A 20-year-old girl developed a subacute neurological illness characterized by seizures and epilepsia partialis continua, which resulted in her death within 10 weeks of her first symptom. Although she had a history of unusual reactions to viral infections, there was no evidence of any underlying disorder resulting in immunosuppression. Histopathology demonstrated the presence of dense infection with measles virus. The unusual clinical features of this cases suggest that measles virus may be responsible for a wide spectrum of neurological disease ranging from measles inclusion body encephalitis on the one hand to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis on the other.
The role of the immune response to measles virus in acute infection or in disease states associated with this virus is of major interest. The viral genome-specified surface antigens of measles, the hemagglutinin and fusion proteins, are likely to be of paramount importance with respect to the host immune response to the virus. This report describes initial studies aimed at assessing the immune response to the major surface glycoprotein, the hemagglutinin. This antigen was purified by affinity chromatography, using a monoclonal anti-hemagglutinin immobilized on Sepharose. The purified protein retained biological activity in hemagglutination assays. This activity could be specifically inhibited with a human antimeasles serum and with monoclonal antibody to the hemagglutinin. Lymphocytes from individuals known to proliferate to measles-infected monolayers also proliferated to the purified hemagglutinin. Thus, the immune-response to measles virus is, in part, directed to this surface antigen.
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal disease in children and young adults that is caused by persistent infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by a nonproductive, cell-associated form of measles virus. Using an experimental model for SSPE (LEC viral strain in newborn hamsters), we have shown previously that establishment of such CNS infections involves selective elimination from the CNS of productively infected cells by host defensive mechanisms, coupled with the selective sparing of cells carrying nonproductive viral forms. That interferon (IFN) may play a role in this process was suggested by the disappearance of productively infected cells from the CNS tissues prior to the appearance of antiviral antibodies and by the demonstration of cell-associated, IFN-resistant viral variants in the virus stocks that were used. Results of this study support these conclusions by showing that similar IFN-resistant viral variants are present in the HBS strain of SSPE-derived measles virus and that these variants, in the presence of IFN, have properties that are similar to those of naturally occurring cell-associated strains of SSPE viruses, e.g., DR, IP3, and Biken. These IFN-resistant forms of HBS virus were isolated and were shown to maintain their resistance to inhibition by IFN after cloning. However, on removal of IFN, they reverted to productive forms similar to the parental HBS virus. The potential role of such viral forms in the pathogenesis of SSPE is discussed.
Measles virus (MV) rarely induces lethal diseases of the human central nervous system characterized by reduced expression of the viral envelope proteins and by lack of viral budding. The MV envelope contains two integral membrane proteins, termed fusion (F) protein and hemagglutinin (H) protein, and a membrane-associated matrix (M) protein. Previously, analysis of MV genes from autopsy material indicated that the M protein and the F protein intracellular domain are often drastically altered by mutations. Here, we present evidence that truncation of the F protein intracellular domain does not impair fusion function, and we suggest that this alteration interferes with viral budding. Unexpectedly, certain combinations of functional F and H proteins were unable to induce syncytium formation, an observation suggesting that specific F-H protein interactions are required for cell fusion. We also found that three of four H proteins of persistent MVs are defective in intracellular transport, oligosaccharide modification, dimerization, and fusion helper function. Thus, MVs replicating in the brain at the terminal stage of infection are typically defective in M protein and in the two integral membrane proteins. Whereas the M protein appears dispensable altogether, partial preservation of F-protein function and H-protein function seems to be required, presumably to allow local cell fusion. Certain subtle alterations of the F and H proteins may be instrumental for disease development.
Evaluation of the Enzygnost Measles Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay kit (Behring) performance to detect specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) was carried out with 3,297 single serum samples and 898 paired serum samples collected during a measles epidemic (10,184 reported cases) in Quebec, Canada. Anti-measles IgM and IgG were detected by using the Enzygnost kit with the appropriate conjugates. Complement-fixing (CF) antibody (Ab) titers were assessed by the laboratory branch complement fixation micromethod. The Centers for Disease Control's clinical measles case definition was used. A modification of the manufacturer's optical density interpretation algorithm was introduced to allow for equivocal results, in addition to positive and negative ones. These three categories differed as to their association with a significant increase in CF Ab titer and the time between the onset of symptoms and phlebotomy. The IgM positivity rate for complement fixation-confirmed measles cases was 96.6% for vaccinated subjects and 100% for nonvaccinated subjects. The daily percentage of IgM seropositivity that was detected for subjects who became IgM positive within 30 days increased gradually from 40 to 90% for sera taken 1 to 7 days after the onset of symptoms, and it plateaued at 100% for sera taken 16 to 30 days after the onset of symptoms. IgM seropositivity was strongly associated with IgG seroconversion, CF Ab titer increase, and clinical measles (P less than 0.0001). Reproducibility was 100% for nonreactive sera and 99.1% for reactive sera. In conclusion, the Enzygnost Measles Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay kit performed adequately to confirm measles virus infection during this epidemic. A second serum sample should be tested when an early-acute-phase serum sample is IgM negative.
Hamster embryo fibroblasts persistently infected with a derivative of the Schwarz vaccine strain of measles virus spontaneously released virus particles with an average buoyant density considerably lower than that of the parental virus. The released virus contained all of the measles virus structural proteins and interfered with replication of standard virus. All of the virus structural proteins were associated with a membrane-free cytoplasmic extract from the persistently infected cells. Membrane-free cytoplasmic extracts prepared from Vero cells lytically infected with Schwarz strain measles contained little or no virus envelope structural protein. Maintenance of persistent infection may involve both the presence of virus variants and a defect in the ability of the infected cell to replicate the virus efficiently.
The pathogenesis of two rodent-adapted strains of measles virus was studied in 1- to 2-day-old suckling and 4-week-old weanling BALB/c mice. Both the mouse-adapted Edmonston (MAEd) strain and the hamster-neurotropic (HNT) strain caused necrotizing giant-cell encephalitis with a 90 to 100% mortality after intracerebral inoculation into suckling mice. After intracerebral inoculation into weanling mice, MAEd virus caused fatal disease in 20% of the mice; HNT virus caused fatal disease in 30%, but an additional 35% of these mice developed disease and then recovered. Even when mice were moribund there was little histological evidence of disease in weanling mice inoculated intracerebrally with either strain of virus. Fluorescent-antibody staining showed extensive measles virus antigen in the suckling mouse brain and focal areas of measles virus antigen in the weanling mouse brain. Infectious virus was recovered easily from the brains of suckling mice by plaquing on Vero cells, but no infectious virus could be recovered similarly from weanling mice. However, virus could be recovered by intracerebral inoculation of weanling mouse tissue homogenates into suckling animals. The immune response appeared to play no role in the recovery from infection or in these age-related differences in disease. It appears that maturation of the cells of the mouse central nervous system converted the production of measles virus from the infectious form in the suckling mouse to a primarily defective infection in the weanling mouse.
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that measles virus infection in early life may predispose to Crohn's disease. AIMS: To examine using serological methods a potential association between measles virus infection in early life and predisposition to Crohn's disease. SUBJECTS: Forty five patients with Crohn's disease and forty five healthy controls were studied prospectively. METHODS: Clinical data were recorded and serum was analysed for measles virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), adenovirus and herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibody titres by a complement fixation test (CFT), and for measles virus IgM by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Reciprocal CFT titres for measles virus were lower in patients with Crohn's disease compared with controls (p < 0.05); there was no significant difference in titres for other viruses. None of the subjects studied had a level of measles virus IgM suggestive of acute infection, and there was no significant difference in measles virus IgM levels between patients and controls. The measles virus CFT titres and IgM levels in the patients with Crohn's disease did not correlate with any of the clinical features recorded. CONCLUSION: This study does not provide supportive evidence for a role for measles virus in the aetiology of Crohn's disease.
To assess whether an virus-specific immune defect may be associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), we have examined the ability to generate measles virus-and influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) in patients with MS, normal individuals, and other disease controls (ODC). The mean (+/- SEM) measles virus-specific CTL response for normal individuals and ODC was 26.9 +/- 2.9% (N = 17) and 26.7 +/- 2.8% (N = 13) specific lysis, respectively. In contrast, the capacity of MS patients to generate measles virus-specific CTL was markedly diminished. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from MS patients stimulated with measles virus lysed their measles virus-infected autologous B cell line at a group mean level of 6.0 +/- 1.4% (N = 16) specific lysis. MS patients had significantly lower measles virus-specific CTL responses than normal individuals (p less than 0.00001) or ODC (p less than 0.0001). Importantly, this lowered response did not reflect a generalized depressed cytolytic activity of MS patients, since influenza virus-specific CTL and NK activity from these patients were comparable to normals and ODC. Thus, in MS there is a significant depression of measles virus-specific CTL which suggests that this virus- specific immune dysfunction may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder.
Measles virus (MV) infection of U937 cell or peripheral blood leukocyte cultures was shown to induce changes in the expression of leukocyte function antigen 1 (LFA-1) and cause marked aggregation of these cells. Addition of selected monoclonal antibodies specific for LFA-1 epitopes that did not neutralize MV in standard neutralization assays were found to block both virus-induced leukocyte aggregation and virus dissemination. These data suggest that MV modulation of LFA-1 expression on leukocytes may be an important step in MV pathogenesis.
Wild-type measles viruses have been divided into distinct genetic groups according to the nucleotide sequences of their hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes. Most genetic groups have worldwide distribution; however, at least two of the groups appear to have a more limited circulation. To monitor the transmission pathways of measles virus, we observed the geographic distribution of genetic groups, as well as changes in them in a particular region over time. We found evidence of interruption of indigenous transmission of measles in the United States after 1993 and identified the sources of imported virus associated with cases and outbreaks after 1993. The pattern of measles genetic groups provided a means to describe measles outbreaks and assess the extent of virus circulation in a given area. We expect that molecular epidemiologic studies will become a powerful tool for evaluating strategies to control, eliminate, and eventually eradicate measles.
Identification of stimulatory T-cell epitopes recognized by CD4+ T lymphocytes is important for vaccine development. Our previous studies using mass spectrometry identified a naturally processed HLA class II restricted DRB1*0301 T cell epitope in the measles virus phosphoprotein, MV-P1 (residues 179-197). Here we provide lymphocyte proliferation data from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from 131 HLA-DRB1*0301-positive and HLA-DRB1*0301-negative (HLA discordant) individuals previously immunized against measles and report that a single amino acid substitution in the MV-P1 T cell epitope can reduce T cell proliferation and CD4+ T-cell recognition. Measles virus and measles peptide-specific lymphoproliferative responses and HLA-DRB1 allele associations reveal that the DRB1*0701 allele provided suggestive evidence of association with both measles virus (p = 0.03) and MV-P1 peptide (p = 0.06) lymphoproliferation. A marginally significant increase in the frequency of the *0301 allele (p = 0.10) was found among subjects who demonstrated low cellular responses to the measles virus. We found no associations between proliferation levels to the MV-P1 and MV-P2 peptides with *0301 alleles. We speculate that the glutamic acid at position 192 of the measles phosphoprotein is a critical immunogenicity factor and may influence the antigenicity of the naturally processed HLA class II MV-P1 epitope.
measles; HLA class II epitopes; cellular immunity; measles peptides; T-cell recognition
Infection by measles virus (MV) is a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. In 2001, the WHO, UNICEF and their partners launched the Measles Initiative, the goals of which are to interrupt the transmission of MV in large geographic areas by increasing vaccination coverage and to assess the feasibility of eradicating MV worldwide. An estimated 74% reduction in mortality resulting from measles was achieved between 2000 and 2007, equivalent to a reduction of approximately 200,000 deaths annually. Despite this progress in the control of measles, the highest number of measles cases in more than a decade was observed in 2008 in several European countries and the US, and the virus was again declared endemic in the UK. In the light of this resurgence in the UK and the limitations associated with the current live-attenuated vaccine, this review discusses the means by which safe and effective measles antivirals could augment vaccination and strengthen global efforts to control measles. Important aspects of treatment are the potential to prevent infection effectively after exposure to MV, the improvement of case management, the amelioration of complications that frequently follow MV infection and the influence of antivirals on a potential strategy for global measles eradication.
Antiviral; drug; eradication; measles; vaccine; virus
Molecular epidemiology of measles virus (MV) is important, not only to measure the success of measles vaccination programs but also to monitor the circulation and elimination of the virus worldwide. In this study, we compared MV obtained from patients before the 2003 mass vaccination MR campaign and viruses detected after 2003 until 2008 in Iran.
The nucleoprotein (N) gene of 29 MV strains circulating in Iran between 2002 and 2008 were amplified by RT-PCR and subjected to sequence and phylogenetic analysis.
Molecular characterization of MV studied here revealed that although the outbreaks in Iran were associated with MV genotype D4, the isolated viruses clearly belonged to several different lineages. Maximum and minimum homology within the 29 Iranian strains in our study was100% and 94.9% within the carboxyl terminus of the N gene, respectively. Using ClustalX program, the alignment of Iranian MV sequences showed nine lineages.
This study provides the usefulness of MV sequence analysis for the demonstration of local interruption of indigenous strain transmission as well as providing a valuable means for monitoring the elimination processes of MV control.
Measles; Genotype; Mass campaign; Iran
B95-8, an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed marmoset B-lymphoblastoid cell line, and its derivative B95a, capable of attachment to a substrate surface, were 10,000-fold more sensitive to measles virus present in clinical specimens than were Vero cells. B95-8 and B95a cells were thus thought to be useful host cells for the isolation of measles virus. Quantitation of measles virus present in clinical specimens showed that a large quantity of virus, exceeding 10(6) 50% tissue culture infective doses per ml of a nasal-swab eluate, is shed into secretions by patients with acute measles, consistent with the contagiousness of the disease. Measles viruses isolated in B95a cells differed in some biological properties from those adapted to Vero cells. First, the viruses isolated in B95a cells did replicate in Vero cells, but release into the fluid phase was less efficient than that of Vero cell-adapted viruses. Second, minor antigenic differences were found between virus strains isolated in B95a cells and those isolated in Vero cells from the same clinical specimens. Third, the viruses isolated and propagated in B95a cells caused clinical signs in experimentally infected monkeys resembling those of human measles. It was suspected that measles virus is subject to host cell-mediated selection and that the viruses grown in B95a cells are more representative of measles virus circulating among humans than are the viruses selected in Vero cells.
The biological activity of monoclonal antibodies specific for the hemagglutinin protein of measles virus strain CAM recognizing six epitope groups according to their binding properties to measles virus strain CAM/R401 was investigated in vivo in our rat model of measles encephalitis. When injected intraperitoneally into measles virus-infected suckling rats, some monoclonal antibodies modified the disease process and prevented the necrotizing encephalopathy seen in untreated animals. The analysis of measles virus brain isolates revealed emergence of variants that resisted neutralization with the passively transferred selecting monoclonal antibody but not with other monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibody escape mutants were also isolated in vitro, and their neurovirulence varied in the animal model. Sequence data from the hemagglutinin gene of measles virus localize a major antigenic surface determinant of the hemagglutinin protein between amino acid residues 368 and 396, which may be functionally important for neurovirulence. The data indicate that the interaction of antibodies with the measles virus H protein plays an important role in the selection of neurovirulent variants. These variants have biological properties different from those of the parent CAM virus.
Measles is a highly contagious childhood disease associated with an immunological paradox: although a strong virus-specific immune response results in virus clearance and the establishment of a life-long immunity, measles infection is followed by an acute and profound immunosuppression leading to an increased susceptibility to secondary infections and high infant mortality. In certain cases, measles is followed by fatal neurological complications. To elucidate measles immunopathology, we have analyzed the immune response to measles virus in mice transgenic for the measles virus receptor, human CD150. These animals are highly susceptible to intranasal infection with wild-type measles strains. Similarly to what has been observed in children with measles, infection of suckling transgenic mice leads to a robust activation of both T and B lymphocytes, generation of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells and antibody responses. Interestingly, Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells are highly enriched following infection, both in the periphery and in the brain, where the virus intensively replicates. Although specific anti-viral responses develop in spite of increased frequency of regulatory T cells, the capability of T lymphocytes to respond to virus-unrelated antigens was strongly suppressed. Infected adult CD150 transgenic mice crossed in an interferon receptor type I-deficient background develop generalized immunosuppression with an increased frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and strong reduction of the hypersensitivity response. These results show that measles virus affects regulatory T-cell homeostasis and suggest that an interplay between virus-specific effector responses and regulatory T cells plays an important role in measles immunopathogenesis. A better understanding of the balance between measles-induced effector and regulatory T cells, both in the periphery and in the brain, may be of critical importance in the design of novel approaches for the prevention and treatment of measles pathology.
Two cellular proteins, membrane cofactor protein (MCP) and moesin, were reported recently to be functionally associated with the initiation of a measles virus infection. We have analyzed the interaction of measles virus with cell surface proteins, using an overlay binding assay with cellular proteins immobilized on nitrocellulose. Among surface-biotinylated proteins from a human rectal tumor cell line (HRT), measles virus was able to bind only to a 67-kDa protein that was identified as MCP. The virus recognized different isoforms of MCP expressed from human (HRT and HeLa) and simian (Vero) cell lines. The binding of measles virus to MCP was abolished after cleavage of the disulfide bonds by reducing agents as well as after enzymatic release of N-linked oligosaccharides. By contrast, removal of sialic acid or O-linked oligosaccharides did not affect the recognition of MCP measles virus. These data indicate that the receptor determinant of MCP is dependent on a conformation of the protein that is maintained by disulfide bonds and N-glycans present in the complement binding domains. Our results are consistent with a role of MCP as primary attachment site for measles virus in the initial stage of an infection. The functional relationship between MCP and moesin in a measles virus infection is discussed.
The persistence of measles virus in selected areas of the brains of four patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was characterized by immunohistological and biochemical techniques. The five measles virus structural proteins were never simultaneously detectable in any of the brain sections. Nucleocapsid proteins and phosphoproteins were found in every diseased brain area, whereas hemagglutinin protein was detected in two cases, fusion protein was detected in three cases, and matrix protein was detected in only one case. Also, it could be shown that the amounts of measles virus RNA in the brains differed from patient to patient and in the different regions investigated. In all patients, plus-strand RNAs specific for these five viral genes could be detected. However, the amounts of fusion and hemagglutinin mRNAs were low compared with the amounts in lytically infected cells. The presence of particular measles virus RNAs in SSPE-infected brains did not always correlate with mRNA activity. In in vitro translations, the matrix protein was produced in only one case, and the hemagglutinin protein was produced in none. These results indicate that measles virus persistence in SSPE is correlated with different defects of several genes which probably prevent assembly of viral particles in SSPE-infected brain tissue.
Measles is one of the most contagious viral diseases, and remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, enters cells through a cellular receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), CD46 or nectin-4. Entry is mediated by two MV envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H) and the fusion (F) protein. The H protein mediates receptor attachment, while the F protein causes membrane fusion. The interaction between the H and F proteins is essential to initiate the cell entry process. Recently determined crystal structures of the MV-H protein unbound and bound to SLAM or CD46 have provided insights into paramyxovirus entry and the effectiveness of measles vaccine.
measles virus; hemagglutinin; structure; fusion; entry; measles vaccine; glycoprotein; receptor
Measles is a highly contagious disease currently responsible for over one million childhood deaths, particularly in the developing world. Since alpha/beta interferons (IFNs) are pivotal players both in nonspecific antiviral immunity and in specific cellular responses, their induction or suppression by measles virus (MV) could influence the outcome of a viral infection. In this study we compare the IFN induction and sensitivity of laboratory-passaged attenuated MV strains Edmonston and Moraten with those of recent wild-type viruses isolated and passaged solely on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or on the B958 marmoset B-cell line. We report that two PBMC-grown wild-type measles isolates and two B958-grown strains of MV induce 10- to 80-fold-lower production of IFN by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) compared to Edmonston and Moraten strains of measles. Preinfection of PBL with these non-IFN-inducing MV isolates prevents Edmonston-induced but not double-stranded-RNA-induced IFN production. This suggests that the wild-type viruses can actively inhibit Edmonston-induced IFN synthesis and that this is not occurring by double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, the wild-type MV is more sensitive than Edmonston MV to the effect of IFN. MV is thus able to suppress the synthesis of the earliest mediator of antiviral immunity, IFN-α/β. This could have important implications in the virulence and spread of MV.
Mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for human immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and a sensitive immunoassay were used to evaluate the IgG subclass antibody response to measles virus antigens in cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 20 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), 12 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and 11 controls with high measles virus antibody titers in serum. In patients with SSPE, measles virus-specific antibodies were found mainly in the IgG1 subclass and the IgG subclass distribution remained unchanged, irrespective of the clinical stage or duration of the disease. In patients with MS and in controls, measles virus activity was also associated mainly with IgG1. However, the activity was significantly lower than that found in patients with SSPE. The results suggest that there is no primary abnormality in humoral immune response to measles virus in patients with MS. The disproportionately high levels of the measles virus-specific IgG1 subclass found in patients with SSPE may be due to persistent antigenic stimulation or reflect a defect in immunoregulatory mechanisms in response to viral infection.
The aetiology of Crohn's disease remains unknown, although evidence for a viral cause has long been sought. Recent studies have shown inflammation of the submucosal microvascular endothelium and granulomata, and endothelial cell cytoplasmic inclusions, consistent with paramyxovirus, were identified by electron microscopy suggesting a persistent measles virus infection in Crohn's disease. Measles, mumps, and rubella viruses were tested for Crohn's disease by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RNA was extracted from resected intestinal specimens from 15 patients with Crohn's disease, 14 with ulcerative colitis, and 14 controls without inflammatory bowel disease. This was used to perform nested PCR after reverse transcription (RT) of the RNA to cDNA with primer pairs directed against two regions in the genome of the measles virus and one region in the mumps and rubella viral genomes. Despite enhanced sensitivity of nested RT-PCR, measles, mumps, and rubella viral genomic sequences were not found in any intestinal specimen.
In many cases of neurological disease associated with viral infection, such as measles virus (MV)-induced subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in children, it is unclear whether the virus or the antiviral immune response within the brain is the cause of disease. MV inoculation of transgenic mice expressing the human MV receptor, CD46, exclusively in neurons resulted in neuronal infection and fatal encephalitis within 2 weeks in neonates, while mice older than 3 weeks of age were resistant to both infection and disease. At all ages, T lymphocytes infiltrated the brain in response to inoculation. To determine the role of lymphocytes in disease progression, CD46+ mice were back-crossed to T- and B-cell-deficient RAG-2 knockout mice. The lymphocyte deficiency did not affect the outcome of disease in neonates, but adult CD46+ RAG-2− mice were much more susceptible to both neuronal infection and central nervous system disease than their immunocompetent littermates. These results indicate that CD46-dependent MV infection of neurons, rather than the antiviral immune response in the brain, produces neurological disease in this model system and that immunocompetent adult mice, but not immunologically compromised or immature mice, are protected from infection.
Measles infection and vaccine response are complex biological processes that involve both viral and host genetic factors. We have previously investigated the influence of genetic polymorphisms on vaccine immune response, including measles vaccines, and have shown that polymorphisms in HLA, cytokine, cytokine receptor, and innate immune response genes are associated with variation in vaccine response but do not account for all of the inter-individual variance seen in vaccinated populations. In the current study we report the findings of a multigenic analysis of measles vaccine immunity, indicating a role for the measles virus receptor CD46, innate pattern-recognition receptors (DDX58, TLR2, 4, 5,7 and 8) and intracellular signaling intermediates (MAP3K7, NFKBIA), and key antiviral molecules (VISA, OAS2, MX1, PKR) as well as cytokines (IFNA1, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL12B) and cytokine receptor genes (IL2RB, IL6R, IL8RA) in the genetic control of both humoral and cellular immune responses. This multivariate approach provided additional insights into the genetic control of measles vaccine responses over and above the information gained by our previous univariate SNP association analyses.
measles vaccine; immunogenetics; vaccine response; multigenic SNP association; interferon response; cytokines; Toll-like receptors