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1.  Hyperthermic treatment of DMBA-induced rat mammary cancer using magnetic nanoparticles 
Background
We have developed magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) and applied them as a mediator of local hyperthermia. MCLs can generate heat under an alternating magnetic field (AMF). In this study, the in vivo effect of hyperthermia mediated by MCLs was examined using 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary cancer as a spontaneous cancer model.
Method
MCLs were injected into the mammary cancer and then subjected to an AMF.
Results
Four rats in 20 developed mammary tumors at more than 1 site in the body. The first-developed tumor in each of these 4 rats was selected and heated to over 43°C following administration of MCLs by an infusion pump. After a series of 3 hyperthermia treatments, treated tumors in 3 of the 4 rats were well controlled over a 30-day observation period. One of the 4 rats exhibited regrowth after 2 weeks. In this rat, there were 3 sites of tumor regrowth. Two of these regrowths were reduced in volume and regressed completely after 31 days, although the remaining one grew rapidly. These results indicated hyperthermia-induced immunological antitumor activity mediated by the MCLs.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that hyperthermic treatment using MCLs is effective in a spontaneous cancer model.
doi:10.1186/1477-044X-6-2
PMCID: PMC2266920  PMID: 18298831
2.  Size dependent heat generation of magnetite nanoparticles under AC magnetic field for cancer therapy 
Background
We have developed magnetic cationic liposomes (MCLs) that contained magnetic nanoparticles as heating mediator for applying them to local hyperthermia. The heating performance of the MCLs is significantly affected by the property of the incorporated magnetite nanoparticles. We estimated heating capacity of magnetite nanoparticles by measuring its specific absorption rate (SAR) against irradiation of the alternating magnetic field (AMF).
Method
Magnetite nanoparticles which have various specific-surface-area (SSA) are dispersed in the sample tubes, subjected to various AMF and studied SAR.
Result
Heat generation of magnetite particles under variable AMF conditions was summarized by the SSA. There were two maximum SAR values locally between 12 m2/g to 190 m2/g of the SSA in all ranges of applied AMF frequency and those values increased followed by the intensity of AMF power. One of the maximum values was observed at approximately 90 m2/g of the SSA particles and the other was observed at approximately 120 m2/g of the SSA particles. A boundary value of the SAR for heat generation was observed around 110 m2/g of SSA particles and the effects of the AMF power were different on both hand. Smaller SSA particles showed strong correlation of the SAR value to the intensity of the AMF power though larger SSA particles showed weaker correlation.
Conclusion
Those results suggest that two maximum SAR value stand for the heating mechanism of magnetite nanoparticles represented by hysteresis loss and relaxation loss.
doi:10.1186/1477-044X-6-4
PMCID: PMC2579422  PMID: 18928573
3.  Hyperthermia reduces migration of osteosarcoma by suppression of autocrine motility factor 
Oncology Reports  2012;28(6):1953-1958.
Autocrine motility factor (AMF) plays an important role in the development of metastasis by regulating tumor cell motility. The expression of AMF is associated with metastasis in malignant musculoskeletal tumors including osteosarcoma. Recent studies indicated that hyperthermia contributes to the improvement of the prognosis of patients with soft tissue sarcomas; however, few reports have evaluated the impact of hyperthermia on tumor cell motility, which is an important factor of metastasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperthermia with or without heat shock protein (HSP) inhibitors on the motility and AMF expression in an osteosarcoma cell line. Hyperthermia was carried out at 41°C for 24 h. According to microarray results, HSP90, HSP70 and HSP27 expression was upregulated in osteosarcoma cells under hyperthermia. The intracellular, secreted AMF, mRNA of AMF and cell motility were evaluated by western blotting, ELISA, RT-PCR, wound healing and phagokinetic track assays, respectively. The protein secretion and mRNA levels of AMF and tumor cell motility were significantly decreased by hyperthermia. Of note, the downregulated AMF expression and motility were recovered by the addition of an HSP27 inhibitor. By contrast, the HSP90 and HSP70/72/105 inhibitors had no effect on AMF expression and motility downregulated by hyperthermia. In conclusion, hyperthermia reduced AMF expression and tumor cell motility via HSP27 and may therefore be applied as osteosarcoma treatment.
doi:10.3892/or.2012.2066
PMCID: PMC3583516  PMID: 23027359
autocrine motility factor; heat shock protein; hyperthermia; metastasis; motility; osteosarcoma
4.  Effect of magnetic fluid hyperthermia on lung cancer nodules in a murine model 
Oncology Letters  2011;2(6):1161-1164.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) induced by an alternating magnetic field (AMF) on human carcinoma A549 xenograft in nude mice. An animal model of human lung cancer was established by subcutaneous injection of human lung cancer A549 cells in BALB/c nude mice. The xenograft mice were randomly divided into four groups and each group was treated with an injection of a different concentration of magnetic fluid: control, low-dose (67.5 mg/ml), medium-dose (90.0 mg/ml) and high-dose group (112.5 mg/ml), respectively. Following the injection (24 h), the tumor was heated in an AMF for 30 min. Tumor volumes were then measured every week. The therapeutic effect was assessed by measuring the tumor volume and weight. Pathological examination was performed with a light and electronic microscope following treatment. The temperature at the surface of the tumor in the low-, medium- and high-dose groups increased to 41.3, 44.5 and 46.8°C, respectively. The tumor grew significantly slower in the medium- and high-dose groups (both p<0.05) compared to the control group. Cytoclasis and apoptosis were detected under light and electron microscopy. In conclusion, MFH induced by AMF inhibited tumor growth and promoted apoptosis of human carcinoma A549 cells in a xenograft mice model.
doi:10.3892/ol.2011.379
PMCID: PMC3406544  PMID: 22848282
magnetic fluid; hyperthermia; lung cancer
5.  Effect of hyperthermia on experimental choroidal melanoma. 
Thirty-five rabbit eyes were implanted subchoroidally with Greene's hamster melanoma. When the tumours reached a base diameter of 5 mm, they were treated with ultrasonically induced hyperthermia with a range of temperatures and exposure durations (43-67 degrees C and 75 s to 60 min). Of the 23 treated eyes examined two months after treatment eight showed complete regression of the tumour. Seven showed initial tumour regression, but there was subsequent regrowth of tumour round the margins of the original mass. In eight eyes the tumour continued to grow, though in some cases the rate of growth appeared to be slower than in the controls. In contrast, in all untreated animals the tumour grew to fill the vitreous cavity. These preliminary findings indicate that ultrasonically induced hyperthermia can be an effective local treatment of this intraocular tumour model.
Images
PMCID: PMC1040759  PMID: 4063252
6.  Development of Novel Magnetic Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy 
Proceedings of SPIE  2011;7901:790115-.
Advances in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia are opening new doors in cancer therapy. As a standalone or adjuvant therapy this new modality has the opportunity significantly advance thermal medicine. Major advantages of using magnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are their highly localized power deposition and the fact that the alternating magnetic fields (AMF) used to excite them can penetrate deeply into the body without harmful effect. One limitation, however, which hinders the technology, is the problem of inductive heating of normal tissue by the AMF if the frequency and fields strength are not appropriately matched to the tissue. Restricting AMF amplitude and frequency limits the heat dose which can be selectively applied to cancerous tissue via the magnetic nanoparticle, thus lowering therapeutic effect. In an effort to address this problem, particles with optimized magnetic properties must be developed. Using particles with higher saturation magnetizations and coercivity will enhance hysteresis heating increasing particle power density at milder AMF strengths and frequencies. In this study we used oil in water microemulsions to develop nanoparticles with zero-valent Fe cores and magnetite shells. The superior magnetic properties of zero-valent Fe give these particles the potential for improved SAR over pure magnetite particles. Silane and subsequently dextran have been attached to the particle surface in order to provide a biocompatible surfactant coating. The heating capability of the particles was tested in-vivo using a mouse tumor model. Although we determined that the final stage of synthesis, purification of the dextran coated particles, permits significant corrosion/oxidation of the iron core to hematite, the particles can effectively heat tumor tissue. Improving the purification procedure will allow the generation Fe/Fe3O4 with superior SAR values.
doi:10.1117/12.876514
PMCID: PMC3947375  PMID: 24619487
Magnetic Nanoparticle; Ferrofluid; Hyperthermia; Tumor; Cancer; Synthesis
7.  Local hyperthermia for esophageal cancer in a rabbit tumor model: Magnetic stent hyperthermia versus magnetic fluid hyperthermia 
Oncology Letters  2013;6(6):1550-1558.
Magnetic-mediated hyperthermia (MMH) is a promising local thermotherapy approach for cancer treatment. The present study investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of MMH in esophageal cancer using a rabbit tumor model. The therapeutic effect of two hyperthermia approaches, magnetic stent hyperthermia (MSH), in which heat is induced by the clinical stent that is placed inside the esophagus, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH), where magnetic nanoparticles are applied as the agent, was systematically evaluated. A rabbit esophageal tumor model was established by injecting VX2 carcinoma cells into the esophageal submucosa. The esophageal stent was deployed perorally into the tumor segment of the esophagus. For the MFH, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were administered to the rabbits by intratumoral injection. The rabbits were exposed under a benchtop applicator using an alternative magnetic field (AMF) with 300 kHz frequency for the hyperthermia treatment. The results demonstrated that esophageal stents and MNPs had ideal inductive heating properties upon exposure under an AMF of 300 kHz. MSH, using a thermal dose of 46°C with a 10-min treatment time, demonstrated antitumor effects on the rabbit esophageal cancer. However, the rabbit esophageal wall is not heat-resistant. Therefore, a higher temperature or longer treatment time may lead to necrosis of the rabbit esophagus. MFH has a significant antitumor effect by confining the heat within the tumor site without damaging the adjacent normal tissues. The present study indicates that the two hyperthermia procedures have therapeutic effects on esophageal cancer, and that MFH may be more specific than MSH in terms of temperature control during the treatment.
doi:10.3892/ol.2013.1618
PMCID: PMC3833863  PMID: 24260045
magnetic mediated hyperthermia; esophageal cancer; magnetic nanoparticles; esophageal stent; alternative magnetic field
8.  Kinetics and pathogenesis of intracellular magnetic nanoparticle cytotoxicity 
Proceedings of SPIE  2011;7901:10.1117/12.876519.
Magnetic nanoparticles excited by alternating magnetic fields (AMF) have demonstrated effective tumor-specific hyperthermia. This treatment is effective as a monotherapy as well as a therapeutic adjuvant to chemotherapy and radiation. Iron oxide nanoparticles have been shown, so far, to be non-toxic, as are the exciting AMF fields when used at moderate levels. Although higher levels of AMF can be more effective, depending on the type of iron oxide nanoparticles use, these higher field strengths and/or frequencies can induce normal tissue heating and toxicity. Thus, the use of nanoparticles exhibiting significant heating at low AMF strengths and frequencies is desirable. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles within tumor cells improves their heating effect and cytotoxicity per nanoparticle. We have used transmission electron microscopy to track the endocytosis of nanoparticles into tumor cells (both breast adenocarcinoma (MTG-B) and acute monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cells). Our preliminary results suggest that nanoparticles internalized into tumor cells demonstrate greater cytotoxicity when excited with AMF than an equivalent heat dose from excited external nanoparticles or cells exposed to a hot water bath. We have also demonstrated that this increase in SAR caused by aggregation improves the cytotoxicity of nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy in vitro.
doi:10.1117/12.876519
PMCID: PMC3874720  PMID: 24382988
Hyperthermia; nanoparticle; AMF; SAR; specific absorption rate; tumor; intracellular hyperthermia
9.  Application of hyperthermia induced by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in glioma treatment 
Gliomas are a group of heterogeneous primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors arising from the glial cells. Malignant gliomas account for a majority of malignant primary CNS tumors and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant glioma, and despite the recent advances in diagnosis and new treatment options, its prognosis remains dismal. New opportunities for the development of effective therapies for malignant gliomas are urgently needed. Magnetic hyperthermia (MHT), which consists of heat generation in the region of the tumor through the application of magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field (AMF), has shown positive results in both preclinical and clinical assays. The aim of this review is to assess the relevance of hyperthermia induced by magnetic nanoparticles in the treatment of gliomas and to note the possible variations of the technique and its implication on the effectiveness of the treatment. We performed an electronic search in the literature from January 1990 to October 2010, in various databases, and after application of the inclusion criteria we obtained a total of 15 articles. In vitro studies and studies using animal models showed that MHT was effective in the promotion of tumor cell death and reduction of tumor mass or increase in survival. Two clinical studies showed that MHT could be applied safely and with few side effects. Some studies suggested that mechanisms of cell death, such as apoptosis, necrosis, and antitumor immune response were triggered by MHT. Based on these data, we could conclude that MHT proved to be efficient in most of the experiments, and that the improvement of the nanocomposites as well as the AMF equipment might contribute toward establishing MHT as a promising tool in the treatment of malignant gliomas.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S14737
PMCID: PMC3107718  PMID: 21674016
brain tumor; magnetic hyperthermia; magnetic nanoparticle
10.  Tailored Magnetic Nanoparticles for Optimizing Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia 
Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH) is a promising approach towards adjuvant cancer therapy that is based on the localized heating of tumors using the relaxation losses of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in alternating magnetic fields (AMF). In this study, we demonstrate optimization of MFH by tailoring MNP size to an applied AMF frequency. Unlike conventional aqueous synthesis routes, we use organic synthesis routes that offer precise control over MNP size (diameter ~ 10–25 nm), size distribution and phase purity. Furthermore, the particles are successfully transferred to the aqueous phase using a biocompatible amphiphilic polymer, and demonstrate long-term shelf life. A rigorous characterization protocol ensures that the water-stable MNPs meet all the critical requirements: (1) uniform shape and monodispersity, (2) phase purity, (3) stable magnetic properties approaching that of the bulk, (4) colloidal stability, (5) substantial shelf life and (6) pose no significant in vitro toxicity. Using a dedicated hyperthermia system, we then identified that 16 nm monodisperse MNPs (σ ~ 0.175) respond optimally to our chosen AMF conditions (f = 373 kHz, Ho = 14 kA/m); however, with a broader size distribution (σ ~ 0.284) the Specific Loss Power (SLP) decreases by 30%. Finally, we show that these tailored MNPs demonstrate maximum hyperthermia efficiency by reducing viability of Jurkat cells in vitro, suggesting our optimization translates truthfully to cell populations. In summary, we present a way to intrinsically optimize MFH by tailoring the MNPs to any applied AMF, a required precursor to optimize dose and time of treatment.
doi:10.1002/jbm.a.34011
PMCID: PMC3266447  PMID: 22213652
Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia; in vitro hyperthermia; monodisperse iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles; cytotoxicity
11.  Simple and Rapid Synthesis of Magnetite/Hydroxyapatite Composites for Hyperthermia Treatments via a Mechanochemical Route 
This paper presents a simple method for the rapid synthesis of magnetite/hydroxyapatite composite particles. In this method, superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are first synthesized by coprecipitation using ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. Immediately following the synthesis, carbonate-substituted (B-type) hydroxyapatite particles are mechanochemically synthesized by wet milling dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium carbonate in a dispersed suspension of magnetite nanoparticles, during which the magnetite nanoparticles are incorporated into the hydroxyapatite matrix. We observed that the resultant magnetite/hydroxyapatite composites possessed a homogeneous dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles, characterized by an absence of large aggregates. When this material was subjected to an alternating magnetic field, the heat generated increased with increasing magnetite concentration. For a magnetite concentration of 30 mass%, a temperature increase greater than 20 K was achieved in less than 50 s. These results suggest that our composites exhibit good hyperthermia properties and are promising candidates for hyperthermia treatments.
doi:10.3390/ijms14059365
PMCID: PMC3676787  PMID: 23629669
magnetite; carbonate hydroxyapatite; mechanochemical effect; hyperthermia
12.  Magnetic fluid hyperthermia induced by radiofrequency capacitive field for the treatment of transplanted subcutaneous tumors in rats 
Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) induced by a magnetic field has become a new heating technology for the treatment of malignant tumors due to its ability to heat the tumor tissue precisely and properly, and due to its significant therapeutic effects. In this study, MFH induced by radiofrequency capacitive field (RCF) for the treatment of transplanted subcutaneous tumors in rats, was investigated. A total of 50 rats bearing subcutaneous tumors were randomly divided into five groups, including i) a pseudo-treatment (PT) control group, ii) magnetic fluid (MF) group, iii) pure hyperthermia (PH) group, iv) magnetic fluid hyperthermia 1 (MFH1) group, and v) magnetic fluid hyperthermia 2 (MFH2) group. Tumors were irradiated for 30 min in the MFH1 group 24 h following injection of MF. Tumors were irradiated for 30 min in the MFH2 group 24 h following injection of MF, and irradiation was repeated for 30 min 72 h following injection of MF. Tumor volumes, tumor volume inhibition ratios and survival times in the rat model were examined. Temperatures of tumor cores and rims both rapidly reached the desired temperature (∼50°C) for tumor treatment within 5 to 10 min in the MFH1 and MFH2 groups, and we maintained this temperature level by manually adjusting the output power (70–130 W). Tumor volumes of the MFH1 and MFH2 groups were reduced compared to those of the PT, MF and PH groups. The inhibitory effect on tumor growth in the MFH2 group (91.57%) was higher compared to that in the MFH1 group (85.21%) and the other groups. The survival time of the MFH2 group (51.62±2.28 days) and MFH1 group (43.10±1.57 days) was increased compared to that of the PH, MF and PT groups. The results obtained show that MFH induced by RCF may serve as a potential and promising method for the treatment of tumors.
doi:10.3892/etm.2011.397
PMCID: PMC3438723  PMID: 22969882
magnetic fluid hyperthermia; radiofrequency capacitive field; transplanted subcutaneous tumor; rat
13.  Update: Turning the Heat on Cancer 
Summation
The promise of hyperthermia has yet to be realized, but the fundamental idea and the effects of heat on (cancer) cells are well known. Cell death from exposure to heat is a function of both the intensity of the heat and the length of the exposure. Cells die by necrosis and by apoptosis. Sublethal heat doses sensitize cancer cells to radiation and drugs. Because of advances in chemistry and physics, harnessing the power of heat to kill cancer cells seems achievable now! Using novel systems embodied in the combination of molecular-targeted nanoparticles and hysteretic heating of the nanoparticles with “focused” alternating magnetic frequencies (AMFs), heat delivery can be better controlled. Importantly, hyperthermia does not damage, and may actually enhance, the immune system. Trials in patients are needed to settle the clinical role of new thermal treatment.
doi:10.1089/cbr.2008.0591
PMCID: PMC2987268  PMID: 20443694
breast cancer; antibody; biotherapy; immunotherapy; imaging
14.  Comparison of microwave and magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia radiosensitization in murine breast tumors 
Proceedings of SPIE  2011;7901:10.1117/12.876515.
Hyperthermia has been shown to be an effective radiosensitizer. Its utility as a clinical modality has been limited by a minimally selective tumor sensitivity and the inability to be delivered in a tumor-specific manner. Recent in vivo studies (rodent and human) have shown that cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity can be effectively and safely delivered via iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (mNP) and an appropriately matched noninvasive alternating magnetic field (AMF). To explore the tumor radiosensitization potential of mNP hyperthermia we used a syngeneic mouse breast cancer model, dextran-coated 110 nm hydrodynamic diameter mNP and a 169 kHz / 450 Oe (35.8 kA/m) AMF. Intradermally implanted (flank) tumors (150 ± 40 mm3) were treated by injection of 0.04 ml mNP (7.5 mg Fe) / cm3 into the tumor and an AMF (35.8 kA/m and 169 kHz) exposure necessary to achieve a CEM (cumulative equivalent minute) thermal dose of 60 (CEM 60). Tumors were treated with mNP hyperthermia (CEM 60), radiation alone (15 Gy, single dose) and in combination. Compared to the radiation and heat alone treatments, the combined treatment resulted in a greater than two-fold increase in tumor regrowth tripling time (tumor treatment efficacy). None of the treatments resulted in significant normal tissue toxicity or morbidity. Studies were also conducted to compare the radiosensitization effect of mNP hyperthermia with that of microwave-induced hyperthermia. The effects of incubation of nanoparticles within tumors (to allow nanoparticles to be endocytosed) before application of AMF and radiation were determined. This preliminary information suggests cancer cell specific hyperthermia (i.e. antibody-directed or anatomically-directed mNP) is capable of providing significantly greater radiosensitization / therapeutic ratio enhancement than other forms of hyperthermia delivery.
doi:10.1117/12.876515
PMCID: PMC3877316  PMID: 24392200
Hyperthermia; radiation; nanoparticle; microwave; AMF; radiosensitization; intracellular hyperthermia
15.  ELEVATED EXPRESSION OF CXC CHEMOKINES IN PEDIATRIC OSTEOSARCOMA PATIENTS 
Cancer  2010;117(1):207-217.
BACKGROUND
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children. Despite the advent of chemotherapy, the survival of osteosarcoma patients has not been significantly improved recently. Chemokines are a group of signaling molecules that have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis.
METHODS
We used an antibody microarray to identify chemokines that were elevated in the plasma samples of osteosarcoma patients. The results were validated using ELISAs on an independent set of samples. The tumor expressions of three chemokines were examined in two sets of osteosarcoma tissue arrays. We also evaluated the proliferative effect of the chemokines in four osteosarcoma cell lines.
RESULTS
We found that the plasma levels of CXCL4, CXCL6 and CXCL12 in the osteosarcoma patients were significantly higher than the controls, and the results were validated by an independent osteosarcoma cohort (p < 0.05). However, only CXCL4 (100%) and CXCL6 (91%) were frequently expressed in osteosarcoma, whereas CXCL12 was only expressed in 4%. Survival analysis further showed that higher circulating levels of CXCL4 and CXCL6, but not CXCL12, were associated with a poorer outcome of osteosarcoma patients. Addition of exogenous chemokines significantly promoted the growth of different osteosarcoma cells (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Our results demonstrate that CXCL4 and CXCL6 are frequently expressed in osteosarcoma and the plasma levels of these two chemokines are associated with patient outcomes. Further study of these circulating chemokines may provide a promising approach for prognostication of osteosarcoma. Targeting these chemokines or their receptors may also lead to a novel therapeutic invention.
doi:10.1002/cncr.25563
PMCID: PMC2997117  PMID: 20806347
osteosarcoma; CXC chemokines; biomarkers; antibody microarray; cell proliferation
16.  Mitochondrial function in diaphragm of emphysematous hamsters after treatment with nandrolone 
Respiratory failure in patients with COPD may be caused by insufficient force production or insufficient endurance capacity of the respiratory muscles. Anabolic steroids may improve respiratory muscle function in COPD. The effect of anabolic steroids on mitochondrial function in the diaphragm in emphysema is unknown. In an emphysematous male hamster model, we investigated whether administration of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate (ND) altered the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm. The bodyweight of hamsters treated with ND was decreased after treatment compared with initial values, and serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in hamsters treated with ND than in control hamsters. No difference in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm between normal and emphysematous hamsters was observed. Treatment with ND did not change the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm of both normal and emphysematous hamsters. In emphysematous hamsters, administration of ND decreased the activity of succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase compared with ND treatment in normal hamsters. We conclude that anabolic steroids have negative effects on the activity of succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and anabolic status in this emphysematous hamster model.
PMCID: PMC2706598  PMID: 18046906
emphysema; diaphragm; mitochondria; anabolic steroids
17.  Chronic effects of dietary exposure to amosite and chrysotile asbestos in Syrian golden hamsters. 
Bioassays of amosite, short-range (SR), intermediate-range (IR) or intermediate-range chrysotile asbestos in combination with the intestinal carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were conducted with male and female Syrian golden hamsters. Amosite and both forms of chrysotile asbestos were administered at a concentration of 1% in pelleted diet for the entire lifetime of the hamsters starting with mothers of the test animals. Group sizes varied from 125-254. There was no adverse effect on body weight gain or survival by either type of asbestos or by IR chrysotile asbestos in combination with DMH. A significant increase (p less than 0.05) in adrenal cortical tumors was observed in male hamsters exposed to SR and IR chrysotile asbestos and in females treated with IR chrysotile asbestos when compared to the pooled control groups. However, statistical significance (p less than 0.05) was lost when these dosed groups were compared with temporal control groups. Neither of the male or female amosite asbestos groups showed increased neoplasia in any tissue or organ compared to the control groups. The cocarcinogen studies using IR chrysotile asbestos and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride were considered inadequate because there was no increase in intestinal neoplasia in the DMH group.
PMCID: PMC1569092  PMID: 6319115
18.  mTOR Signal Transduction Pathways Contribute to TN-C FNIII A1 Overexpression by Mechanical Stress in Osteosarcoma Cells 
Molecules and Cells  2014;37(2):118-125.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor with a very poor prognosis. Treating osteosarcoma remains a challenge due to its high transitivity. Tenascin-C, with large molecular weight variants including different combinations of its alternative spliced FNIII repeats, is specifically over expressed in tumor tissues. This study examined the expression of Tenascin-C FNIIIA1 in osteosarcoma tissues, and estimated the effect of mechanical stimulation on A1 expression in MG-63 cells. Through immunohistochemical analysis, we found that the A1 protein was expressed at a higher level in osteosarcoma tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. By cell migration assay, we observed that there was a significant correlation between A1 expression and MG-63 cell migra-tion. The relation is that Tenascin-C FNIIIA1 can promote MG-63 cell migration. According to our further study into the effect of mechanical stimulation on A1 expression in MG-63 cells, the mRNA and protein levels of A1 were significantly up-regulated under mechanical stress with the mTOR molecule proving indispensable. Meanwhile, 4E-BP1 and S6K1 (downstream molecule of mTOR) are necessary for A1 normal expression in MG-63 cells whether or not mechanical stress has been encountered. We found that Tenascin-C FNIIIA1 is over-expressed in osteosar-coma tissues and can promote MG-63 cell migration. Furthermore, mechanical stress can facilitate MG-63 cell migration though facilitating A1 overexpression with the necessary molecules (mTOR, 4E-BP1 and S6K1). In con-clusion, high expression of A1 may promote the meta-stasis of osteosarcoma by facilitating MG-63 cell migration. Tenascin-C FNIIIA1 could be used as an indicator in metastatic osteosarcoma patients.
doi:10.14348/molcells.2014.2247
PMCID: PMC3935624  PMID: 24598996
mechanical stimulation; MG-63 cells; osteosarcoma; tenascin-C; TN-C FNIIIA1
19.  Preparation, characterization, and efficient transfection of cationic liposomes and nanomagnetic cationic liposomes 
Purpose
Cationic liposomes (CLs) are composed of phospholipid bilayers. One of the most important applications of these particles is in drug and gene delivery. However, using CLs to deliver therapeutic nucleic acids and drugs to target organs has some problems, including low transfection efficiency in vivo. The aim of this study was to develop novel CLs containing magnetite to overcome the deficiencies.
Materials and methods
CLs and magnetic cationic liposomes (MCLs) were prepared using the freeze-dried empty liposome method. Luciferase-harboring vectors (pGL3) were transferred into liposomes and the transfection efficiencies were determined by luciferase assay. Firefly luciferase is one of most popular reporter genes often used to measure the efficiency of gene transfer in vivo and in vitro. Different formulations of liposomes have been used for delivery of different kinds of gene reporters. Lipoplex (liposome–plasmid DNA complexes) formation was monitored by gel retardation assay. Size and charge of lipoplexes were determined using particle size analysis. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected by lipoplexes (liposome-pGL3); transfection efficiency and gene expression level was evaluated by luciferase assay.
Results
High transfection efficiency of plasmid by CLs and novel nanomagnetic CLs was achieved. Moreover, lipoplexes showed less cytotoxicity than polyethyleneimine and Lipofectamine™.
Conclusion
Novel liposome compositions (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DPPC]/dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide [DOAB] and DPPC/cholesterol/DOAB) with high transfection efficiency can be useful in gene delivery in vitro. MCLs can also be used for targeted gene delivery, due to magnetic characteristic for conduction of genes or drugs to target organs.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S23074
PMCID: PMC3205124  PMID: 22072865
transfection efficiency; magnetic nanoparticles; luciferase; cationic liposome
20.  Intact interferon signaling in peripheral blood leukocytes of high-grade osteosarcoma patients 
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy  2012;61(6):941-947.
High-grade osteosarcoma has a poor prognosis with an overall survival rate of about 60 percent. The recently closed European and American Osteosarcoma Study Group (EURAMOS)-1 trial investigates the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy with or without interferon-α. It is however unknown whether the interferon-signaling pathways in immune cells of osteosarcoma patients are functional. We studied the molecular and functional effects of interferon treatment on peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes of osteosarcoma patients, both in vivo and ex vivo. In contrast to other tumor types, in osteosarcoma, interferon signaling as determined by the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 at residue 701 was intact in immune cell subsets of 33 osteosarcoma patients as compared to 19 healthy controls. Also, cytolytic activity of interferon-α stimulated natural killer cells against allogeneic (n = 7 patients) and autologous target cells (n = 3 patients) was not impaired. Longitudinal monitoring of three osteosarcoma patients on interferon-α monotherapy revealed a relative increase in the CD16-positive subpopulation of monocytes during treatment. Since interferon signaling is intact in immune cells of osteosarcoma patients, there is a potential for indirect immunological effects of interferon-α treatment in osteosarcoma.
doi:10.1007/s00262-012-1232-6
PMCID: PMC3362707  PMID: 22402907
Osteosarcoma; Tumor immunology; Interferon-α; NK cell
21.  Clerodendron Inerme Protects Cellular Integrity during 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]-Anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis 
Aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of Clerodendron inerme on cellular integrity by measuring the status of glycoconjugates, lipids, osmotic fragility, and membrane bound enzyme activity in 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian golden hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin thrice a week for 14 weeks. The levels of glycoconjugates, lipids, osmotic fragility and membrane bound enzyme activity were analyzed by using specific colorimetric methods. We observed 100% tumor formation in DMBA painted hamsters. Altered glycoconjugates and lipid pattern were observed in DMBA painted hamsters as compared to control hamsters. Erythrocytes from DMBA painted hamsters were more fragile than those from control hamsters. The activity of membrane bound enzyme (Na+ K+ ATPase) decreased in DMBA painted hamsters as compared to control hamsters. Oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Clerodendron inerme (CiALet) at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight significantly prevented the tumor formation and histopathological abnormalities as well as normalized the above said biochemical variables in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results thus demonstrate the protective effect of Clerodendron inerme on cellular integrity during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2816544  PMID: 20161940
Oral cancer; DMBA; hamster; Clerodendron inerme; osmotic fragility; lipids; glycoconjugates
22.  Long-term carcinogenicity study in Syrian golden hamster of particulate emissions from coal- and oil-fired power plants. 
Male Syrian golden hamsters were given 15 weekly intratracheal instillations with suspensions of coal fly ash or oil fly ash. Controls were instilled with saline containing gelatine (0.5 g/100 mL) or to check particle effects with suspensions of hematite (Fe2O3). The common weekly dose was 4.5 mg/hamster. In addition, one subgroup of hamsters was treated with oil fly ash at a weekly dose of 3.0 mg/hamster and another with coal fly ash at a weekly dose of 6.0 mg/hamster. Other groups of hamsters were treated with suspensions of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or with suspensions on coal fly ash, oil fly ash, or Fe2O3 coated with BaP. The mass median aerodynamic diameters of the coal and oil fly ashes were 4.4 microns and 28 microns, respectively. Hamsters treated with oil fly ash showed a higher frequency of bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia than hamsters in the other treatment groups. Squamous dysplasia and squamous metaplasia were most frequent in animals treated with suspensions of BaP or BaP-coated particles. The earliest appearance of a tumor, the highest incidence of tumors, and the highest incidence of malignant tumors were observed in hamsters treated with oil fly ash coated with BaP. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma were the most frequent malignant tumors. No malignant tumors and only few benign tumors were observed in hamsters instilled with suspensions of fly ash not coated with BaP. The present study gives no indication that coal fly ash could create more serious health problems than oil fly ash.
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PMCID: PMC1474526  PMID: 3383816
23.  A Melatonin-Independent Seasonal Timer Induces Neuroendocrine Refractoriness to Short Day Lengths 
Journal of Biological Rhythms  2008;23(3):242-251.
The duration of nocturnal pineal melatonin secretion transduces effects of day length (DL) on the neuroendocrine axis of photoperiodic rodents. Long DLs support reproduction, and short DLs induce testicular regression, followed several months later by spontaneous recrudescence; gonadal regrowth is thought to reflect development of tissue refractoriness to melatonin. In most photoperiodic species, pinealectomy does not diminish reproductive competence in long DLs. Turkish hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti) deviate from this norm: elimination of melatonin secretion in long-day males by pinealectomy or constant light treatment induces testicular regression and subsequently recrudescence; the time course of these gonadal transitions is similar to that observed in males transferred from long to short DLs. In the present study, long-day Turkish hamsters that underwent testicular regression and recrudescence in constant light subsequently were completely unresponsive to the antigonadal effects of short DLs. Other hamsters that manifested testicular regression and recrudescence in short DLs were unresponsive to the antigonadal effects of pinealectomy or constant light. Long-term suppression of melatonin secretion induces a physiological state in Turkish hamsters similar or identical to the neuroendocrine refractoriness produced by short-day melatonin signals (i.e., neural refractoriness to melatonin develops in the absence of circulating melatonin secretion). A melatonin-independent interval timer, which would remain operative in the absence of melatonin during hibernation, may determine the onset of testicular recrudescence in the spring. In this respect, Turkish hamsters differ from most other photoperiodic rodents.
doi:10.1177/0748730408317135
PMCID: PMC3382991  PMID: 18487416
Turkish hamster; photoperiod; pineal; interval timer; testes
24.  Nanoparticle based cancer treatment: can delivered dose and biological dose be reliably modeled and quantified? 
Proceedings of SPIE  2011;7901:10.1117/12.877026.
Essential developments in the reliable and effective use of heat in medicine include: 1) the ability to model energy deposition and the resulting thermal distribution and tissue damage (Arrhenius models) over time in 3D, 2) the development of non-invasive thermometry and imaging for tissue damage monitoring, and 3) the development of clinically relevant algorithms for accurate prediction of the biological effect resulting from a delivered thermal dose in mammalian cells, tissues, and organs. The accuracy and usefulness of this information varies with the type of thermal treatment, sensitivity and accuracy of tissue assessment, and volume, shape, and heterogeneity of the tumor target and normal tissue. That said, without the development of an algorithm that has allowed the comparison and prediction of the effects of hyperthermia in a wide variety of tumor and normal tissues and settings (cumulative equivalent minutes/ CEM), hyperthermia would never have achieved clinical relevance. A new hyperthermia technology, magnetic nanoparticle-based hyperthermia (mNPH), has distinct advantages over the previous techniques: the ability to target the heat to individual cancer cells (with a nontoxic nanoparticle), and to excite the nanoparticles noninvasively with a non-injurious magnetic field, thus sparing associated normal cells and greatly improving the therapeutic ratio. As such, this modality has great potential as a primary and adjuvant cancer therapy. Although the targeted and safe nature of the noninvasive external activation (hysteretic heating) are a tremendous asset, the large number of therapy based variables and the lack of an accurate and useful method for predicting, assessing and quantifying mNP dose and treatment effect is a major obstacle to moving the technology into routine clinical practice. Among other parameters, mNPH will require the accurate determination of specific nanoparticle heating capability, the total nanoparticle content and biodistribution in the target cells/tissue, and an effective and matching alternating magnetic field (AMF) for optimal and safe excitation of the nanoparticles. Our initial studies have shown that appropriately delivered and targeted nanoparticles are capable of achieving effective tumor cytotoxicity at measured thermal doses significantly less than the understood thermal dose values necessary to achieve equivalent treatment effects using conventional heat delivery techniques. Therefore conventional CEM based thermal dose - tissues effect relationships will not hold for mNPH. The goal of this effort is to provide a platform for determining the biological and physical parameters that will be necessary for accurately planning and performing safe and effective mNPH, creating a new, viable primary or adjuvant cancer therapy.
doi:10.1117/12.877026
PMCID: PMC3877314  PMID: 24392199
Iron oxide; nanoparticle; hyperthermia; dosimetry; treatment plan; CEM; thermal therapy; thermal dose; tissue assessment
25.  Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line 
Oncology Letters  2011;2(4):685-691.
This study investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) on carcinogenesis and tumor growth, using a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, as well as the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages against HCPC-1, a cell line established from DMBA-induced cheek pouch carcinoma. DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks. The growth of tumors formed was significantly suppressed and none of the hamsters died within the 20 weeks during which they were observed. When GcMAF administration was stopped at the 13th week of the experiment in 4 out of the 14 hamsters in the GcMAF-treated group, tumor growth was promoted, but none of the mice died within the 20-week period. On the other hand, when GcMAF administration was commenced after the 13th week in 5 out of the 15 hamsters in the control group, tumor growth was slightly suppressed and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden. However, the mean survival time was significantly extended. GcMAF treatment activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and these activated macrophages exhibited a marked cytocidal effect on HCPC-1 cells. Furthermore, the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages was enhanced by the addition of tumor-bearing hamster serum. These findings indicated that GcMAF possesses an inhibitory effect on tumor development and growth in a DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model.
doi:10.3892/ol.2011.306
PMCID: PMC3406437  PMID: 22848250
vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor; macrophage; 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis

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