The need for appraisal of oral health-related quality of life has been increasingly recognized over the last decades. The aims of this study were to develop a Spanish version (OHIP-Sp) of the Oral Health Impact Profile and to evaluate its convergent and discriminative validity, and its internal consistency.
The original 49-items OHIP was translated to Spanish, revised for understanding and semantics by two independent dentists, and then translated back to English by an independent bilingual dentist. The data originated in a cross sectional study conducted among high school students from the Province of Santiago, Chile. The study group was sampled using a multistage random cluster procedure yielding 9,203 students aged 12–21 years. All selected students were invited to participate and all filled a questionnaire with information on socio-demographic factors; oral health related behaviors; and self-reported oral health status (good, fair or poor). From this group, 9,163 students also accepted to fill a detailed questionnaire on socio-economic indicators and to receive a clinical examination comprising direct recordings of clinical attachment levels (CAL) in molars and incisors, tooth loss, and the presence of necrotizing ulcerative gingival lesions.
The participation rate and the questionnaire completeness were high with OHIP-Sp total scores being computed for 9,133 subjects. Self-perceived oral health status was associated with the total OHIP-Sp score and all its domains (Spearman rank correlation). The OHIP-Sp total score was also directly associated with the 4 dental outcomes investigated (Mann-Whitney test) and the largest impact was found for the outcomes, 'tooth loss' with a mean OHIP-Sp score = 13.5 and 'CAL >= 3 mm' with a mean OHIP-Sp score = 13.0.
The OHIP-Sp revealed suitable convergent and discriminative validity and appropriate internal consistency (Cronbach's α). Further studies on OHIP-Sp warrant the inclusion of populations with a higher disease burden; and the use of test-retest reliability exercises to evaluate the stability of the test.
Residents of Appalachia may benefit from oral cancer screening given the region’s higher oral and pharyngeal cancer mortality rates. The current study examined the oral cancer screening behaviors and recent dental care (since dentists perform most screening examinations) of women from Ohio Appalachia.
Women from Ohio Appalachia were surveyed for the Community Awareness Resources Education (CARE) study, which was completed in 2006. A secondary aim of the CARE baseline survey was to examine oral cancer screening and dental care use among women from this region. Outcomes included whether women (n=477; cooperation rate = 71%) had ever had an oral cancer screening examination and when their most recent dental visit had occurred. Various demographic characteristics, health behaviors and psychosocial factors were examined as potential correlates. Analyses used multivariate logistic regression.
Most women identified tobacco-related products as risk factors for oral cancer, but 43% of women did not know an early sign of oral cancer. Only 15% of women reported ever having had an oral cancer screening examination, with approximately 80% of these women indicating that a dentist had performed their most recent examination. Women were less likely to have reported a previous examination if they were from urban areas (OR=0.33, 95% CI: 0.13–0.85) or perceived a lower locus of health control (OR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98). Women were more likely to have reported a previous examination if they had had a dental visit within the last year (OR=2.24, 95% CI: 1.03–4.88). Only 65% of women, however, indicated a dental visit within the last year. Women were more likely to have reported a recent dental visit if they were of a high socioeconomic status (OR=2.83, 95% CI: 1.58–5.06), had private health insurance (OR=2.20, 95% CI: 1.21–3.97) or had consumed alcohol in the last month (OR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.20–3.42).
Oral cancer screening was not common among women from Ohio Appalachia, with many missed opportunities having occurred at dental visits. Education programs targeting dentists and other healthcare providers (given dental providers are lacking in some areas of Ohio Appalachia) about opportunistic oral cancer screening may help to improve screening in Appalachia. These programs should include information about populations at high risk for oral cancer (eg smokers) and how screening may be especially beneficial for them. Future research is needed to examine the acceptability of such education programs to healthcare providers in the Appalachian region and to explore why screening was less common among women living in urban areas of Ohio Appalachia.
Appalachia; oral cancer; screening; USA
To evaluate self-reported oral health attitudes and behavior among a group of dental students in Bangalore, India and to compare the oral health attitudes of students of different years of dental school.
A self-administered questionnaire based on a modified version of the Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory (HU-DBI) was administered to 250 dental students.
Significant differences (P<.05) were observed among students of different years in the degree of worrying about the color of the teeth, not having been to the dentist before and brushing each tooth carefully. Strongly significant differences (P<.001) were observed among students of different years in brushing the teeth twice daily, being satisfied with the appearance of the teeth, cleaning the teeth well without toothpaste, visiting dentist only when having a toothache, taking too much time to brush their teeth, worrying about having bad breath and using mouth rinse on a regular basis.
Among dental students, the overall knowledge of oral health was good, even though there were deficits in knowledge in a few areas. The oral health attitudes and behavior of dental students improved with increasing levels of education.
Oral health; Dental students; Questions; Oral attitudes; Oral health behavior
This study investigated dental care service utilization among adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) and identified barriers and other factors affecting utilization among this population.
Respondents (n = 192) with SCI participated in an oral health survey assessing dental care service utilization and were compared with respondents from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS).
There was no significant difference in the proportion of SCI respondents who visited the dentist for any reason in the past year compared to the general population (65.5% vs. 68.8%, P = 0.350). However, SCI respondents were less likely to go to the dentist for a dental cleaning in the past year compared to the general population (54.6% vs. 69.4%, P < 0.001). The three most commonly reported barriers to accessing dental care were cost (40.1 %), physical barriers (22.9%), and dental fear (15.1%). Multivariable modeling showed physical barriers and fear of dental visits were the two significant factors deterring respondents from dental visits in the past year.
Physical barriers preventing access to dental facilities and dental fear are prevalent and significantly impede the delivery of dental health care to adults with SCI. Dentists should undertake necessary physical remodeling in their facilities to accommodate wheelchair users and implement appropriate strategies for the management of dental fear among patients with SCI.
Dental care access; Physical barriers; Dental fear; Paraplegia; Tetraplegia
To examine tooth loss and dental caries by sociodemographic characteristics from community-based oral health examinations conducted by dentists in northern Manhattan.
The ElderSmile programme of the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine serves older adults with varying functional capacities across settings. This report is focused on relatively mobile, socially engaged participants who live in the impoverished communities of Harlem and Washington Heights/Inwood in northern Manhattan, New York City.
Materials and Methods
Self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health and health care information were provided by community-dwelling ElderSmile participants aged 65 years and older who took part in community-based oral health education and completed a screening questionnaire. Oral health examinations were conducted by trained dentists in partnering prevention centres among ElderSmile participants who agreed to be clinically screened (90.8%).
The dental caries experience of ElderSmile participants varied significantly by sociodemographic predictors and smoking history. After adjustment in a multivariable logistic regression model, older age, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic race/ethnicity, and a history of current or former smoking were important predictors of edentulism.
Provision of oral health screenings in community-based settings may result in opportunities to intervene before oral disease is severe, leading to improved oral health for older adults.
elderly; oral health; dental caries; tooth loss; ageing; geriatric dentistry
According to theory, health beliefs are related to health behaviors. We investigated whether individuals who hold favorable oral-health-related beliefs over time have better adult oral health than those who do not. Beliefs about the efficacy of water fluoridation, keeping the mouth clean, avoiding sweet foods, visiting the dentist, using dental floss, and using fluoridated toothpaste were assessed in a birth cohort at ages 15, 18, and 26 years. At each age, the majority of participants endorsed the importance of each practice. However, there was also evidence of instability across time. Individuals who held stable favorable dental beliefs from adolescence through adulthood had fewer teeth missing due to caries, less periodontal disease, better oral hygiene, better self-rated oral health, and more restorations. Dental beliefs can change between adolescence and young adulthood, and these changes are related to oral health. In particular, unfavorable dental health beliefs are related to poorer oral health.
dentistry; longitudinal study; sex differences; oral health beliefs; caries
The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, practices, and opinions of dentists and dental hygienists in New York State regarding oral cancer prevention and early detection.
We sent questionnaires to a stratified random sample of dentists and dental hygienists selected from a list of licensed oral health care providers in New York State. We analyzed responses to the questionnaires, and we derived descriptive statistics.
The effective response rate was 55% and 65% among dentists and dental hygienists, respectively. About 85% of dentists and 78% of dental hygienists reported providing annual oral cancer examination to their patients aged 40 and above. Although a majority assessed tobacco use, fewer practitioners assessed alcohol use. Both dentists and dental hygienists lacked knowledge in some aspects of risk factors, signs, and symptoms of oral cancer. However, dentists had significantly higher knowledge scores than dental hygienists.
Dentists and dental hygienists in New York State are knowledgeable about oral cancer, but there are gaps in the knowledge of certain risk factors and in the oral cancer examination technique.
To find out the relationship between dental insurance and demand for dental care, the present study evaluated impact of insurance scheme on adults’ dental check-ups in a developing oral health care system.
The target population included adults in the city of Tehran where the only telecommunication company provides 90% of the 1.9 million households with a fixed telephone. Of the 1531 subjects who answered the phone call, 224 were outside the target age (under 18), 67 said that they never had visited a dentist, and 221 refused to respond, leaving 1019 subjects in the final sample. Each interview lasted 15 minutes and was carried out using a structured questionnaire with fixed and open-ended questions.
71% of the subjects reported having dental insurance and 16% having visited a dentist for a check-up; 55%, more women than men, reported having had a dental visit within the past 12 months.
The present results revealed the positive relationship between insurance and demand for dental care. Those having dental insurance were more likely to go to check-ups despite their generally low rate found in this country with a developing oral health care system. In such countries, health insurance schemes should therefore include obligatory regular dental check-ups to emphasize prevention-oriented dental care.
Adults; Dental check-ups; Dental visit; Demand; Dental insurance
The aim of this study was to provide state-level surveillance data to assess the oral health of people with disabilities.
Data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)—a state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population 18 years of age and older—were used to estimate disability prevalence and state-level differences in oral health among people with and those without disabilities.
Nationally, people with disabilities were less likely than people without disabilities to visit a dentist or dental clinic in the past year. The percentage of people with disabilities who reported they had visited a dentist in the past year was lowest in Mississippi (48.9%) and highest in Connecticut (74.5%). Among people without disabilities reporting they had visited a dentist or dental clinic in the past year, the percentage was lowest in Mississippi (60.7%) and highest in Minnesota (80.7%). Edentulism was higher among people with disabilities compared with those without disabilities. Among people with disabilities, edentulism was lowest in the District of Columbia (4.1%) and highest in Kentucky (18.7%). Among people without disabilities, edentulism was lowest in California (2.7%) and highest in Kentucky (11.3%).
Despite numerous studies and reports documenting the unmet oral health needs of people with disabilities, there has been no systematic national surveillance of oral health among people with disabilities in the United States. This article provides much-needed state-by-state and national epidemiologic data regarding the oral health of people with disabilities.
Oral health has a significant impact on the quality of life, appearance, and self-esteem of the people. Preventive dental visits help in the early detection and treatment of oral diseases. Dental care utilization can be defined as the percentage of the population who access dental services over a specified period of time. There are reports that dental patients only visit the dentist when in pain and never bother to return for follow-up in most cases. To improve oral health outcomes an adequate knowledge of the way the individuals use health services and the factors predictive of this behavior is essential. The interest in developing models explaining the utilization of dental services has increased; issues like dental anxiety, price, income, the distance a person had to travel to get care, and preference for preservation of teeth are treated as barriers in regular dental care. Published materials which pertain to the use of dental services by Indian population have been reviewed and analyzed in depth in the present study. Dental surgeons and dental health workers have to play an adequate role in facilitating public enlightenment that people may appreciate the need for regular dental care and make adequate and proper use of the available dental care facilities.
Access; awareness; dental care; India; utilization
The purpose of the study was to understand US dentists’ attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding dental care for pregnant women and to determine the impact of recent papers on oral health and pregnancy and guidelines disseminated widely.
In 2006–2007, the investigators conducted a mailed survey of all 1,604 general dentists in Oregon; 55.2% responded). Structural equation modeling was used to estimate associations between dentists’ attitudes toward providing care to pregnant women, dentists’ knowledge about the safety of dental procedures, and dentists’ current practice patterns.
Dentist’s perceived barriers have the strongest direct effect on current practice and might be the most important factor deterring dentists from providing care to pregnant patients. Five attitudes (perceived barriers) were associated with providing less dental services: time, economic, skills, dental staff resistance, and peer pressure. The final model shows a good fit with a chi-square of 38.286 (p = .12, n=772, df = 52) and a Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit index of .98, CFI = .993. The Root Mean Square Error of Approximation is .02.
Findings suggest attitudes are significant determinants of accurate knowledge and current practice. Multi-dimensional approaches are needed to increase access to dental care and protect the oral health of women during pregnancy. Despite current clinical recommendations to deliver all necessary care to pregnant patients during 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, dentists’ knowledge of the appropriateness of procedures continues to lag the state of the art in dental science.
Dental care forms an important part of the multidisciplinary management of oral cancer patients.
The aim of this study was to examine actual and self-perceived knowledge and clinical expertise regarding dental management
of oral cancer patients receiving radiation therapy among Western Australian general dentists.
Materials and Methods:
An invitation to participate in a web-based questionnaire was emailed to 1095 dentists registered
with the Australian Dental Association (ADA), WA branch. To assess dentists’ knowledge and expertise, actual and perceived
knowledge was investigated. Information regarding type of practice, practice location, year of graduation and
number of oral cancer patients treated in the preceding 12 months was also obtained.
One hundred and ninety one dentists responded to the survey. General dentists who took part in the study appeared
to possess some knowledge regarding dental management of oral cancer patients treated with radiation therapy.
The majority of responders however identified deficiencies in their knowledge and willingness to participate in continuing
In view of the rising incidence of oral cancer in Western Australia, efforts should be made to provide more
clinically relevant training to dentists in this area.
Dental care; dentists; expertise; oral cancer.
OBJECTIVE: Accomplishing the Healthy People 2010 goal of eliminating disparities in oral disease will require a better understanding of the patterns of health care associated with orofacial pain. This study examined factors associated with pain-related acute oral health care. METHODS: The authors used data on 698 participants in the Florida Dental Care Study, a study of oral health among dentate adults aged 45 years and older at baseline. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of the respondents reported having had at least one dental visit as the result of orofacial pain. The majority of the respondents reportedly delayed contacting a dentist for at least one day; however, there was no difference between respondents reporting pain as the initiating symptom and those with other problems. Once respondents decided that dental services were needed, those with a painful symptom were nearly twice as likely as those without pain to want to be seen immediately. Rural adults were more likely than urban adults to report having received urgent dental care for a painful symptom. When orofacial pain occurred, those who identified as non-Hispanic African American were more likely than those who identified as non-Hispanic white to delay care rather than to seek treatment immediately, and women were more likely then men. Having a pain-related oral problem was associated with significantly less satisfaction with the services provided; non-Hispanic African American respondents were less likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to report being very satisfied, and rural residents were less likely than urban residents. Furthermore, men were more likely than women to suffer with orofacial pain without receiving either scheduled dental care or an urgent visit. CONCLUSIONS: Barriers to care are complex and likely to be interactive, but must be understood before the goals of Healthy People 2010 can be accomplished.
Adolescent dental patients pose a unique challenge to providers, particularly when intravenous sedation is introduced to the treatment plan. Surveys show many adolescents are afraid of the dentist. Five to six per cent overall are fearful of dental injections and may avoid care or have irregular attendance. At the same time, adolescents may assert their independence by refusing to cooperate with providers’ and parents’ requests even while accepting that the goal of better health is reasonable. Successful treatment of – and rapport with – the adolescent dental patient, however, can ensure that adolescents’ oral needs are met. Successful providers recognise that adolescents alternate between childlike and mature coping strategies during the course of dental treatment. Identifying an adolescent’s current coping style can help the dental team select appropriate strategies to help treatment proceed more smoothly for the adolescent and clinical team. Working with adolescents’ individual coping styles, rather than expecting consistently adult behaviour, will ideally help decrease frustration and improve treatment outcome.
To address dental workforce shortages in underserved areas in the United States, some States have enacted legislation to make it easier for foreign dental school graduates to become licensed dentists. However, the extent to which foreign dental school graduates will solve the problem of dental workforce shortages is poorly understood. Furthermore, the potential impact that foreign-trained dentists have on improving access to dental care for vulnerable patients living in dental Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) and those enrolled in public insurance programs, such as Medicaid, is unknown. The objective of this paper is to provide a preliminary understanding of the practice behaviors of foreign-trained dentists. The authors used Washington State as a case study to identify the potential impact foreign dental school graduates have on improving access to dental care for vulnerable populations. The following hypotheses were tested: a) among all newly licensed dentists, foreign-trained dentists are more likely to participate in the Medicaid program than U.S.-trained dentists; and b) among newly licensed dentists who participated in the Medicaid program, foreign-trained dentists are more likely to practice in dental HPSAs than U.S.-trained dentists.
The authors used dental license and Medicaid license data to compare the proportions of newly licensed, foreign- and U.S.-trained dentists who participated in the Medicaid program and the proportions that practiced in a dental HPSA.
Using bivariate analyses, the authors found that a significantly lower proportion of foreign-trained dentists participated in the Medicaid program than U.S.-trained dentists (12.9% and 22.8%, respectively; P = 0.011). Among newly licensed dentists who participated in the Medicaid program, there was no significant difference in the proportions of foreign- and U.S.-trained dentists who practiced in a dental HPSA (P = 0.683).
Legislation that makes it easier for foreign-trained dentists to obtain licensure is unlikely to address dental workforce shortages or improve access to dental care for vulnerable populations in the United States. Licensing foreign dental school graduates in the United States also has ethical implications for the dental workforces in other countries.
Dental neglect has been found to be related to poor oral health, a tendency not to have had routine check-ups, and a longer period of time since the last dental appointment in samples of children and adults. The Dental Neglect Scale (DNS) has been found to be a valid measure of dental neglect in samples of children and adults, and may be valid for adolescents as well. We administered the DNS to a sample of adolescents and report on the relationships between the DNS and oral health status, whether or not the adolescent has been to the dentist recently for routine check-ups, and whether or not the adolescent currently goes to a dentist. We also report the internal and test-retest reliabilities of the DNS in this sample, as well as the results of an exploratory factor analysis.
One hundred seventeen adolescents from seven youth groups in the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area (Washington State, U.S.) completed the DNS and indicated whether they currently go to a dentist, while parents indicated whether the adolescent had a check-up in the previous three years. Adolescents also received a dental screening. Sixty six adolescents completed the questionnaire twice. T-tests were used to compare DNS scores of adolescents who have visible caries or not, adolescents who have had a check-up in the past three years or not, and adolescents who currently go to a dentist or not. Internal reliability was measured by Cronbach's alpha, and test-rest reliability was measured by intra-class correlation. Factor analysis (Varimax rotation) was used to examine the factor structure.
In each comparison, significantly higher DNS scores were observed in adolescents with visible caries, who have not had a check-up in the past three years, or who do not go to a dentist (all p values < 0.05). The test-retest reliability of the DNS was high (ICC = 0.81), and its internal reliability was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.60). Factor analysis yielded two factors, characterized by home care and visiting a dentist.
The DNS appears to operate similarly in this sample of adolescents as it has in other samples of children and adults.
In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska's Tribal Health Organizations (THO) developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities.
This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA) Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner.
The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation.
Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.
dental workforce; dental mid-level providers; dental therapist
The aim of this study is to explore behavioral factors associated with toothache among African American adolescents living in rural South Carolina.
Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected on toothache experience in the past 12 months, oral hygiene behavior, dental care utilization, and cariogenic snack and non-diet soft drink consumption in a convenience sample of 156 African American adolescents aged 10-18 years old living in rural South Carolina. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between reported toothache experience and socio-demographic variables, oral health behavior, and snack consumption.
Thirty-four percent of adolescents reported having toothache in the past 12 months. In univariable modeling, age, dental visit in the last two years, quantity and frequency of cariogenic snack consumption, and quantity of non-diet soft drink consumption were each significantly associated with experiencing toothache in the past 12 months (all p-values < 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age, frequent consumption of cariogenic snacks, and number of cans of non-diet soft drink consumed during the weekend significantly increased the odds of experiencing toothache in the past 12 months (all p-values ≤ 0.01).
Findings indicate age, frequent consumption of cariogenic snacks and number of cans of non-diet soft drinks are related to toothache in this group. Public policy implications related to selling cariogenic snacks and soft drink that targeting children and adolescents especially those from low income families are discussed.
Dental pain; carbonated beverages; dietary sucrose; rural health; questionnaire
World Health Organization defines palliative care as the active total care of patients whose disease is not responding to curative treatment. Palliative care for the terminally ill is based on a multidimensional approach to provide whole-person comfort care while maintaining optimal function; dental care plays an important role in this multidisciplinary approach. The aim of the present study is to review significance of dentist's role to determine whether mouth care was effectively assessed and implemented in the palliative care setting. The oral problems experienced by the hospice head and neck patient clearly affect the quality of his or her remaining life. Dentist plays an essential role in palliative care by the maintenance of oral hygiene; dental examination may identify and cure opportunistic infections and dental disease like caries, periodontal disease, oral mucosal problems or prosthetic requirement. Oral care may reduce not only the microbial load of the mouth but the risk for pain and oral infection as well. This multidisciplinary approach to palliative care, including a dentist, may reduce the oral debilities that influence the patient's ability to speak, eat or swallow. This review highlighted that without effective assessment of the mouth, the appropriate implementation of care will not be delivered. Palliative dental care has been fundamental in management of patients with active, progressive, far-advanced disease in which the oral cavity has been compromised either by the disease directly or by its treatment; the focus of care is quality of life.
Dental expression; Hospice care; Oral lesions; Pain; Palliative care
Few studies have investigated the relationships between HIV-related knowledge, fear of contagion in dental environments and Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) among dental patients. Our objectives were to investigate the associations between HIV-related knowledge and fear of contagion in dental environments and OIDP among dental patients, and to evaluate whether those associations were modified by the frequency of dental service attendance.
A total of 1262 patients (mean age 30.7 years, 56.5% females) were recruited from the Khartoum Dental Teaching Hospital and the University of Science and Technology during March–July 2008. The participants underwent a full-mouth oral clinical examination and completed an interview in a face-to-face setting.
Of the study participants, 41.4% had visited a dentist at least twice during the last 2 years, 96.2% had caries experience (DT > 0) and 79.1% reported oral impacts (OIDP > 0). The most frequently reported oral impacts were problems eating, sleeping and cleaning teeth. In total, 26.3% of the participants had HIV transmission knowledge, 75.6% knew people with HIV/AIDS and 58.7% perceived a high risk of cross-infection in dental environments. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, frequency of dental service attendance and caries experience, patients who had high HIV-related information exposure, a positive attitude toward people with HIV/AIDS and a high perceived risk of cross-infection were more likely to report oral impacts, whereas patients who knew people with HIV/AIDS were less likely to report oral impacts. The association between OIDP and HIV transmission knowledge was modified by frequency of dental service attendance.
Dental patients who were informed about HIV and had a high HIV/AIDS risk perception were more likely to report impaired oral health-related quality of life than their less informed counterparts and those who perceived a low risk of contagion. The effect of HIV transmission knowledge on oral impacts was influenced by frequency of dental service attendance.
HIV; AIDS; Attitudes; Oral impacts on daily performance; Dental; Sudan
Common fears were studied by household telephone interviews and mail survey in Seattle, Washington, to determine their relationship to dental fear and to utilization of the dentist. Dental fear was either the first or second most common fear, with a prevalence estimated between 183 and 226 persons per 1000 population. Dental fear was associated with fears of heights, flying, and enclosures. Respondents with multiple common fears other than fear of dentistry were more likely to delay or cancel dental appointments, report a longer period since their last visit to the dentist, and report poorer oral health and less satisfaction with oral appearance. Over 22 percent of the dentally fearful group reported two or more accompanying common fears.
Despite evidence that health and disease occur in social contexts, the vast majority of studies addressing dental pain exclusively assessed information gathered at individual level.
To assess the association between dental pain and contextual and individual characteristics in Brazilian adolescents. In addition, we aimed to test whether contextual Human Development Index is independently associated with dental pain after adjusting for individual level variables of socio-demographics and dental characteristics.
The study used data from an oral health survey carried out in São Paulo, Brazil, which included dental pain, dental exams, individual socioeconomic and demographic conditions, and Human Development Index at area level of 4,249 12-year-old and 1,566 15-year-old schoolchildren. The Poisson multilevel analysis was performed.
Dental pain was found among 25.6% (95%CI = 24.5-26.7) of the adolescents and was 33% less prevalent among those living in more developed areas of the city than among those living in less developed areas. Girls, blacks, those whose parents earn low income and have low schooling, those studying at public schools, and those with dental treatment needs presented higher dental-pain prevalence than their counterparts. Area HDI remained associated with dental pain after adjusting for individual level variables of socio demographic and dental characteristics.
Girls, students whose parents have low schooling, those with low per capita income, those classified as having black skin color and those with dental treatment needs had higher dental pain prevalence than their counterparts. Students from areas with low Human Development Index had higher prevalence of dental pain than those from the more developed areas regardless of individual characteristics.
dental pain; epidemiology; oral health; socioeconomic factors; multilevel analysis
There is a lack of information about the extent to which patients recall key facts of dental consultations. Forgetting health advice undermines adherence with such instructions and is a potential problem. This study assessed the quantity and type of information recalled in a dental consultation, dentist–patient agreement over the contents of the consultation, and the relationship of such recall with patient satisfaction.
Using a cross-sectional design, questionnaire data were obtained from patients recruited through a letter and presenting for a routine dental consultation. General issues discussed, specific information about oral health given, dentist-performed procedures, and agreed future actions were reported independently in writing, by patients and also by the treating dentist immediately postconsultation. Additionally, patients completed a dental visit satisfaction questionnaire.
Responses (n = 26, 55% response rate) were content-analyzed, and data on the number and type of information that was recalled were obtained. Interrater reliability was established. Inferential testing showed differences in dentist–patient recall, dentist–patient agreement, and the association between patient recall and satisfaction. Dentists recalled more information than patients (P = 0.001). Dentists further reported giving more dental health education (P = 0.006) and discussing more future actions (P = 0.002) than patients actually remembered. Technical (eg, crowns/bridges) rather than psychosocial (eg, pain/embarrassment) issues were reported more often (P = 0.001) by both dentists and patients. Dentist–patient agreement over issues discussed and procedures performed was higher (kappa = 0.210–0.310) than dental health education agreement and agreed future actions (kappa = 0.060–0.110). There was no relationship between patient recall and patient satisfaction with the consultation (P = 0.240).
Patients do not recall as much advice and agreed actions about future dental care as dentists believe they have discussed. These results have implications for patient adherence with oral health instructions.
patient memory; dental consultation; patient satisfaction
The SMILE project represented a partnership among the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Libraries, the Gateway Clinic in Laredo, and the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District. The project focused on improving dental practitioners' access to reliable information resources and integrating the best evidence into public health dental practice. Through its training program, SMILE cultivated a set of “power information users” among the dentists, dental hygienists, and community health workers (promotores) who provide public health preventive care and oral health education. The dental public health practitioners gained information literacy skills and increased their knowledge about reliable sites such as blogs, PubMed®, and MedlinePlus®. This project fostered opportunities for expanded partnerships with public health personnel.
consumer health information; dental health education; dental hygienists; dentists; librarians; outreach programs; public health dentistry
To examine past year dental visits among underserved, Hispanic farmworker families using the Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization (1968), which posits that predisposing, enabling, and need factors influence care-seeking behavior.
Oral health survey and clinical data were collected in 2006-7 from families in Mendota, California (Fresno County) as part of a larger, population-based study. Generalized estimating equation logit regression assessed effects of factors on having a dental visit among adults (N=326). Predisposing variables included socio-demographic characteristics, days worked in agriculture, self-rated health status, and dental beliefs. Enabling factors included resources to obtain services (dental insurance, income, acculturation level, regular dental care source). Need measures included perceived need for care and reported symptoms, along with clinically-determined untreated caries and bleeding on probing.
Only 34% of adults had a past year dental visit, despite 44% reporting a regular dental care source. Most (66%) lacked dental insurance, and nearly half (46%) had untreated caries. Most (86%) perceived having current needs, and on average, reported a mean of 4.2 dental symptoms (of 12 queried).
Regression analyses indicated those with more symptoms were less likely to have a past year dental visit. Those who would ask a dentist for advice and had a regular dental care source were more likely to have a past year dental visit.
The final model included predisposing, enabling and need factors. Despite low utilization and prevalent symptoms, having a regular source of care helps break this pattern and should be facilitated.
dental health services; Hispanic; agricultural workers