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1.  Sicily statement on classification and development of evidence-based practice learning assessment tools 
BMC Medical Education  2011;11:78.
Background
Teaching the steps of evidence-based practice (EBP) has become standard curriculum for health professions at both student and professional levels. Determining the best methods for evaluating EBP learning is hampered by a dearth of valid and practical assessment tools and by the absence of guidelines for classifying the purpose of those that exist. Conceived and developed by delegates of the Fifth International Conference of Evidence-Based Health Care Teachers and Developers, the aim of this statement is to provide guidance for purposeful classification and development of tools to assess EBP learning.
Discussion
This paper identifies key principles for designing EBP learning assessment tools, recommends a common taxonomy for new and existing tools, and presents the Classification Rubric for EBP Assessment Tools in Education (CREATE) framework for classifying such tools. Recommendations are provided for developers of EBP learning assessments and priorities are suggested for the types of assessments that are needed. Examples place existing EBP assessments into the CREATE framework to demonstrate how a common taxonomy might facilitate purposeful development and use of EBP learning assessment tools.
Summary
The widespread adoption of EBP into professional education requires valid and reliable measures of learning. Limited tools exist with established psychometrics. This international consensus statement strives to provide direction for developers of new EBP learning assessment tools and a framework for classifying the purposes of such tools.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-11-78
PMCID: PMC3221624  PMID: 21970731
2.  Effectiveness of the tailored EBP training program for Filipino physiotherapists: A randomised controlled trial 
BMC Medical Education  2011;11:14.
Astract
Background
Evidence implementation continues to challenge health professionals most especially those from developing countries. Filipino physiotherapists represent a group of health professionals in a developing country who by tradition and historical practice, take direction from a doctor, on treatment options. Lack of autonomy in decision-making challenges their capacity to deliver evidence-based care. However, this scenario should not limit them from updating and up-skilling themselves on evidence- based practice (EBP). EBP training tailored to their needs and practice was developed to address this gap. This study will be conducted to assess the effectiveness of a tailored EBP-training program for Filipino physiotherapists, in improving knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour to EBP. Participation in this program aims to improve capacity to EBP and engage with referring doctors to determine the most effective treatments for their patients.
Methods/Design
A double blind randomised controlled trial, assessing the effectiveness of the EBP training intervention, compared with a waitlist control, will be conducted. An adequately powered sample of 54 physiotherapists from the Philippines will be recruited and randomly allocated to EBP intervention or waitlist control.
Intervention: The EBP program for Filipino physiotherapists is a one-day program on EBP principles and techniques, delivered using effective adult education strategies. It consists of lectures and practical workshops. A novel component in this program is the specially-developed recommendation form, which participants can use after completing their training, to assist them to negotiate with referring doctors regarding evidence-based treatment choices for their patients.
Pre and post measures of EBP knowledge, skills and attitudes will be assessed in both groups using the Adapted Fresno Test and the Questions to EBP attitudes. Behaviour to EBP will be measured using activity diaries for a period of three months.
Discussion
Should the EBP-training program be found to be effective in improving EBP-uptake in Filipino physiotherapists, it will form the basis of a much needed national intervention which is contextually appropriate to Filipino physiotherapists. It will therefore form the genesis for a model for building EBP capacity of other health professionals in the Philippines as well as physiotherapists in developing countries.
Trial Registration
Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN74485061
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-11-14
PMCID: PMC3100239  PMID: 21489229
3.  Toward a Transdisciplinary Model of Evidence-Based Practice 
The Milbank quarterly  2009;87(2):368-390.
Context
This article describes the historical context and current developments in evidence-based practice (EBP) for medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, and public health, as well as the evolution of the seminal “three circles” model of evidence-based medicine, highlighting changes in EBP content, processes, and philosophies across disciplines.
Methods
The core issues and challenges in EBP are identified by comparing and contrasting EBP models across various health disciplines. Then a unified, transdisciplinary EBP model is presented, drawing on the strengths and compensating for the weaknesses of each discipline.
Findings
Common challenges across disciplines include (1) how “evidence” should be defined and comparatively weighted; (2) how and when the patient’s and/or other contextual factors should enter the clinical decision-making process; (3) the definition and role of the “expert”; and (4) what other variables should be considered when selecting an evidence-based practice, such as age, social class, community resources, and local expertise.
Conclusions
A unified, transdisciplinary EBP model would address historical shortcomings by redefining the contents of each model circle, clarifying the practitioner’s expertise and competencies, emphasizing shared decision making, and adding both environmental and organizational contexts. Implications for academia, practice, and policy also are discussed.
doi:10.1111/j.1468-0009.2009.00561.x
PMCID: PMC2698591  PMID: 19523122
Evidence-based practice; clinical decision making; transdisciplinary practice
4.  Assessing competency in Evidence Based Practice: strengths and limitations of current tools in practice 
Background
Evidence Based Practice (EBP) involves making clinical decisions informed by the most relevant and valid evidence available. Competence can broadly be defined as a concept that incorporates a variety of domains including knowledge, skills and attitudes. Adopting an evidence-based approach to practice requires differing competencies across various domains including literature searching, critical appraisal and communication. This paper examines the current tools available to assess EBP competence and compares their applicability to existing assessment techniques used in medicine, nursing and health sciences.
Discussion
Only two validated assessment tools have been developed to specifically assess all aspects of EBP competence. Of the two tools (Berlin and Fresno tools), only the Fresno tool comprehensively assesses EBP competency across all relevant domains. However, both tools focus on assessing EBP competency in medical students; therefore neither can be used for assessing EBP competency across different health disciplines. The Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) has been demonstrated as a reliable and versatile tool to assess clinical competencies, practical and communication skills. The OSCE has scope as an alternate method for assessing EBP competency, since it combines assessment of cognitive skills including knowledge, reasoning and communication. However, further research is needed to develop the OSCE as a viable method for assessing EBP competency.
Summary
Demonstrating EBP competence is a complex task – therefore no single assessment method can adequately provide all of the necessary data to assess complete EBP competence. There is a need for further research to explore how EBP competence is best assessed; be it in written formats, such as the Fresno tool, or another format, such as the OSCE. Future tools must also incorporate measures of assessing how EBP competence affects clinician behaviour and attitudes as well as clinical outcomes in real-time situations. This research should also be conducted across a variety of health disciplines to best inform practice.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-9-53
PMCID: PMC2728711  PMID: 19656412
5.  Implementation of a blended learning approach to teaching evidence based practice: a protocol for a mixed methods study 
BMC Medical Education  2013;13:170.
Background
Evidence based practice (EBP) requires that health professionals are competent in integrating the best evidence in their decision making. Being 'evidence-based’ requires skills and knowledge in epidemiology, biostatistics and information literacy. EBP is commonly taught in medical and health sciences degrees, yet there is little evidence to guide educators as to the best teaching modality to increase learner competency in EBP.
Methods/design
This study is mixed methods in design. A randomised controlled trial will examine the effectiveness of blended learning versus didactic approach of teaching EBP to medical students. The primary outcome of the RCT is EBP competency as assessed by the Berlin tool. Focus groups will be conducted to explore student perceptions and attitudes towards implementing a blended learning approach in teaching EBP. A concurrent triangulation design will be implemented, permitting quantitative data to inform the effectiveness of the intervention and qualitative data to contextualise the results.
Discussion
This study will provide novel evidence on the effectiveness of blended learning in teaching EBP to a cohort of undergraduate and graduate-entry medical students.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-170
PMCID: PMC3878342  PMID: 24351113
6.  A process for instituting best practice in the intensive care unit 
Goals of health care are patient safety and quality patient outcomes. Evidence based practice (EBP) is viewed as a tool to achieve these goals. Health care providers strive to base practice on evidence, but the literature identifies numerous challenges to implementing and sustaining EBP in nursing. An initial focus is developing an organizational culture that supports the process for nursing and EBP. An innovative strategy to promote a culture of EBP was implemented in a tertiary center with 152 critical care beds and numerous specialty units with diverse patient populations. A multi-disciplinary committee was developed with the goal to use evidence to improve the care in the critical care population. EBP projects were identified from a literature review. This innovative approach resulted in improved patient outcomes and also provided a method to educate staff on EBP. The committee members have become advocates for EBP and serve as innovators for change to incorporate evidence into decision making for patient care on their units.
doi:10.4103/0972-5229.42562
PMCID: PMC2738305  PMID: 19742246
Evidence based practice; quality; multi-disciplinary teams; critical care nursing
7.  Interdisciplinary Evidence-based Practice: Moving from Silos to Synergy 
Nursing outlook  2010;58(6):309-317.
Despite the assumption that health care providers work synergistically in practice, professions have tended to be more exclusive than inclusive when it comes to educating students in a collaborative approach to interdisciplinary evidence-based practice (EBP). This article explores the state of academic and clinical training regarding interdisciplinary EBP, describes efforts to foster interdisciplinary EBP, and suggests strategies to accelerate the translation of EBP across disciplines. Moving from silos to synergy in interdisciplinary EBP will require a paradigm shift. Changes can be leveraged professionally and politically using national initiatives currently in place on improving quality and health care reform.
doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2010.09.001
PMCID: PMC2998190  PMID: 21074648
8.  Evidence-Based Practices in Addiction Treatment: Review and Recommendations for Public Policy 
The movement in recent years towards evidence-based practice (EBP) in health care systems and policy has permeated the substance abuse treatment system, leading to a growing number of federal and statewide initiatives to mandate EBP implementation. Nevertheless, due to a lack of consensus in the addiction field regarding procedures or criteria to identify EBPs, the optimal processes for disseminating empirically based interventions into real-world clinical settings have not been identified. Although working lists of interventions considered to be evidence-based have been developed by a number of constituencies advocating for EBP dissemination in addiction treatment settings, the use of EBP lists to form policy-driven mandates has been controversial. This article examines the concept of EBP, critically reviews criteria used to evaluate the evidence basis of interventions, and highlights the manner in which such criteria have been applied in the addictions field. Controversies regarding EBP implementation policies and practices in addiction treatment are described, and suggestions are made to shift the focus of dissemination efforts from manualized psychosocial interventions to specific skill sets that are broadly applicable and easily learned by clinicians. Organizational and workforce barriers to EBP implementation are delineated, with corresponding recommendations to facilitate successful dissemination of evidence-based skills.
doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.05.013
PMCID: PMC2951979  PMID: 20557970
Evidence-based practice; Technology transfer; Addiction; Treatment; Implementation; Dissemination
9.  Evidence-based Practice Implementation and Staff Emotional Exhaustion in Children’s Services 
Behaviour research and therapy  2009;47(11):954-960.
Understanding the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) in community service settings is critical for the successful translation of research to practice. However, we have limited research evidence about the impact of EBP implementation on the mental health and social service workforce. In a previous study we demonstrated reduced staff turnover where an EBP was implemented with fidelity monitoring in the form of supportive ongoing supervision and consultation. Other research has shown that staff burnout and emotional exhaustion in particular is associated with poor quality of care and increased staff turnover intentions and turnover. Current research, however, has focused less on the effects that EBP implementation may have on staff emotional exhaustion. The present study investigates the association of EBP implementation and fidelity monitoring with staff emotional exhaustion in a statewide EBP implementation study. The 21 case management teams in this study were randomized in a 2 (EBP vs. services as usual [SAU]) by 2 (monitoring vs. no monitoring) design. The EBP in this study was SafeCare®, a home-based intervention that aims to reduce child neglect in at-risk families. SafeCare was developed from a behavior analysis approach and is based in cognitive behavioral principles. In keeping with our previous research, we hypothesized that providers implementing SafeCare with monitoring would have the lowest levels of emotional exhaustion and those receiving additional monitoring not in the context of EBP implementation would have higher emotional exhaustion relative to the other groups. Results supported our hypotheses in that we found lower emotional exhaustion for staff implementing the EBP but higher emotional exhaustion for staff receiving only fidelity monitoring and providing SAU. Together, these results suggest a potential staff and organizational benefit to EBP implementation and we discuss implications of the findings relative to EBPs and to fidelity monitoring.
doi:10.1016/j.brat.2009.07.006
PMCID: PMC2784174  PMID: 19660738
10.  Protocol for development of the guideline for reporting evidence based practice educational interventions and teaching (GREET) statement 
Background
There are an increasing number of studies reporting the efficacy of educational strategies to facilitate the development of knowledge and skills underpinning evidence based practice (EBP). To date there is no standardised guideline for describing the teaching, evaluation, context or content of EBP educational strategies. The heterogeneity in the reporting of EBP educational interventions makes comparisons between studies difficult. The aim of this program of research is to develop the Guideline for Reporting EBP Educational interventions and Teaching (GREET) statement and an accompanying explanation and elaboration (E&E) paper.
Methods/design
Three stages are planned for the development process. Stage one will comprise a systematic review to identify features commonly reported in descriptions of EBP educational interventions. In stage two, corresponding authors of articles included in the systematic review and the editors of the journals in which these studies were published will be invited to participate in a Delphi process to reach consensus on items to be considered when reporting EBP educational interventions. The final stage of the project will include the development and pilot testing of the GREET statement and E&E paper.
Outcome
The final outcome will be the creation of a Guideline for Reporting EBP Educational interventions and Teaching (GREET) statement and E&E paper.
Discussion
The reporting of health research including EBP educational research interventions, have been criticised for a lack of transparency and completeness. The development of the GREET statement will enable the standardised reporting of EBP educational research. This will provide a guide for researchers, reviewers and publishers for reporting EBP educational interventions.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-9
PMCID: PMC3599902  PMID: 23347417
Evidence based practice; Education; Reporting guideline
11.  Evidence-based practice. 
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is spreading in popularity in many health care disciplines. One of its main features is the reliance on the partnership among hard scientific evidence, clinical expertise, and individual patient needs and choices. Librarians play an important role in the spread of EBP because of the importance of identifying and retrieving appropriate literature from various sources for use in making health care decisions. This article gives an overview of how to search for therapy, diagnosis, etiology, and prognosis both for original studies and secondary publications such as systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical practice guidelines. Understanding how this research is done, how it is indexed, and how to retrieve the clinical evidence are an important set of skills that librarians can provide for clinicians interested in EBP.
PMCID: PMC226388  PMID: 9681176
12.  Review for librarians of evidence-based practice in nursing and the allied health professions in the United States 
Objective: This paper provides an overview of the state of evidence-based practice (EBP) in nursing and selected allied health professions and a synopsis of current trends in incorporating EBP into clinical education and practice in these fields. This overview is intended to better equip librarians with a general understanding of the fields and relevant information resources.
Included Professions: Professions are athletic training, audiology, health education and promotion, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, physician assisting, respiratory care, and speech-language pathology.
Approach: Each section provides a description of a profession, highlighting changes that increase the importance of clinicians' access to and use of the profession's knowledgebase, and a review of each profession's efforts to support EBP. The paper concludes with a discussion of the librarian's role in providing EBP support to the profession.
Conclusions: EBP is in varying stages of growth among these fields. The evolution of EBP is evidenced by developments in preservice training, growth of the literature and resources, and increased research funding. Obstacles to EBP include competing job tasks, the need for additional training, and prevalent attitudes and behaviors toward research among practitioners. Librarians' skills in searching, organizing, and evaluating information can contribute to furthering the development of EBP in a given profession.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.95.4.394
PMCID: PMC2000778  PMID: 17971887
13.  Validation of the modified Fresno Test: assessing physical therapists' evidence based practice knowledge and skills 
BMC Medical Education  2010;10:38.
Background
Health care educators need valid and reliable tools to assess evidence based practice (EBP) knowledge and skills. Such instruments have yet to be developed for use among physical therapists. The Fresno Test (FT) has been validated only among general practitioners and occupational therapists and does not assess integration of research evidence with patient perspectives and clinical expertise. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a modified FT to assess EBP knowledge and skills relevant to physical therapist (PT) practice.
Methods
The FT was modified to include PT-specific content and two new questions to assess integration of patient perspectives and clinical expertise with research evidence. An expert panel reviewed the test for content validity. A cross-sectional cohort representing three training levels (EBP-novice students, EBP-trained students, EBP-expert faculty) completed the test. Two blinded raters, not involved in test development, independently scored each test. Construct validity was assessed through analysis of variance for linear trends among known groups. Inter and intra-rater reliability, internal consistency, item discrimination index, item total correlation, and difficulty were analyzed.
Results
Among 108 participants (31 EBP-novice students, 50 EBP-trained students, and 27 EBP-expert faculty), there was a statistically significant (p < 0.0001) difference in total score corresponding to training level. Total score reliability and psychometric properties of items modified for discipline-specific content were excellent [inter-rater (ICC (2,1)] = 0.91); intra-rater (ICC (2,1)] = 0.95, 0.96)]. Cronbach's α was 0.78. Of the two new items, only one had strong psychometric properties.
Conclusions
The 13-item modified FT presented here is a valid, reliable assessment of physical therapists' EBP knowledge and skills. One new item assesses integration of patient perspective as part of the EBP model. Educators and researchers may use the 13-item modified FT to evaluate PT EBP curricula and physical therapists' EBP knowledge and skills.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-10-38
PMCID: PMC2896364  PMID: 20500871
14.  Survey of knowledge and perception on the access to evidence-based practice and clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia 
Background
Evidence-based practice (EBP) can provide appropriate care for women and their babies; however implementation of EBP requires health professionals to have access to knowledge, the ability to interpret health care information and then strategies to apply care. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, perceptions and potential enablers and barriers to clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia.
Methods
Questionnaires about IT access for health information and evidence-based practice were administered during August to December 2005 to health care professionals working at the nine hospitals participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID) project in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and The Philippines.
Results
The survey was completed by 660 staff from six health professional groups. Overall, easy IT access for health care information was available to 46% of participants. However, over a fifth reported no IT access was available and over half of nurses and midwives never used IT health information. Evidence-based practice had been heard of by 58% but the majority did not understand the concept. The most frequent sites accessed were Google and PubMed. The Cochrane Library had been heard of by 47% of whom 51% had access although the majority did not use it or used it less than monthly. Only 27% had heard of the WHO Reproductive Health Library and 35% had been involved in a clinical practice change and were able to identify enablers and barriers to change. Only a third of participants had been actively involved in practice change with wide variation between the countries. Willingness to participate in professional development workshops on evidence-based practice was high.
Conclusion
This survey has identified the need to improve IT access to health care information and health professionals' knowledge of evidence-based health care to assist in employing evidence base practice effectively.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-8-34
PMCID: PMC2533287  PMID: 18680603
15.  Knowledge and beliefs concerning evidence-based practice amongst complementary and alternative medicine health care practitioners and allied health care professionals: A questionnaire survey 
Background
Evidence-based practice (EBP) has become an important competency in many allied and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) health care practitioners' professional standards of proficiency.
Methods
To compliment an EBP course for allied health care professionals and CAM practitioners, we undertook a questionnaire survey to assess learning needs. We developed a questionnaire to measure allied health care professionals and CAM practitioners' basic knowledge, skills and beliefs concerning the main principles of EBP. The questionnaires were administered to all attendees of one-day EBP workshops.
Results
During 2004–5 we surveyed 193 allied health care professionals and CAM practitioners who attended one-day EBP courses prior to commencement of teaching. Of the respondents 121 (62.7%) were allied health care professionals and 65 (33.7%) practitioners stated that they work in the CAM field Our survey found that the majority of the respondents had not previously attended a literature appraisal skills workshop (87.3%) or received formal training in research methods (69.9%), epidemiology (91.2%) or statistics (80.8%). Furthermore, 67.1% of practitioners specified that they felt that they had not had adequate training in EBM and they identified that they needed more training and education in the principles of EBM (86.7%). Differences in knowledge and beliefs concerning EBP amongst allied and CAM practitioners were found and length of time since qualification was also found to be an important factor in practitioner's beliefs. More CAM practitioners compared to allied health professionals accessed educational literature via the Internet (95.3% v 68.1%, p = 0.008). Whilst, practitioners with more than 11 years experience felt that original research papers were far more confusing (p = 0.02) than their less experienced colleagues.
Conclusion
The results demonstrate that practitioner's learning needs do vary according to the type of profession, time since graduation and prior research experience. Our survey findings are exploratory and will benefit from further replication, however, we do believe that they warrant consideration by allied health care and CAM tutors and trainers when planning EBP teaching curricula as it is important to tailor teaching to meet the needs of specific subgroups of trainees to ensure that specific learning needs are met.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-45
PMCID: PMC2533291  PMID: 18651937
16.  Issues in Defining and Applying Evidence-Based Practices Criteria for Treatment of Criminal-Justice Involved Clients† 
Journal of psychoactive drugs  2011;Suppl 7:10-18.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) applies the principles and techniques of evidence-based decision making to interventions intended to improve, or ameliorate, the social or clinical problems of affected individuals, including offenders with drug abuse problems. This article provides a general overview of EBP, particularly as it applies to treatment and other interventions for offenders with problems involving drugs (including alcohol). The discussion includes a definition of EBP, notes the implications of using EBPs to make policy and clinical decisions, lists the various efforts by government and academic organizations to identify practices that can be considered evidence-based, describes the criteria used by such organizations to evaluate programs as being evidence-based, raises some cautions about the use of EBPs, and ends with some challenges in disseminating and implementing EBPs.
PMCID: PMC3246745  PMID: 22185035
drug abuse; evidence-based practices; offenders; treatment programs
17.  Are we there yet? Evaluation and the Knowledge Translation Journey 
Introduction
Critical to knowledge translation are organizations’ efforts to evaluate their implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). Organizations face challenges in their ability to be aware of emerging practices, to measure their efforts against current evidence, and to adapt EBPs to their contextual environments. The Provincial Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health has engaged in initiatives to increase the uptake of EBPs and mobilize knowledge by building capacity for evaluation and research in the sector.
Methods
Consultation services and innovative grants to organizations with mental health programs and services, where the Centre acts as both knowledge and relationship broker, are contributing to organizations’ capacity to do and use evaluation.
Results
Case exemplars illustrate the processes, successes and challenges experienced by organizations in Centre-supported activities. The Centre’s efforts to build organizations’ skills in doing and using evaluation, promoting a learning-by-doing approach and fostering collaboration are described.
Conclusions
Organizations with the capacity to conduct effective evaluations are better able to implement and assess EBPs, conduct quality evaluations, and contribute to research in the child and youth mental health sector. Widespread gains in mental health organizations’ evaluation capacities will contribute to system innovations and the fostering of collaborative partnerships.
PMCID: PMC2651207  PMID: 19270844
evaluation; knowledge translation; capacity building; collaboration; évaluation; transfert des connaissances; renforcement des capacités; collaboration
18.  Development and psychometric testing of an instrument to evaluate cognitive skills of evidence based practice in student health professionals 
BMC Medical Education  2011;11:77.
Background
Health educators need rigorously developed instruments to evaluate cognitive skills relating to evidence based practice (EBP). Previous EBP evaluation instruments have focused on the acquisition and appraisal of the evidence and are largely based in the medical profession. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an EBP evaluation instrument to assess EBP cognitive skills for entry-level health professional disciplines.
Methods
The Fresno test of competence in evidence based medicine was considered in the development of the 'Knowledge of Research Evidence Competencies' instrument (K-REC). The K-REC was reviewed for content validity. Two cohorts of entry-level students were recruited for the pilot study, those who had been exposed to EBP training (physiotherapy students, n = 24), and who had not been exposed to EBP training (human movement students, n = 76). The K-REC was administered to one cohort of students (n = 24) on two testing occasions to evaluate test-retest reliability. Two raters independently scored the first test occasion (n = 24) to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of the marking guidelines. Construct validity was assessed by comparison of the two groups, 'exposed' and 'non-exposed', and the percentage of students achieving a 'pass' score in each of these groups. Item difficulty was established.
Results
Among the 100 participants (24 EBP 'exposed', and 76 EBP 'non-exposed' students), there was a statistically significant (p < 0.0001) difference in the total K-REC scores. The test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the individual items and total scores ranged from moderate to excellent (measured by Cohen's Kappa and ICC, range: 0.62 to perfect agreement).
Conclusions
The K-REC instrument is a valid and reliable evaluation instrument of cognitive skills of EBP in entry-level student health professionals. The instrument is quick to disseminate and easy to score, making it a suitable instrument for health educators to employ to evaluate students' knowledge of EBP or in the evaluation of entry-level EBP training.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-11-77
PMCID: PMC3196731  PMID: 21967728
19.  Development of a Theory-Based Intervention to Increase Prescription of Inspiratory Muscle Training by Health Professionals in the Management of People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 
Physiotherapy Canada  2011;63(3):315-323.
ABSTRACT
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to provide an overview of the literature on barriers to evidence-based practice (EBP) and the effectiveness of implementation interventions in health care; and (2) to outline the development of an implementation intervention for improving the prescription of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) by physical therapists and other health professionals for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Summary of Key Points: Individuals, organizations, and the research itself present barriers to EBP in physical therapy. Despite the evidence supporting the use of IMT, this treatment continues to be under-used in managing COPD. Current health services research shows that traditional information-based approaches to implementation, such as didactic lectures, do not adequately address the challenges health professionals face when trying to make changes in practice. We propose the development of a theory-based intervention to improve health professionals' use of IMT in the management of COPD. It is postulated that a behavioural intervention, based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), may be more effective than an information-based strategy in increasing the prescription of IMT by health professionals.
Conclusion: TPB may be used to understand the antecedents of health professionals' behaviour and to guide the development of implementation interventions. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this proposed intervention in the management of people with COPD.
doi:10.3138/ptc.2010-15
PMCID: PMC3157991  PMID: 22654237
evidence-based practice; inspiratory muscle training; knowledge translation; physical therapist; theory of planned behaviour; entraînement des muscles inspiratoires; physiothérapeute; pratique fondée sur les preuves scientifiques; théorie du comportement planifié; transmission des connaissances
20.  Adopting evidence-based practice in clinical decision making: nurses' perceptions, knowledge, and barriers 
Objective:
Evidence-based practice (EBP) provides nurses with a method to use critically appraised and scientifically proven evidence for delivering quality health care to a specific population. The objective of this study was to explore nurses' awareness of, knowledge of, and attitude toward EBP and factors likely to encourage or create barriers to adoption. In addition, information sources used by nurses and their literature searching skills were also investigated.
Method:
A total of 2,100 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to registered nurses in 2 public hospitals in Singapore, and 1,486 completed forms were returned, resulting in a response rate of 70.8%.
Results:
More than 64% of the nurses expressed a positive attitude toward EBP. However, they pointed out that due to heavy workload, they cannot keep up to date with new evidence. Regarding self-efficacy of EBP-related abilities, the nurses perceived themselves to possess moderate levels of skills. The nurses also felt that EBP training, time availability, and mentoring by nurses with EBP experience would encourage them to implement EBP. The top three barriers to adopting EBP were lack of time, inability to understand statistical terms, and inadequate understanding of the jargon used in research articles. For literature searching, nurses were using basic search features and less than one-quarter of them were familiar with Boolean and proximity operators.
Conclusion:
Although nurses showed a positive attitude toward EBP, certain barriers were hindering their smooth adoption. It is, therefore, desirable that hospital management in Southeast Asia, particularly in Singapore, develop a comprehensive strategy for building EBP competencies through proper training. Moreover, hospital libraries should also play an active role in developing adequate information literacy skills among the nurses.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.99.3.010
PMCID: PMC3133901  PMID: 21753915
21.  Nursing faculties’ knowledge and attitude on evidence-based practice 
Background:
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is one of the main professional competencies for health care professionals and a priority for medicine and nursing curriculum as well. EBP leads to improve effective and efficient care and patient outcomes. Nurse educators have responsibility to teach the future nurses, and an opportunity to promote patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurse educators’ knowledge and attitude on EBP.
Materials and Methods:
This was a descriptive study conducted in nursing faculties of two major universities of medical sciences affiliated to Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered using a three-section questionnaire. Content and face validity was further enhanced by submitting it to nursing research and education experts. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11 software.
Results:
According the results, nursing faculties’ knowledge of EBP was mainly moderate (47.1%). Significant statistical relationship was found between the level of knowledge with education and teaching experience in different nursing programs. Nurses generally held positive attitudes toward EBP (88.6%) and there was no statistical significant relationship with demographic variables.
Conclusion:
Nursing educators are in a position to influence nursing research in clinical practice in the future. Therefore, it is critical to achieve implementation of EBP and be a change agent for a paradigm shift toward EBP.
PMCID: PMC3730454  PMID: 23922597
Attitude; evidence-based practice; Iran; knowledge
22.  Framework of policy recommendations for implementation of evidence-based practice: a systematic scoping review 
BMJ Open  2013;3(1):e001881.
Objectives
Evidence-based practice (EBP) may help improve healthcare quality. However, not all healthcare professionals and managers use EBP in their daily practice. We systematically reviewed the literature to summarise self-reported appreciation of EBP and organisational infrastructure solutions proposed to promote EBP.
Design
Systematic review. Two investigators independently performed the systematic reviewing process.
Information sources
MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched for publications between 2000 and 2011.
Eligibility criteria for included studies
Reviews and surveys of EBP attitude, knowledge, awareness, skills, barriers and facilitators among managers, doctors and nurses in clinical settings.
Results
We found 31 surveys of fairly good quality. General attitude towards EBP was welcoming. Respondents perceived several barriers, but also many facilitators for EBP implementation. Solutions were proposed at various organisational levels, including (inter)national associations and hospital management promoting EBP, pregraduate and postgraduate education, as well as individual support by EBP mentors on the wards to move EBP from the classroom to the bedside.
Conclusions
More than 20 years after its introduction, the EBP paradigm has been embraced by healthcare professionals as an important means to improve quality of patient care, but its implementation is still deficient. Policy exerted at microlevel , middlelevel and macrolevel, and supported by professional, educational and managerial role models, may further facilitate EBP.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001881
PMCID: PMC3563143  PMID: 23355664
Medical Education & Training
23.  Experiences of general practitioners and practice nurses of training courses in evidence-based health care: a qualitative study. 
BACKGROUND: Clinical governance will require general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) to become competent in finding, appraising, and implementing research evidence--the skills of evidence-based health care (EBHC). AIM: To report the experiences of GPs and PNs in training in this area. METHOD: We held 30 in-depth, semi-structured interviews throughout North Thames region with three groups of informants: primary care practitioners recruited from the mailing lists of established EBHC courses; organizers and teachers on these courses; and educational advisers from Royal Colleges, universities, and postgraduate departments. Detailed qualitative analysis was undertaken to identify themes from each of these interview groups. RESULTS: At the time of the fieldwork for this study (late 1997), remarkably few GPs or PNs had attended any formal EBHC courses in our region. Perceived barriers to attendance on courses included inconsistency in marketing terminology, cultural issues (e.g. EBHC being perceived as one aspect of rapid and unwanted change in the workplace), lack of confidence in the subject matter (especially mathematics and statistics), lack of time, and practical and financial constraints. Our interviews suggested, however, that the principles and philosophy of EBHC are beginning to permeate traditional lecture-based continuing medical education courses, and consultant colleagues increasingly seek to make their advice 'evidence based'. CONCLUSION: We offer some preliminary recommendations for the organizers of EBHC courses for primary care. These include offering a range of flexible training, being explicit about course content, recognizing differences in professional culture between primary and secondary care and between doctors and nurses, and addressing issues of funding and accreditation at national level. Introducing EBHC through traditional topic-based postgraduate teaching programmes may be more acceptable and more effective than providing dedicated courses in its theoretical principles.
PMCID: PMC1313472  PMID: 10621987
24.  Improving quality of care through routine, successful implementation of evidence-based practice at the bedside: an organizational case study protocol using the Pettigrew and Whipp model of strategic change 
Background
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an expected approach to improving the quality of patient care and service delivery in health care systems internationally that is yet to be realized. Given the current evidence-practice gap, numerous authors describe barriers to achieving EBP. One recurrently identified barrier is the setting or context of practice, which is likewise cited as a potential part of the solution to the gap. The purpose of this study is to identify key contextual elements and related strategic processes in organizations that find and use evidence at multiple levels, in an ongoing, integrated fashion, in contrast to those that do not.
Methods
The core theoretical framework for this multi-method explanatory case study is Pettigrew and Whipp's Content, Context, and Process model of strategic change. This framework focuses data collection on three entities: the Why of strategic change, the What of strategic change, and the How of strategic change, in this case related to implementation and normalization of EBP. The data collection plan, designed to capture relevant organizational context and related outcomes, focuses on eight interrelated factors said to characterize a receptive context. Selective, purposive sampling will provide contrasting results between two cases (departments of nursing) and three embedded units in each. Data collection methods will include quantitative tools (e.g., regarding culture) and qualitative approaches including focus groups, interviews, and documents review (e.g., regarding integration and “success”) relevant to the EBP initiative.
Discussion
This study should provide information regarding contextual elements and related strategic processes key to successful implementation and sustainability of EBP, specifically in terms of a pervasive pattern in an acute care hospital-based health care setting. Additionally, this study will identify key contextual elements that differentiate successful implementation and sustainability of EBP efforts, both within varying levels of a hospital-based clinical setting and across similar hospital settings interested in EBP.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-2-3
PMCID: PMC1803000  PMID: 17266756
25.  Institutionalizing evidence-based practice: an organizational case study using a model of strategic change 
Background
There is a general expectation within healthcare that organizations should use evidence-based practice (EBP) as an approach to improving the quality of care. However, challenges exist regarding how to make EBP a reality, particularly at an organizational level and as a routine, sustained aspect of professional practice.
Methods
A mixed method explanatory case study was conducted to study context; i.e., in terms of the presence or absence of multiple, inter-related contextual elements and associated strategic approaches required for integrated, routine use of EBP ('institutionalization'). The Pettigrew et al. Content, Context, and Process model was used as the theoretical framework. Two sites in the US were purposively sampled to provide contrasting cases: i.e., a 'role model' site, widely recognized as demonstrating capacity to successfully implement and sustain EBP to a greater degree than others; and a 'beginner' site, self-perceived as early in the journey towards institutionalization.
Results
The two sites were clearly different in terms of their organizational context, level of EBP activity, and degree of institutionalization. For example, the role model site had a pervasive, integrated presence of EBP versus a sporadic, isolated presence in the beginner site. Within the inner context of the role model site, there was also a combination of the Pettigrew and colleagues' receptive elements that, together, appeared to enhance its ability to effectively implement EBP-related change at multiple levels. In contrast, the beginner site, which had been involved for a few years in EBP-related efforts, had primarily non-receptive conditions in several contextual elements and a fairly low overall level of EBP receptivity. The beginner site thus appeared, at the time of data collection, to lack an integrated context to either support or facilitate the institutionalization of EBP.
Conclusion
Our findings provide evidence of some of the key contextual elements that may require attention if institutionalization of EBP is to be realized. They also suggest the need for an integrated set of receptive contextual elements to achieve EBP institutionalization; and they further support the importance of specific interactions among these elements, including ways in which leadership affects other contextual elements positively or negatively.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-4-78
PMCID: PMC2795741  PMID: 19948064

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