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1.  Trichinosis presenting as acute myocardial infarction 
A 20-year-old male patient is presented as a case of trichinous myocarditis with clinical symptoms and electrocardiographic evidence of an acute inferior myocardial infarction. He recovered rapidly and completely without any specific therapy. This seems to be a distinct rarity, having never been previously reported, but is of importance because of the almost uniformly excellent prognosis in this condition in contradistinction to that of a bona fide myocardial infarction occurring at this age.
PMCID: PMC1940622  PMID: 5026725
2.  Trichinosis Caused by Ingestion of Raw Soft-Shelled Turtle Meat in Korea 
Reptiles, unlike mammals, have been considered to be unsuitable hosts of Trichinella spp., though larvae have been detected in their muscles and human outbreaks related to their consumption have, in fact, occurred. Herein we report 2 Korean cases of trichinosis, possibly transmitted via consumption of reptile meat. Both patients suffered from myalgia, headache, and facial edema. Laboratory examinations revealed leukocytosis with eosinophilia (54% and 39%, respectively) and elevated creatinine phosphokinase. ELISA was performed under the suspicion of trichinosis, showing positivity at the 29th and 60th day post-infection. Since they had consumed raw soft-shelled turtle meat, turtle was strongly suggested to be an infection source of trichinosis in Korea next to the wild boar and badger.
doi:10.3347/kjp.2013.51.2.219
PMCID: PMC3662067  PMID: 23710091
Trichinella sp.; trichinosis; soft-shelled turtle; Korea
3.  Immunofluorescence as an Aid in the Early Diagnosis of Trichinosis 
The established serological tests for trichinosis are often negative during the period when laboratory investigation is most likely to be useful.
Another serological test, the immunofluorescence test, appears to be more promising in this respect. The results were based on studies involving experimental animals and human patients. In two rabbits orally infected with Trichinella spiralis larvae, antibodies were demonstrable by immunofluorescence on the fourth day after infection, by complement fixation on the eighth and tenth days, and by the precipitin test on the thirteenth and twenty-eighth days, respectively. In three human cases the immunofluorescence antibody test was positive two weeks (the earliest blood samples available) after onset, while precipitin and complement fixation tests did not become positive until the end of the fourth week. The immunofluorescence test thus becomes positive at least two weeks earlier than the other two, a factor which undoubtedly increases its value in diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC1922598  PMID: 14139989
4.  Human Trichinosis: Studies on Eleven Cases Affecting Two Families in Nova Scotia 
Canadian Medical Association Journal  1962;87(26):1353-1362.
A two-family outbreak of 11 cases of trichinosis with one fatality has been described. Efforts were made to obtain an early assessment of the severity of parasitization on the basis of initial clinical appearance, serial electrocardiograms, changes in eosinophil count, serum protein analyses and SGOT levels. The diagnoses were confirmed by muscle biopsy and by Suessenguth-Kline flocculation tests on serum. Factors portending a severe illness included: (a) rapid decline in total eosinophil count, (b) very low levels of serum albumin, (c) elevation of α1- and α2-fractions of serum proteins. A review of current serological methods available for the diagnosis of trichinosis has been presented and emphasis has been placed on the importance of interpreting laboratory tests in conjunction with clinical signs and symptoms. The severity and duration of illness in these cases have shown the importance of enforcing present public health regulations designed to prevent this illness being acquired by humans through consumption of infected pork.
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PMCID: PMC1920879  PMID: 13940901
5.  Immunobiology of Trichinosis 
Trichinosis is world-wide in distribution, occurring in tropical, temperate, and polar regions. Although incidence of the disease appears to be declining in most regions, it is still widely distributed in Europe and is increasing in many parts of Africa. In recent years, the incidence of trichinosis in the United States also has increased. This article reviews the nature of immunity to trichinosis.
PMCID: PMC2561575  PMID: 6348300
6.  The Fifth Outbreak of Trichinosis in Korea 
Trichinosis is a food-borne zoonotic disease caused by the nematode, Trichinella spp., and had been reported several times in Korea. Recently, there was an additional outbreak, involving 5 patients, the findings from which are reported herein. On 30 November 2010, 8 persons ate sashimi of the meat of a wild boar. Then, 2-3 weeks later, they complained of myalgia and fever. Unfortunately, muscle biopsy was not performed, but ELISA was performed using their sera. Two people among 8 were positive for Trichinella on the 34th day post-infection (PI), and 3 patients who initially revealed negative ELISA were additionally proved to be positive for trichinosis on the 42nd day PI. Hence, the confirmed patients of trichinosis were 5 in total in the present outbreak. They were treated with albendazole and discharged uneventfully. This was the fifth outbreak of trichinosis in Korea.
doi:10.3347/kjp.2011.49.4.405
PMCID: PMC3279679  PMID: 22355208
Trichinella; trichinosis; wild boar; ELISA; outbreak
7.  Comparative efficacy of ketoconazole and mebendazole in experimental trichinosis. 
The therapeutic efficacy of ketoconazole and mebendazole was studied in ICR/CD-1 mice infected with Trichinella spiralis for 17 to 20 weeks. Efficacy of both drugs was over 70% when compared with results in control mice. This study indicates that both ketoconazole and mebendazole should be considered in the treatment of trichinosis in humans.
PMCID: PMC180629  PMID: 3813518
8.  STUDIES ON TRICHINOSIS, WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE INCREASE OF THE EOSINOPHILIC CELLS IN THE BLOOD AND MUSCLE, THE ORIGIN OF THESE CELLS AND THEIR DIAGNOSTIC IMPORTANCE 
To summarize, we have been able to demonstrate: (1) In a case of acute trichinosis an extensive leucocytosis, with great absolute and relative increase in the number of eosinophilic cells in the blood, associated with a coincident decrease in the quantity of neutrophilic elements. (2) From the examination of specimens of muscle removed during life, besides the peculiar degenerations of the muscle, a longitudinal splitting of some of the fibres; a remarkable transverse splitting of others; a great proliferation of nuclei, about many of which vacuoles are seen; and large numbers of polymorphonuclear eosinophilic cells, which are especially prevalent in the more degenerated areas. (3) In a second case (after death), besides similar changes in the muscle, large numbers of eosinophiles throughout the infested portion. (4) In two other cases, during life, a great increase of the eosinophilic cells in the blood, with a coincident decrease of the polymorphonuclear neutrophiles, associated with leucocytosis, though of less extent than in the first case. (5) In pieces of muscle removed in these last two cases changes in most respects similar to those cited in the first case, but of less degree. (6) The similar character of the nuclei of the eosinophiles and the neutrophiles both in the blood and in the muscle, and the presence in the first case of certain cells which might be regarded as forms transitional between neutrophiles and eosinophiles, suggesting the possibility that the increase in the latter elements may, in these instances, take place in the muscles by direct transition from the neutrophiles.
PMCID: PMC2117971  PMID: 19866874
9.  Increase in incidence of disease due to diagnostic drift: primary liver cancer in Denmark, 1943-85. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1991;302(6774):437-440.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the extent to which changes in diagnostic methods and classification are responsible for the striking increase in incidence of primary liver cancer in Denmark since 1943. DESIGN--Analysis of the time trends in sex specific, age standardised incidence of primary liver cancer and unspecified liver cancer (either secondary without known primary cancer or not specified as primary cancer) in the entire population from 1943 to 1985. By review of the 727 notifications from three periods of 5 years (1948-52, 1963-7, and 1978-82) the changes in histological diagnosis and classification were assessed. SETTING--Denmark. SUBJECTS--Notifications of liver cancer to the Danish cancer registry. RESULTS--Concomitant with the increase in primary liver cancer, the incidence of the unspecified liver cancer declined. The proportion of histologically diagnosed primary liver cancer rose from 85% to 98%, whereas the proportion for unspecified liver cancer rose from 12% to 51%. When the proportion of primary versus unspecified liver cancer obtained by histological diagnosis was extrapolated to all cases, the annual incidence of primary liver cancer was 4.4 rather than 1.6 per 100,000 population in 1948-52 and 6.0 rather than 5.5 per 100,000 in 1978-82. CONCLUSION--The increase in the incidence of primary liver cancer may be much smaller than the numbers of registered cases indicate. This example emphasises the need to consider diagnostic drift in time trend studies of disease incidence.
PMCID: PMC1669338  PMID: 2004170
10.  Human Trichinosis after Consumption of Soft-Shelled Turtles, Taiwan 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2009;15(12):2056-2058.
In 2008, an outbreak of human trichinosis associated with ingestion of raw soft-shelled turtles was identified and investigated in Taiwan. The data suggested that patients were likely infected with Trichinella papuae.
doi:10.3201/eid1512.090619
PMCID: PMC3044530  PMID: 19961701
Trichinella; trichinosis; zoonoses; parasites; soft-shelled turtles; Taiwan; dispatch
11.  An Outbreak of Trichinosis with Molecular Identification of Trichinella sp. in Vietnam 
The 5th outbreak of trichinosis occurred in a mountainous area of North Vietnam in 2012, involving 24 patients among 27 people who consumed raw pork together. Six of these patients visited several hospitals in Hanoi for treatment. Similar clinical symptoms appeared in these patients within 5-8 days after eating infected raw pork, which consisted of fever, muscle pain, difficult moving, edema, difficult swallowing, and difficult breathing. ELISA revealed all (6/6) positive reactions against Trichinella spiralis antigen and all cases showed positive biopsy results for Trichinella sp. larvae in the muscle. The larvae detected in the patients were identified as T. spiralis (Vietnamese strain) by the molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3) gene.
doi:10.3347/kjp.2012.50.4.339
PMCID: PMC3514426  PMID: 23230332
Trichinella spiralis; muscle pain; pork; fever; ELISA; Vietnam
12.  Trichinosis: Epidemiology in Thailand 
Trichinosis is one of the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper reviews the history, species, and epidemiology of the disease and food habits of the people with an emphasis on the north, northeast, central and south regions of Thailand. The earliest record of trichinosis in Thailand was in 1962 in the Mae Sariang District, Mae Hong Son Province. Since then, about 130 outbreaks have been reported involving 7392 patients and 97 deaths (1962-2005). The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports of the Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, show that trichinosis cases increased from 61 in 1997 to 351 in 1998. In contrast to these figures, the number of reported cases decreased to 16 in 1999 and 128 cases in 2000. There was no record of trichinosis in 2001, but then the figures for 2002, 2003 and 2004 were 289, 126 and 212 respectively. The infected patients were mostly in the 35-44 years age group and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women at a ratio of 1.7-2.0:1. There were 84 reported cases of trichinosis in Chiang Rai, Nan, Chiang Mai, Si Sa ket, Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom and Surat Thani, provinces located in different parts of Thailand in 2005. The outbreaks were more common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where people ate raw or under-cooked pork and/or wild animals. This indicates the need for health education programs to prevent and control trichinosis as soon as possible in the high-risk areas.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i40.6440
PMCID: PMC4100632  PMID: 17072975
Trichinosis; Epidemiology; Thailand
15.  Cortisone in Treatment of Trichinosis 
California Medicine  1954;81(5):348-351.
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PMCID: PMC1532305  PMID: 13209368
16.  Points: Trichinosis 
British Medical Journal  1979;2(6193):800.
PMCID: PMC1596434
18.  Trichinosis in the Arctic. 
PMCID: PMC1818824  PMID: 761128
19.  Foxes and Trichinosis 
PMCID: PMC1849580  PMID: 20327240
20.  Trichinosis 
PMCID: PMC1825769  PMID: 20325026
21.  Trichinosis in Canadian Eskimos * 
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PMCID: PMC1824592  PMID: 13343094
22.  Suppression of giardiasis during the intestinal phase of trichinosis in the mouse. 
Gut  1976;17(12):953-958.
The interaction of the intestinal phases of Giardia muris and Trichinella spiralis was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Intraoesophageal inoculation of G. muris cysts seven days before, or seven days after, similar inoculation of T. spiralis larvae resulted in significant reduction in the numbers of Giardia trophozoites in small bowel and Giardia cysts in stools. This effect was not observed when G. muris cysts were administered after resolution of the intestinal phase of trichinosis. Giardiasis had no effect on trichinosis as assessed by numbers of adult worms in small bowel and larvae in skeletal muscles. Studies of small bowel morphology showed that the intestinal phase of trichinosis was associated with increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, a significant increase in Paneth cells in crypts, and a marked reduction in the villus:crypt ratio of jejunum. These observations suggest that the intestinal phase of trichinosis induced environmental changes in small bowel, perhaps related to inflammation, which resulted in suppression of proliferation of Giardia trophozoites.
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PMCID: PMC1411238  PMID: 1017715
24.  Bear meat trichinosis. 
PMCID: PMC1941043  PMID: 4674384

Results 1-25 (310478)