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1.  The Program of the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine * 
The planning of the Countway Library took place in an atmosphere of community interest and support. Architectural planning was effective and harmonious. The building functions well. The program of the Library is briefly described. Serials records, involving 17,000 titles, have been mechanized. A rare books program has been initiated. Since building occupancy, the Library has substituted copy service for the lending of periodicals. For an experimental period, the copy service was cost free. The Aesculapian Room, for non-medical recreational reading, has had the generous support of the Aesculapian Club. Plans for regional library service in New England are based upon an historic commitment of the Boston Medical Library. A MEDLARS regional search center and a national Vision Information Center have been established in the Countway.
PMCID: PMC198495  PMID: 6016366
2.  Looking backward, 1984-1959: twenty-five years of library automation--a personal view. 
A brief profile of Janet Doe is given. Twenty-five years of library automation are reviewed from the author's point of view. Major projects such as the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network and the Regional Online Union Catalog of the Greater Midwest Regional Medical Library Network are discussed. Important figures in medical library automation are considered, as is the major role played by the National Library of Medicine.
PMCID: PMC227507  PMID: 6388691
3.  The NLM Current Catalog* 
When the National Library of Medicine acquired a computer to augment its publication program, the intent was to present in one medium an index to journal articles and a catalog of books and new serial titles. The computer programs designed for indexing were unsatisfactory for cataloging, however; so two publications were issued, the Index Medicus and the NLM Current Catalog.
The Current Catalog features separate name and subject sections, added volumes, and technical reports.
The Express Cataloging Service was one of the first attempts to increase the speed and coverage of the Catalog. Shared cataloging with the Library of Congress, the Countway Library at Harvard, and the Upstate Medical Library in Syracuse, New York, have also contributed to the efforts toward improving this library service. An additional shared cataloging program, this time with the National Medical Audiovisual Center, is expected to be implemented shortly.
PMCID: PMC197344  PMID: 5782262
4.  The SUNY biomedical communication network: six years of progress in on-line bibiographic retrieval. 
The SUNY Biomedical Communication Network became operational in 1968 as the first on-line bibliograhpic retrieval service for biomedical literature. Since 1968, the SUNY/BCN has grown in size from nine to thirty-two medical and university libraries and has expanded its data base coverage to include the ERIC and Psychological Abstracts data bases in addition to the full ten-year retrospective MEDLARS data base. Aside from the continuous provision of an on-line searching system, the SUNY experience over the last six years has yielded valuable information in the following areas of: (1) monograph indexing and retrieval, (2) shared cataloging, (3) user interaction and education in on-line systems, and (4) member participation in Network policy-making processes. The continued success of the SUNY/BCN is evidence that it is possible to provide a high quality on-line bibliographic retrieval system at cost to academic institutions. SUNY's success in this effort is the result of centralized resource sharing and effective regional networking, combined with thoughtful planning by user advisory committees.
PMCID: PMC198883  PMID: 1173557
5.  NERMLS: The First Year * 
The Countway Library, Boston, was the nation's first Regional Medical Library under the Regional Medical Library Program of the NLM. New England Regional Medical Library Service (NERMLS) began in October 1967 and is the outgrowth of traditional extramural services of the Harvard and Boston Medical Libraries (constituents of the Countway). During the first year over 27,000 requests were received of which 84 percent were filled. Some problems of document delivery (and their solution) are recounted. Other activities were: a limited amount of reference work; distribution of a Serials List; and planning for a region-wide medical library service. Proposals call for consultation and education, regional reference service, and improved document delivery service. Emphasis is placed on the role of the Community Hospital as a center for continuing education and the need to strengthen and assist hospital medical libraries. With the Postgraduate Medical Institute, Boston, NERMLS assisted in the compilation of a small physician-selected medical Core Collection which would serve as a minimum standard collection for community hospital libraries.
PMCID: PMC200860  PMID: 5823504
6.  Cooperative Cataloging from the Participants' Point of View: A Record of SUNY'S and Countway's Experiences * 
This paper describes the procedures and practices adopted for the cooperative cataloging program between NLM, Countway, and the Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse. Catalogers were trained by NLM, and the two libraries communicated data and queries by means of TWX and, later, IBM terminals. A description is given of how books are selected for cataloging, and details are given as to how conflicts in cataloging practice are settled. Further results of such cooperation are given, such as the addition of Upstate's holding symbol in Current Catalog. Statistics of work done are given, and impending changes are mentioned.
PMCID: PMC197433  PMID: 5439903
7.  Centralized automated cataloging of health science materials in the MLC/SUNY/OCLC shared cataloging service. 
Since February 1976, The Medical Library Center of New York, with the assistance of the SUNY/OCLC Network, has offered, on a subscription basis, a centralized automated cataloging service to health science libraries in the greater metropolitan New York area. By using workforms and prints of OCLC record (amended by the subscribing participants), technical services personnel at the center have fed cataloging data, via a CRT terminal, into the OCLC system, which provides (1) catalog cards, received in computer filing order; (2) book card, spine, and pocket labels; (3) accessions lists; and (4) data for eventual production of book catalogs and union catalogs. The experience of the center in the development, implementation, operation, and budgeting of its shared cataloging service is discussed.
PMCID: PMC199329  PMID: 843650
8.  Interlibrary cooperation: from ILL to IAIMS and beyond. 
A recent solicitation over the MEDLIB-L e-mail discussion list revealed over thirty diverse examples of hospital library-based interlibrary cooperative initiatives currently underway. Many are familiar and have been featured in the professional literature. Most go unreported and unrecognized however, comprising invisible resource-sharing infrastructures that hospital librarians painstakingly piece together in order to provide their clients with expanded service options. This paper, drawing from the MEDLIB-L survey as well as descriptions in the published literature, provides a broad overview of such recent interlibrary cooperative efforts. Examples include interlibrary loan networks, collective purchasing initiatives, holder-of-record or union catalog access agreements, arrangements to provide e-mail and Internet access, and consortia to share electronic resources. Examples were chosen based on the initiatives' diversity of participants, and represent a wide range of locations across the United States. Such initiatives focus on local, statewide, or regional collaboration, and several involve partnerships between academic medical center libraries and regional hospital libraries. An early example of a hospital-based interlibrary cooperative IAIMS effort is described, pointing to future possibilities involving the Internet and regional hospital system intranets.
PMCID: PMC226579  PMID: 10427422
9.  Mechanization of Library Procedures in the Medium-Sized Medical Library: XIII. Computer Applications in Hospital Departmental Libraries * 
To test the hypothesis that a standard library system could be designed for hospital departmental libraries, a system was developed and partially tested for four departmental libraries in the Washington University School of Medicine and Associated Hospitals. The system from determination of needs through design and evaluation, is described. The system was limited by specific constraints to control of the monograph collection. Products of control include catalog cards, accessions list, new book list, location list, fund list, missing book list, and discard book list. Sample data form and pages from a procedure manual are given, and conversion from a manual to an automated system is outlined.
The question of standardization of library records and procedures is discussed, with indications of the way in which modular design, as utilized in this system, could contribute to greater flexibility in design of future systems.
Reference is made to anticipating needs for organizing departmental libraries in developing regional medical library programs and to exploring the role of the departmental library in a medical library network.
PMCID: PMC197720  PMID: 5054309
10.  Preservation activities and needs in U.S. biomedical libraries: a status report. 
A national sample of health sciences and other types of libraries having significant holdings of biomedical literature was studied to determine the status of library preservation programs. Findings pertaining to 134 basic health sciences libraries and to ninety-seven resource libraries in the Regional Medical Library Program network are reported and discussed. Basic health sciences libraries participating in the study were primarily hospital libraries; resource libraries were primarily academic health sciences center libraries. Findings include information on topics perceived to be of greatest need for staff training and for informational or educational materials; on levels of preservation activity, staffing, and funding; and on capabilities for participating in a national cooperative preservation program. Efforts to identify general and special biomedical collections of potential importance to a national preservation program met with limited success.
PMCID: PMC227433  PMID: 2758181
11.  National Library of Medicine Regional Medical Library Program 
The National Library of Medicine is charged with the development and management of a National Biomedical Communications Network. The Regional Medical Library Program is a forerunner of such a network; the product and institutions involved will be critical elements in its evolution. The immediate objective of the RMLP, the facilitation of biomedical information transfer, presents a logistical problem requiring substantial commitment from the health sciences community and extensive cooperation among libraries in each region.
PMCID: PMC197683  PMID: 16017600
12.  Comparison of holdings of NLM (CATLINE) with those of resource libraries. 
The collection development practices of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), with the goal of comprehensive acquisition of biomedical monographs, are compared with those of the resource libraries of the TALON (Region IX) Regional Medical Library. Holdings of two resource libraries in the TALON region, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, and of the TALON Union Catalog of Monographs were compared with the NLM CATLINE data base for four subject classes and selected imprint years. Foreign-language coverage is lacking in Region IX, with English-language coverage is lacking in Region IX, with English-language coverage ranging between 70 and 88% of titles listed in CATLINE. Absent English-language material tends to be ephemeral or otherwise out of scope for the resource libraries. Between 7.1 and 18.8% of monographs acquired in each subject class by the two recource libraries are lacking in CATLINE; this represents between 2 and 8% of the CATLINE titles for each class.
PMCID: PMC226878  PMID: 427286
13.  Union List Development: Control of the Serial Literature * 
The discussion covers the development of a national union list or finding tool for biomedical serial holdings and its integration into the National Serials Data Program, which is being developed under the auspices of the three National Libraries. Specific topics which are covered include: (1) Selection of the Union Catalog of Medical Periodicals (UCMP) as the basis for a biomedical list and the status of that activity; (2) discussion of the various methods of recording holdings; (3) status of the National Serials Data Program and a discussion of its relationship to the UCMP file; and (4) status of the Standard Serial Number and its relationship to other existing coding schemes for serial titles.
PMCID: PMC197717  PMID: 5054307
14.  An essay on reflection. 
From the vantage point of her personal experience, the author examines milestones since the 1960s which have changed the medical library profession and helped shape the Medical Library Association. The advent of automation, including cataloging with OCLC and online literature searching through the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network, was a dramatic event that transformed the work and priorities of librarians, fulfilling the dreams of earlier visionaries. The application of technology in libraries led to an increased demand for education and training for librarians. The Medical Library Association responded with continuing education programs, and a series of important reports influenced how the association filled its role in professional development. Legislation providing federal funding, such as the Medical Library Assistance Act, resulted in a period of expansion for libraries and their services. The Medical Library Association has developed a legislative agenda to influence action in areas such as copyright. In the future, health sciences librarians must take a leadership role.
PMCID: PMC226363  PMID: 9578947
15.  Cooperation strengthens small hospital libraries in a rural area of New England: a five-year experience. 
Before 1970, library facilities and services at the small hospitals in rural Vermont were essentially nonexistent. Similar findings were later encountered along the Connecticut River in New Hampshire and in a small area of upstate New York. The Hospital Library Development Services program was established at the University of Vermont's Dana Medical Library to improve these conditions. Financial assistance was received from the National Library of Medicine, and by the end of 1974, thirty-three hospitals had staffed libraries. Earlier that year it has been decided to begin emphasing cooperation among the developing libraries, including the production of union lists and regular meetings of staff members from geographically proximate hospital libaries to plan and implement various activities. An additional one-year award from NLM was received in 1975. Results achieved during and after the period of grant support are reported. Cooperation among hospital libraries is seen as a feasible and beneficial undertaking provided that the participating libraries are internally supported and developing.
PMCID: PMC226937  PMID: 476320
16.  Evolution of a processing system in a large biomedical library. 
The processing system used in the UCLA Biomedical Library is modest in size and still under development. Its origins date back to a batch mode serials control system begun in the mid-1960s. This was converted to an on-line system which currently has modules for check-in, updating and retrieval, claims, bindery preparation, and invoice information. Titles can be retrieved at the terminal by search of any word in the title, by subject heading, language, country of publication, and type of publication. The system is adaptable to network use and at present is shared with one other library. To the serials system has been added a computer-assisted cataloging and card production system. The latter utilizes serials nucleus software as well as design for data input and data storage. In-house listings and coding procedures overlap in a general way. Work is under way on further integration of the two processing subsystems and a feasibility study has been completed for addition of a subsystem for acquisitions which will combine and adapt features of the other two; for example, information retrieval characteristics from both, catalog coding and programs for acceptance of data, serials programs for claims, and other output programs. Cost benefits of the subsystems are described and discussed.
PMCID: PMC198972  PMID: 1247705
17.  A comparison of interlibrary loan requests received by the National Library of Medicine: 1959 and 1984. 
In 1962, an analysis of interlibrary loan requests for serials filled by NLM in 1959 was published. In the twenty-five years following 1959, important changes occurred in the biomedical library community, which had a significant impact on interlibrary loan activities, including the development of MEDLARS and online searching, the Regional Medical Library (RML) network, and union listing for serials. To describe NLM's current interlibrary loan request traffic for serials and to identify any significant changes in traffic between 1959 and 1984, a comparative analysis of 1984 serial loan requests was performed, primarily by manipulation of automated request records. The changes in request traffic strongly suggest that the efforts to strengthen regional document delivery through the RML program have been successful and that NLM's collection is now used primarily as a last resort.
PMCID: PMC227597  PMID: 3828612
18.  Descriptive cataloging of serials: the National Library of Medicine versus the Library of Congress. 
Descriptive cataloging practices for serial differ significantly in some respects between the Library of Congress and the National Library of Medicine. This paper compares some of these differences and indicates the impact they can have on the development of on-line cooperative data bases such as OCLC. Attention is also given to the possible impact of the second edition of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules on serials cataloging. The need for standardization is stressed.
PMCID: PMC226412  PMID: 7356496
19.  Preservation of the biomedical literature: an overview. 
The National Library of Medicine began to preserve its collection many years ago. This article presents a brief review of NLM's early conservation and microfilming programs, and describes the current activities of the library's new Preservation Section. Also mentioned are the complementary efforts of NLM staff who are involved in research into electronic imaging and the campaign to increase the use of alkaline paper in medical and scientific publishing. Goals of the National Preservation Plan for the Biomedical Literature are summarized and a report on progress in implementing the plan is provided. Results of the preservation needs assessment described in the accompanying article by Kirkpatrick are briefly analyzed. Recent efforts of the Commission on Preservation and Access, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Research Libraries Group, and several international associations are described in terms of their potential benefit to preservation of the biomedical literature. The need to monitor new preservation technologies and preserve materials in audiovisual and electronic formats is emphasized. It is argued that with enough coordination, cooperation, and willingness among health sciences libraries to share the costs, the goal of preserving all of the important biomedical literature can be accomplished.
PMCID: PMC227431  PMID: 2758180
20.  A SERLINE-based union list of serials for basic health sciences libraries: a detailed protocol. 
In March 1981 the Consortium for Information Resources (CIR) was chosen by the Massachusetts Health Sciences Library Network to develop and automate a statewide biomedical union list of serials. Employing a commercial processor, ANSI standard Z39.42-1980, and SERLINE, CIR consolidated the journal holdings of six Massachusetts health-related library consortia. SERLINE, with its unique identifier as the single control element, governed the form of entry and bibliographic data for each journal. Additionally, SERLINE enhanced the union list by providing "see references" and general notations to map users to main titles or special information. An original feature of this union list is the "rolled" holdings and location statements intended to encourage even distribution of interlibrary loan transactions. The resulting union list of serials includes the holdings of 116 Massachusetts libraries, 94 of which are hospital libraries. The list includes nearly 3,000 unique titles and 15,000 holdings statements; production costs averaged $1.35 per unique title and 27 per holdings statement.
PMCID: PMC226745  PMID: 6758891
21.  “Working the System”—British American Tobacco's Influence on the European Union Treaty and Its Implications for Policy: An Analysis of Internal Tobacco Industry Documents 
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(1):e1000202.
Katherine Smith and colleagues investigate the ways in which British American Tobacco influenced the European Union Treaty so that new EU policies advance the interests of major corporations, including those that produce products damaging to health.
Impact assessment (IA) of all major European Union (EU) policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA.
Methods and Findings
In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i) provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii) secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii) bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv) provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost–benefit analysis [CBA]) within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical industries have since employed IA in apparent attempts to undermine key aspects of European policies designed to protect public health.
Our findings suggest that BAT and its corporate allies have fundamentally altered the way in which all EU policy is made by making a business-oriented form of IA mandatory. This increases the likelihood that the EU will produce policies that advance the interests of major corporations, including those that produce products damaging to health, rather than in the interests of its citizens. Given that the public health community, focusing on health IA, has largely welcomed the increasing policy interest in IA, this suggests that urgent consideration is required of the ways in which IA can be employed to undermine, as well as support, effective public health policies.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
The primary goal of public health, the branch of medicine concerned with the health of communities, is to improve lives by preventing disease. Public-health groups do this by assessing and monitoring the health of communities, by ensuring that populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective health care, and by helping to formulate public policies that safeguard human health. Until recently, most of the world's major public-health concerns related to infectious diseases. Nowadays, however, many major public-health concerns are linked to the goods made and marketed by large corporations such as fast food, alcohol, tobacco, and chemicals. In Europe, these corporations are regulated by policies drawn up both by member states and by the European Commission, the executive organ of the European Union (EU; an economic and political partnership among 27 democratic European countries). Thus, for example, the tobacco industry, which is widely recognized as a driver of the smoking epidemic, is regulated by Europe-wide tobacco control policies and member state level policies.
Why Was This Study Done?
Since 1997, the European Commission has been required by law to assess the economic, social (including health), and environmental consequences of new policy initiatives using a process called an “impact assessment” (IA). Because different types of IA examine the likely effects of policies on different aspects of daily life—a health impact assessment, for example, focuses on a policy's effect on health—the choice of IA can lead to different decisions being taken about new policies. Although the IA tool adopted by the European Commission aims to assess economic, environmental and social impacts, independent experts suggest this tool does not adequately assess health impacts. Instead, economic impacts receive the most attention, a situation that may favour the interests of large businesses. In this study, the researchers seek to identify how and why the EU's approach to IA developed. More specifically, the researchers analyze internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT), which have been disclosed because of US litigation cases, to find out whether industry has played a role in promoting the EU's system of IA.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers analyzed 714 BAT internal documents (identified by searching the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, which contains more than 10 million internal tobacco company documents) that concerned attempts made by BAT to influence regulatory reforms in Europe. They also analyzed related literature from other sources (for example, academic publications) and interviewed 16 relevant people (including people who had worked at the European Commission). This analysis shows that from 1995, BAT worked with other businesses to promote European regulatory reforms (in particular, the establishment of a business-orientated form of IA) that favor large corporations. A lobbying campaign, initiated by BAT but involving a “policy network” of other companies, first helped to secure binding changes to the EU Treaty that require policymakers to minimize legislative burdens on businesses. The analysis shows that after achieving this goal, which BAT described as an “important victory,” further lobbying ensured that these treaty changes were translated into the implementation of a business-orientated form of IA within the EU. Both the tobacco industry and the chemical industry, the researchers argue, have since used the IA to delay and/or weaken EU legislation intended to protect public health.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that BAT and its corporate allies have fundamentally altered the way in which EU policy is made by ensuring that all significant EU policy decisions have to be assessed using a business-orientated IA. As the authors note, this situation increases the likelihood that the EU will produce policies that favor big business rather than the health of its citizens. Furthermore, these findings suggest that by establishing a network of other industries to help in lobbying for EU Treaty changes, BAT was able to distance itself from the push to establish a business-orientated IA to the extent that Commission officials were unaware of the involvement of the tobacco industry in campaigns for IA. Thus, in future, to safeguard public health, policymakers and public-health groups must pay more attention to corporate efforts to shape decision-making processes. In addition, public-health groups must take account of the ways in which IA can be used to undermine as well as support effective public-health policies and they must collaborate more closely in their efforts to ensure effective national and international policy.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
Wikipedia has a page on public health (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
More information on the European Union (in several languages), on public health in the European Union, and on impact assessment by the European Commission is available
The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library is a public, searchable database of tobacco company internal documents detailing their advertising, manufacturing, marketing, sales, and scientific activities
The World Health Organization provides information about the dangers of tobacco (in several languages)
The Smoke Free Partnership contains more information about smoking prevalence in Europe and about European policies to tackle the public health issues associated with tobacco use
For more information about tobacco industry influence on policy see the 2009 World Health Organization report on tobacco industry interference with tobacco control
PMCID: PMC2797088  PMID: 20084098
22.  Implications of planning for regional libraries: our underlying philosophy. 
The National Library of Medicine Extramural Program in administering the Medical Library Assistance Act of 1965 has developed the following specific program objectives: provide financial assistance for improving biomedical libraries; encourage and assist the establishment and functioning of a responsive national biomedical information network by strengthening present biomedical libraries and their interlibrary relationships; and assure that the biomedical library network is linked to related science information systems. The ultimate goal is to develop the role of the library as a full learning resource center for education, research, and service. The regional library program aims to augment present capability of existing medical libraries so that information can be made available more extensively and more rapidly. Comprehensive and thorough advanced planning is a basic element in the development of regional medical libraries.
PMCID: PMC232679  PMID: 5212369
23.  National Services Provided by the Health Sciences Resource Centre of Canada * 
The Health Sciences Resource Centre forms part of the National Science Library of Canada, whose collections and services are described. The new Centre coordinates activities of the various provincial medical libraries. Its creation began with increased collections of medical journals, and plans are underway to print out a union list of medical journals from the Union List of Scientific Serials tapes.
The first product of the Centre is a medical “proceedings index” to proceedings held by the National Science Library; this is computer-produced, and will appear annually.
An analysis was made of the medical items requested for borrowing from the National Science Library according to type of material, service provided, type of user, and geographical location. The results are given.
A description is given of the SDI service currently provided by the National Science Library, based on Chemical Titles, Chemical Abstracts Condensates, INSPEC, and the ISI tapes. It is hoped to expand this data base with MEDLARS tapes.
PMCID: PMC197473  PMID: 5424516
24.  The Medical Library Assistance Act: An Analysis of the NLM Extramural Programs, 1965-1970 * 
The imbalance between medical library resources and information needs of the health professional led to a reexamination of the mandate for the National Library of Medicine. Legislation known as the Medical Library Assistance Act (MLAA) was passed in 1965 which enabled the NLM to (1) initiate programs to assist the nation's medical libraries and (2) develop a medical library network with the establishment of regional medical libraries to link the NLM with local institutions.
The National Library of Medicine, through the MLAA, has made available $40.8 million to the medical library community under a competitive grant and contract mechanism for the period July 1965—June 1970. A total of 604 projects has been executed in resources, research and development, training, construction, regional medical libraries, publications, and special scientific projects. An assessment is given of each of these programs and their impact on both the National Library of Medicine and individual medical libraries. In the aggregate, these programs have significantly improved library and information services to the professional health user. The principal limitation has been inadequate funding to accomplish the level of originally stated objectives.
PMCID: PMC197606  PMID: 5146762
25.  Review of Resource Grant Applications at the National Library of Medicine * 
The Medical Library Resource Grant Program of the National Library of Medicine is reviewed as it was administered under the Medical Library Assistance Act and as it is now administered under the Medical Library Extension Act of 1970, and program objectives are discussed. The “project” concept and the “general support” approach for library assistance are considered, as is the relationship of the Regional Medical Library Program. In the context of the evolving Biomedical Communications Network, recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the grant program through coordinated efforts of intermediary libraries.
PMCID: PMC198606  PMID: 4691334

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