent at 90, 120, 150 and 200 mg/L dye concentration was 63, 45, 30 and 23% for DR23, 97, 90, 78 and 45% for DR31 and 51, 48, 42 and 37% for DG6, respectively. It was found that dye adsorption onto the adsorbent followed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics.
doi:10.1186/2052-336X-12-96
PMCID: PMC4077710  PMID: 24991427
Magnetic nanoparticle; Adsorbent; Dye removal; Modification; Colored wastewater
23.  Mercury Removal From Aqueous Solutions With Chitosan-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles Optimized Using the Box-Behnken Design 
Background:
Nowadays, removal of heavy metals from the environment is an important problem due to their toxicity.
Objectives:
In this study, a modified method was used to synthesize chitosan-coated magnetite nanoparticles (CCMN) to be used as a low cost and nontoxic adsorbent. CCMN was then employed to remove Hg2+ from water solutions.
Materials and Methods:
To remove the highest percentage of mercury ions, the Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to simultaneously optimize all parameters affecting the adsorption process. Studied parameters of the process were pH (5-8), initial metal concentration (2-8 mg/L), and the amount of damped adsorbent (0.25-0.75 g). A second-order mathematical model was developed using regression analysis of experimental data obtained from 15 batch runs.
Results:
The optimal conditions predicted by the model were pH = 5, initial concentration of mercury ions = 6.2 mg/L, and the amount of damped adsorbent = 0.67 g. Confirmatory testing was performed and the maximum percentage of Hg2+ removed was found to be 99.91%. Kinetic studies of the adsorption process specified the efficiency of the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm was well-fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models.
Conclusions:
CCMN as an excellent adsorbent could remove the mercury ions from water solutions at low and moderate concentrations, which is the usual amount found in environment.
PMCID: PMC4036385  PMID: 24872943
Chitosan; Magnetite Nanoparticles; Mercury
24.  Simultaneous Isolation of Lactoferrin and Lactoperoxidase from Bovine Colostrum by SPEC 70 SLS Cation Exchange Resin 
In this work, simultaneous isolation of lactoferrin (Lf) and lactoperoxidase (Lp) from defatted bovine colostrum by one-step cation exchange chromatography with SPEC 70 SLS ion-exchange resin was investigated. A RP-HPLC method for Lf and Lp determination was developed and optimized as the following conditions: detection wavelength of 220 nm, flow rate of 1 mL/min and acetonitrile concentration from 25% to 75% within 20 min. The adsorption process of Lf on SPEC 70 SLS resin was optimized using Lf standard as substrate. The maximum static binding capacity of SPEC 70 SLS resin was of 22.0 mg/g resin at 15 °C, pH 7.0 and adsorption time 3 h. The Lf adsorption process could be well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 21.73 mg/g resin at 15 °C. In batch fractionation of defatted colostrum, the binding capacities of SPEC 70 SLS resin for adsorbing Lf and Lp simultaneously under the abovementioned conditions were 7.60 and 6.89 mg/g resin, respectively, both of which were superior to those of CM Sepharose F.F. or SP Sepharose F.F. resins under the same conditions. As a result, SPEC 70 SLS resin was considered as a successful candidate for direct and economic purification of Lf and Lp from defatted colostrum.
doi:10.3390/ijerph8093764
PMCID: PMC3194116  PMID: 22016715
defatted colostrum; lactoferrin; lactoperoxidase; SPEC 70 SLS resin; isolation
25.  Biosorption of Fe(II) and Mn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Rice Husk Ash 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:973095.
Rice husk ash (RHA), an agricultural waste, was used as biosorbent for the removal of Iron(II) and Manganese(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The structural and morphological characteristics of RHA and its elemental compositions before and after adsorption of Fe(II) and Mn(II) were determined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the influence of initial pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration on the removal of Fe(II) and Mn(II) ions. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by RHA. The correlation coefficient (R2) of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models equals 0.995 and 0.901 for Fe(II), 0.9862 and 0.8924 for Mn(II), respectively, so the Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm model. The mean free energy values evaluated from the D-R model indicated that the biosorption of Fe(II) and Mn(II) onto RHA was physical in nature. Experimental data also showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions complied with the pseudo-second-order kinetics.
doi:10.1155/2014/973095
PMCID: PMC4058686  PMID: 24982918

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