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1.  An investigation on sleep behaviors of the elderly hospitalized in Zahedan 
Sleep is an essential need in every individual's life. A disorder in the natural sleep can cause physical and mental problems. The elderly are usually faced with more sleep problems. Therefore, the present study aimed to define sleep behavior among the elderly hospitalized in Zahedan.
Materials and Methods:
This is a descriptive analytical study conducted on 300 elderly people aged 60 years and over who were hospitalized in Zahedan. In this research convenience sampling method was used and the research tool was a questionnaire. The data were collected through interviews. Descriptive (frequency distribution) and inferential (X2) statistical tests were employed to analyze the data.
The results showed that 62% of the hospitalized elderly people (total of 300) had sleep disorder. About 44.7%took sleep medication in order to sleep, and only 16.7% did not take sleeping medications. About 44.7% had no special schedule for the time of their sleeping and waking up, and 4.3% were involved in drug abuse and smoking, and had a big dinner before sleeping. There was a significant association between sleep disorder, gender, education, living in urban or rural areas, the cause of hospitalization, and suffering from a chronic disease
Sleep disorder and inappropriate sleep related behaviors had a high prevalence among the elderly. With regard to the important role of sleep in the quality of life of the elderly, detection of the reasons of sleep disorder, motivating them to practice an appropriate sleep behavior, and preventing them from having inappropriate sleep related behaviors are crucial issues.
PMCID: PMC3590697  PMID: 23493461
Sleep behavior; elderly; hospitalized elderly
2.  Sleep and aging: 1. Sleep disorders commonly found in older people 
Aging is associated with several well-described changes in patterns of sleep. Typically, there is a phase advance in the normal circadian sleep cycle: older people tend to go to sleep earlier in the evening but also to wake earlier. They may also wake more frequently during the night and experience fragmented sleep. The prevalence of many sleep disorders increases with age. Insomnia, whether primary or secondary to coexistant illness or medication use, is very common among elderly people. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder and narcolepsy, although less common, are frequently not considered for this population. Periodic leg-movement disorder, a frequent cause of interrupted sleep, can be easily diagnosed with electromyography during nocturnal polysomnography. Restless legs syndrome, however, is diagnosed clinically. Snoring is a common sleep-related respiratory disorder; so is obstructive sleep apnea, which is increasingly seen among older people and is significantly associated with cardio-and cerebrovascular disease as well as cognitive impairment.
PMCID: PMC1852874  PMID: 17452665
3.  Alcohol’s Effects on Sleep in Alcoholics 
Sleep problems, which can have significant clinical and economic consequences, are more common among alcoholics than among nonalcoholics. During both drinking periods and withdrawal, alcoholics commonly experience problems falling asleep and decreased total sleep time. Other measures of sleep are also disturbed. Even alcoholics who have been abstinent for short periods of time (i.e., several weeks) or extended periods of time (i.e., several years) may experience persistent sleep abnormalities. Researchers also found that alcoholics are more likely to suffer from certain sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea. Conversely, sleep problems may predispose some people to developing alcohol problems. Furthermore, sleep problems may increase the risk of relapse among abstinent alcoholics.
PMCID: PMC2778757  PMID: 11584550
sleep disorder; AOD (alcohol or other drug) dependence; physiological AODE (effects of AOD use, abuse, and dependence); REM (rapid eye movement) sleep; AOD withdrawal syndrome; AOD abstinence; self medication; AODD (AOD use disorder) relapse; melatonin; treatment and maintenance; literature review
4.  Circadian rhythm sleep disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis and its association with fatigue: A case-control study 
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a presentation of sleep disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aims to compare this problem in MS patients with healthy people and to determine its association with chronic fatigue in MS patients.
Materials and Methods:
A case-control study was performed on 120 MS patients and 60 healthy subjects matched for age and sex, in 2009 in MS Clinic Alzahra Hospital. Sleep quality, rhythm and fatigue severity were assessed using PSQI (Pittsburgh sleep quality index) and FSS (Fatigue severity Scale) questionnaires, respectively. Its reliability and validity has been confirmed in several studies (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83). This index has seven sections including patient's assessment of his/her sleep, sleep duration, efficacy of routine sleep, sleep disorders, use of hypnotic medication, and dysfunction in daily activities.
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder was more frequent in MS patients relative to healthy subjects (P: 0.002). It was higher in MS patients with severe fatigue relative to MS patients with mild fatigue (P: 0.05). Fatigue severity was 49.9 ± 8.2 and 22.5 ± 7.4 in the first and second group, respectively. PSQI index was 7.9 ± 4.5 in patients with severe fatigue and 5.9 ± 4.5 in patients with mild fatigue and 4.5 ± 2.4 in the control group (P: 0.0001).
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are more frequent in MS patients and those with fatigue. Recognition and management of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in MS patients, especially those with fatigue may be helpful in improving care of these patients.
PMCID: PMC3743326  PMID: 23961292
Chronic fatigue; circadian rhythm sleep disorder; fatigue severity scale; multiple sclerosis; Pittsburg sleep quality index
5.  Marital quality and the marital bed: Examining the covariation between relationship quality and sleep 
Sleep medicine reviews  2007;11(5):389-404.
The majority of adults sleep with a partner, and for a significant proportion of couples, sleep problems and relationship problems co-occur, yet there has been little systematic study of the association between close relationships and sleep. The association between sleep and relationships is likely to be bi-directional and reciprocal—the quality of close relationships influences sleep and sleep disturbances or sleep disorders influence close relationship quality. Therefore, the purpose of the present review is to summarize the extant research on 1) the impact of co-sleeping on bed partner's sleep; 2) the impact of sleep disturbance or sleep disorders on relationship functioning; and 3) the impact of close personal relationship quality on sleep. In addition, we provide a conceptual model of biopsychosocial pathways to account for the covariation between relationship functioning and sleep. Recognizing the dyadic nature of sleep and incorporating such knowledge into both clinical practice and research in sleep medicine may elucidate key mechanisms in the etiology and maintenance of both sleep disorders and relationship problems and may ultimately inform novel treatments.
PMCID: PMC2644899  PMID: 17854738
Marital quality; close relationships; sleep; sleep disorders
6.  Sleep and Obstructive Lung Diseases 
Sleep medicine clinics  2008;3(4):505-515.
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common obstructive lung diseases affecting millions of people in the United States. As sleep disorders are also common, it is not surprising that many people with obstructive lung disease also suffer from sleep disorders. However, people with COPD and those with asthma have worse sleep quality and more sleep-related problems when compared to people with other chronic health problems. In addition, a pathologic relationship may exist between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obstructive lung diseases. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical implications of sleep disturbances in asthma and COPD.
PMCID: PMC3125056  PMID: 21731527
Sleep; Asthma; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; nocturnal hypoxemia
7.  Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health 
Physiology & behavior  2006;90(0):229-235.
Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap.
PMCID: PMC2782301  PMID: 17067643
Blood pressure; Circadian rhythm; Diet; Exercise; Shiftwork; Thermoregulation
8.  The association of gout with sleep disorders: a cross-sectional study in primary care 
Both gout and sleep apnoea are associated with the metabolic syndrome. Hyperuricaemia is also prevalent in sleep apnoea syndrome. The objective of this study was to examine the association between gout and sleep apnoea and other sleep disorders.
Data were taken from a validated database of general practice records from nine practices in the UK between 2001 and 2008. People consulting for gout were identified via Read codes and each matched with four controls for age, gender, practice and year of gout consultation. Sleep problems and confounding comorbidities were also identified via Read codes. Medications were identified through a linked database of prescription records. The association between gout and sleep disorders was assessed using a logistic regression model, adjusting for ischaemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and diuretic use.
1689 individuals with gout were identified and each successfully matched to four controls. Amongst those with gout, the prevalence of any sleep problem was 4.9%, sleep problems other than sleep apnoea 4.2%, and sleep apnoea 0.7%, compared to 3.5%, 3.2% and 0.3% respectively in controls. Gout was associated with any sleep problem (odds ratio (OR) 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11, 1.87), sleep problems other than sleep apnoea (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.03, 1.80), and sleep apnoea (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.01, 4.39). On multivariable analysis, gout remained significantly associated with any sleep problem (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.06, 1.81) and sleep problems other than sleep apnoea (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.03, 1.82), however the association with sleep apnoea was attenuated (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.70, 3.14).
Gout and sleep problems appear to be associated and clinicians should be aware of the co-existence of these two conditions. Larger prospective epidemiological studies are required to explore causality.
PMCID: PMC3621781  PMID: 23557073
Gout; Sleep; Apnea; General practice; Metabolic syndrome X
9.  Pre-Sleep Arousal and Sleep Problems of Anxiety-Disordered Youth 
The current study examined sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal among 52 anxious children and adolescents, aged 7–14 years, in relation to age, sex, ethnicity, and primary anxiety disorder. Assessment included structured diagnostic interviews and parent and child completed measures of sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal. Overall, 85% of parents reported clinically-significant child sleep problems, whereas 54% of youth reported trouble sleeping. Young children, those with primary generalized anxiety disorder, and Latino youth experienced the greatest levels of sleep disturbance. Additionally, greater levels of pre-sleep cognitive rather than somatic arousal were found and pre-sleep thoughts were associated with decreased total sleep duration and greater sleep problems. Findings suggest that attention to sleep should be part of assessment procedures for anxious children in both research and clinical settings.
PMCID: PMC2818382  PMID: 19680805
Child; Adolescent; Anxiety disorders; Sleep; Pre-sleep arousal
10.  Perception versus polysomnographic assessment of sleep in CFS and non-fatigued control subjects: results from a population-based study 
BMC Neurology  2007;7:40.
Complaints of unrefreshing sleep are a prominent component of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); yet, polysomnographic studies have not consistently documented sleep abnormalities in CFS patients. We conducted this study to determine whether alterations in objective sleep characteristics are associated with subjective measures of poor sleep quality in persons with CFS.
We examined the relationship between perceived sleep quality and polysomnographic measures of nighttime and daytime sleep in 35 people with CFS and 40 non-fatigued control subjects, identified from the general population of Wichita, Kansas and defined by empiric criteria. Perceived sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were assessed using clinical sleep questionnaires. Objective sleep characteristics were assessed by nocturnal polysomnography and daytime multiple sleep latency testing.
Participants with CFS reported unrefreshing sleep and problems sleeping during the preceding month significantly more often than did non-fatigued controls. Participants with CFS also rated their quality of sleep during the overnight sleep study as significantly worse than did control subjects. Control subjects reported significantly longer sleep onset latency than latency to fall asleep as measured by PSG and MSLT. There were no significant differences in sleep pathology or architecture between subjects with CFS and control subjects.
People with CFS reported sleep problems significantly more often than control subjects. Yet, when measured these parameters and sleep architecture did not differ between the two subject groups. A unique finding requiring further study is that control, but not CFS subjects, significantly over reported sleep latency suggesting CFS subjects may have an increased appreciation of sleep behaviour that may contribute to their perception of sleep problems.
PMCID: PMC2231384  PMID: 18053240
11.  Morning light therapy for juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2013;14:178.
The prevalence of depression in young people is increasing. The predominant co-morbidities of juvenile depression include sleep disturbances and persistent problems with the sleep-wake rhythm, which have shown to influence treatment outcomes negatively. Severe mood dysregulation is another condition that includes depressive symptoms and problems with the sleep-wake rhythm. Patients with severe mood dysregulation show symptoms of depression, reduced need for sleep, and disturbances in circadian functioning which negatively affect both disorder-specific symptoms and daytime functioning. One approach to treating both depression and problems with the sleep-wake rhythm is the use of light therapy. Light therapy is now a standard therapy for ameliorating symptoms of seasonal affective disorder and depression in adults, but has not yet been investigated in children and adolescents. In this trial, the effects of 2 weeks of morning bright-light therapy on juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation will be evaluated.
A total of 60 patients with depression, aged between 12 and 18 years, in some cases presenting additional symptoms of affective dysregulation, will be included in this trial. Morning bright-light therapy will be implemented for 2 weeks (10 sessions of 45 minutes each), either with ‘active’ light (10,000 lux) or ‘inactive’ light (100 lux). A comprehensive test battery will be conducted before and after treatment and at follow-up 3 weeks later, to assess depression severity, sleep, and attention parameters. Melatonin levels will be measured by assessing the Dim Light Melatonin Onset.
In this pilot study, the use of morning bright-light therapy for juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation shall be evaluated and discussed.
Trials registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89305231
PMCID: PMC3689601  PMID: 23773310
Bright-light therapy; Depression; Adolescents; Sleep disturbances; Severe mood dysregulation
12.  Aging and Sleep: Physiology and Pathophysiology 
Aging effects on sleep are important to consider for the practicing pulmonologist due to the increase in prevalence of major respiratory disorders as well as the normal changes that occur in sleep patterns with aging. Typically, aging is associated with decreases in the amount of slow wave sleep and increases in stage 1 and 2 non–rapid eye movement sleep, often attributed to an increased number of spontaneous arousals that occur in the elderly. Elderly individuals tend to go to sleep earlier in the evening and wake earlier due to a phase advance in their normal circadian sleep cycle. Furthermore the development of sleep-related respiratory disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea or Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR) associated with congestive heart failure (CHF) occur with increasing prevalence in the elderly. The development of such disorders is often of major concern because they are associated with systemic hypertension and cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders such as diabetes, and impaired neurocognition. The present review reflects the current understanding of the normal changes in sleep patterns and sleep needs with advancing age, in addition to the effect that aging has on the predisposition to and consequences of OSA and CSA-CSR associated with CHF.
PMCID: PMC3500384  PMID: 20941662
Aging; sleep patterns; sleep apnea; congestive heart failure
13.  Aspects of sleep disorders in children and adolescents 
Sleep disorders in children and adolescents is a topic that has been, and remains, neglected in both public health education and professional training. Although much knowledge has been accumulated in recent times, it has been poorly disseminated and, therefore, relatively little is put into practice. Only some general issues can be discussed in this article. The aspects chosen relate mainly to clinical practice, but they also have relevance for research. They concern various differences between sleep disorders in children and those in adults, the occurrence of such disorders in young people, their effects on psychological and physical development, the essential (but often ignored) distinction between sleep problems and their underlying causes (ie, sleep disorders), types of sleep disturbance encountered at different ages during development, and the differential diagnosis of certain parasomnias that are at particular risk of being confused with each other.
PMCID: PMC3181901  PMID: 19432390
sleep disorder; child; adolescent
14.  Sleep without drugs 
Disturbed sleep is a common problem, particularly among elderly people, and is usually treated with hypnotics. The side effects of longterm administration of hypnotic drugs are well known, but despite this there remains a substantial population of chronic users. These people can be helped to reduce their dependence on hypnotics through psychological techniques. A group of longterm users treated in this manner were shown to reduce their intake of hypnotics significantly more than a group of users who did not receive any psychological treatment. Furthermore, the treated patients did not experience any deterioration in their sleep patterns, and their subjective refreshment from sleep improved significantly.
For the patient with sleep problems, psychological techniques are preferable to the longterm use of hypnotics both as a weaning-off agent and as an alternative to drugs.
PMCID: PMC1973041  PMID: 6358486
15.  Sleep Disorders in the Older Adult – A Mini-Review 
Gerontology  2009;56(2):181-189.
Approximately 50% of older adults complain of difficulty sleeping. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. The decrements seen in the sleep of the older adult are often due to a decrease in the ability to get needed sleep. However, the decreased ability is less a function of age and more a function of other factors that accompany aging, such as medical and psychiatric illness, increased medication use, advances in the endogenous circadian clock and a higher prevalence of specific sleep disorders. Given the large number of older adults with sleep complaints and sleep disorders, there is a need for health care professionals to have an increased awareness of these sleep disturbances to better enable them to assess and treat these patients. A thorough sleep history (preferably in the presence of their bed partner) is required for a proper diagnosis, and when appropriate, an overnight sleep recording should be done. Treatment of primary sleep problems can improve the quality of life and daytime functioning of older adults. This paper reviews the diagnoses and characteristics of sleep disorders generally found in the older adult. While aimed at the practicing geriatrician, this paper is also of importance for any gerontologist interested in sleep.
PMCID: PMC2842167  PMID: 19738366
Sleep disorders; Circadian rhythms; Insomnia
16.  Effect of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on sleep in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 
Sleep problems are common in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on sleep quality in adults with ADHD.
This 4-week, phase 3, double-blind, forced-dose escalation study of adults aged 18 to 55 years with ADHD randomized participants to receive placebo (n = 62), or 30 (n = 119), 50 (n = 117), or 70 (n = 122) mg/d LDX, taken once a day in the morning. The self-rated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was administered at baseline and at week 4 to assess sleep quality. The PSQI global score assesses 7 sleep components (subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medications, and daytime dysfunction) each scored from 0 (no difficulty) to 3 (severe difficulty).
The mean baseline PSQI global score was 5.8 for LDX and 6.3 for placebo (P = .19) indicating poor overall sleep quality. At endpoint, least squares (LS) mean change from baseline was -0.8 for LDX vs -0.5 for placebo (P = .33). The daytime functioning component showed significant improvement in LS mean change at endpoint for LDX compared with placebo (LDX -0.4 vs placebo 0.0, P = .0001). LS mean changes for the other 6 PSQI components did not significantly differ from placebo. Sleep-related treatment-emergent adverse events with an incidence ≥2% in the active treatment and placebo groups, respectively, were insomnia (19.3% and 4.8%), initial insomnia (5.0% and 3.2%), middle insomnia (3.6% and 0%), sleep disorder (0.6% and 3.2%), somnolence (0.3% and 3.2%), and fatigue (4.7% and 4.8%), and were generally mild or moderate in severity.
For most subjects, LDX was not associated with an overall worsening of sleep quality and significantly improved daytime functioning in adults with ADHD.
Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00334880
PMCID: PMC2732626  PMID: 19650932
17.  Sleep Patterns of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders 
Data on sleep behavior were gathered on 100 children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), ages 2–11 years, using sleep diaries, the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and the Parenting Events Questionnaire. Two time periods were sampled to assess short-term stability of sleep–wake patterns. Before data collection, slightly more than half of the parents, when queried, reported a sleep problem in their child. Subsequent diary and CSHQ reports confirmed more fragmented sleep in those children who were described by their parents as having a sleep problem compared to those without a designated problem. Interestingly, regardless of parental perception of problematic sleep, all children with PDD exhibited longer sleep onset times and greater fragmentation of sleep than that reported for age-matched community norms. The results demonstrate that sleep problems identified by the parent, as well as fragmentation of sleep patterns obtained from sleep diary and CSHQ data, exist in a significant proportion of children with PPD.
PMCID: PMC1201413  PMID: 12553592
Sleep; autism; neurodevelopmental disorder; night waking; behavior
18.  Color Distribution Differences in the Tongue in Sleep Disorder 
Introduction. According to traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) theory, the tongue represents conditions of qi and blood. In the present study, the relationship between the tongue and the qi and blood in conditions with no apparent disease was investigated. Methods. A total of 454 elderly people with no apparent disease were recruited. Two Korean oriental medicine doctors classified subjects into a normal group (n = 402) and a sleep disorder group (n = 52). Three to five weeks after the experiment, 153 subjects were rerecruited for a second experiment. Two-dimensional color histograms, whose seven variables represent the color distribution in Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage 1976 (L∗, a∗, b∗) color space, were produced from tongue images. Results. The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the tongue coating in the normal group was less widely distributed compared with that in the sleep disorder group. The differences in tongue color between the normal at first experiment and sleep disorder at second experiment conditions were similar to the differences between the normal and the sleep disorder groups. Conclusions. The tongue states in the sleep disorder group indicate a qi and blood deficiency according to TEAM theory.
PMCID: PMC4020389  PMID: 24868237
19.  Are sleep problems under-recognised in general practice? 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2004;89(8):708-712.
Aims: To evaluate the frequency of sleep problems in Australian children aged 4.5–16.5 years, and to determine whether the frequency of sleep problems on questionnaire predicts the reporting of sleep problems at consultation.
Methods: Parents of 361 children (aged 4.5–16.5 years) attending their general practitioner for "sick" visits were asked to assess their child's sleep over the previous six months using the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, from which six sleep "disorder" factors and a total sleep problem score were obtained.
Results: The percentage of children with a total sleep problem score indicative of clinical significance (T score >70 or >95th centile) was 24.6% (89/361). Despite this high frequency, parents only addressed sleep problems in 4.1% (13/317) of cases and reported that GPs discussed sleep problems in 7.9% (25/317) of cases. Of the 79 children who reported total sleep problem T scores in the clinical range, only 13.9% (11/79) discussed sleep with their general practitioner within the previous 12 months. Regression analyses revealed an age related decrease in problems with sleep-wake transition and sleep related obstructive breathing; sleep hyperhydrosis, initiating and maintaining sleep, and excessive daytime sleepiness did not significantly decrease with age. No significant gender differences were observed.
Conclusions: Results suggest that chronic sleep problems in Australian children are significantly under-reported by parents during general practice consultations despite a relatively high frequency across all age groups. Given the impact on children and families, there is a need for increased awareness of children's sleep problems in the community and for these to be more actively addressed at consultation.
PMCID: PMC1720041  PMID: 15269066
20.  Sleep Lab Adaptation in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Typically Developing Children 
Sleep Disorders  2013;2013:698957.
Objectives. Research has shown inconsistencies across studies examining sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is possible that these inconsistencies are due to sleep lab adaptation. The goal of the current study was to investigate the possibility that children with ADHD adapt differently to the sleep lab than do typically developing (TD) children. Patients and Methods. Actigraphy variables were compared between home and the sleep lab. Sleep lab adaptation reports from the parent and child were compared between children with ADHD (n = 25) and TD children (n = 25). Results. Based on actigraphy, both groups had reduced sleep duration and reduced wake after sleep onset in the sleep lab compared to home. The only interaction effect was that TD children had increased sleep efficiency in the sleep lab compared to home. Conclusions. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that children with ADHD adjust to the sleep lab differently than their typically developing peers. However, both groups of children did sleep differently in the sleep lab compared to home, and this needs to be considered when generalizing research findings from a sleep lab environment to children's sleep in general.
PMCID: PMC3666280  PMID: 23766917
21.  Self-reported sleep disturbances in renal transplant recipients 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:220.
Poor sleep quality (SQ) and daytime sleepiness (DS) are common in renal transplant (RTx) recipients; however, related data are rare. This study describes the prevalence and frequency of self-reported sleep disturbances in RTx recipients.
This cross-sectional study included 249 RTx recipients transplanted at three Swiss transplant centers. All had reported poor SQ and / or DS in a previous study. With the Survey of Sleep (SOS) self-report questionnaire, we screened for sleep and health habits, sleep history, main sleep problems and sleep-related disturbances. To determine a basis for preliminary sleep diagnoses according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), 164 subjects were interviewed (48 in person, 116 via telephone and 85 refused). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and to determine the frequencies and prevalences of specific sleep disorders.
The sample had a mean age of 59.1 ± 11.6 years (60.2% male); mean time since Tx was 11.1 ± 7.0 years. The most frequent sleep problem was difficulty staying asleep (49.4%), followed by problems falling asleep (32.1%). The most prevalent sleep disturbance was the need to urinate (62.9%), and 27% reported reduced daytime functionality. Interview data showed that most suffered from the first ICSD category: insomnias.
Though often disregarded in RTx recipients, sleep is an essential factor of wellbeing. Our findings show high prevalences and incidences of insomnias, with negative impacts on daytime functionality. This indicates a need for further research on the clinical consequences of sleep disturbances and the benefits of insomnia treatment in RTx recipients.
PMCID: PMC3852502  PMID: 24112372
Renal transplantation; Sleep disturbances; Sleep quality; Daytime sleepiness
22.  Contributions of circadian tendencies and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems of children with ADHD 
BMC Psychiatry  2012;12:212.
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two to three times more likely to experience sleep problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative contributions of circadian preferences and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems experienced by children with ADHD and to test for a moderation effect of ADHD diagnosis on the impact of circadian preferences and externalizing problems on sleep onset problems.
After initial screening, parents of children meeting inclusion criteria documented child bedtime over 4 nights, using a sleep log, and completed questionnaires regarding sleep, ADHD and demographics to assess bedtime routine prior to PSG. On the fifth night of the study, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child’s natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Seventy-five children (26 with ADHD and 49 controls) aged 7–11 years (mean age 8.61 years, SD 1.27 years) participated in the present study.
In both groups of children, externalizing problems yielded significant independent contributions to the explained variance in parental reports of bedtime resistance, whereas an evening circadian tendency contributed both to parental reports of sleep onset delay and to PSG-measured sleep-onset latency. No significant interaction effect of behavioral/circadian tendency with ADHD status was evident.
Sleep onset problems in ADHD are related to different etiologies that might require different interventional strategies and can be distinguished using the parental reports on the CSHQ.
PMCID: PMC3534002  PMID: 23186226
Sleep onset insomnia; Externalizing problems; Sleep problems; ADHD; Circadian tendencies; Behavioral problems
23.  Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Community-Dwelling Elderly 
Sleep  1991;14(6):486-495.
These are the final results of a survey of sleep-disordered breathing, which examined objective and subjective information from a large randomly selected elderly sample. We randomly selected 427 elderly people aged 65 yr and over in the city of San Diego, California. Twenty-four percent had an apnea index, AI, ≥5 and 62% had a respiratory disturbance index, RDI, ≥10. Correlates of sleep-disordered breathing included high relative weight and reports of snoring, breathing cessation at night, nocturnal wandering or confusion, daytime sleepiness and depression. Body mass index, falling asleep at inappropriate times, male gender, no alcohol within 2 hr of bedtime and napping were the best predictors of sleep-disordered breathing. Despite statistical significance, all of the associations between interview variables and apnea indices were small. No combination of demographic variables and symptoms allowed highly reliable prediction of AI or RDI.
PMCID: PMC2756990  PMID: 1798880
Sleep-disordered breathing; Sleep apnea; Aging; Prevalence; Hypopnea
24.  The Association of Sleep Disorder, Obesity Status, and Diabetes Mellitus among US Adults—The NHANES 2009-2010 Survey Results 
To examine the association between sleep disorders, obesity status, and the risk of diabetes in adults, a total of 3668 individuals aged 40+ years from the NHANES 2009-2010 without missing information on sleep-related questions, measurements related to diabetes, and BMI were included in this analysis. Subjects were categorized into three sleep groups based on two sleep questions: (a) no sleep problems; (b) sleep disturbance; and (c) sleep disorder. Diabetes was defined as having one of a diagnosis from a physician; an overnight fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL; Glycohemoglobin > 6.4%; or an oral glucose tolerance test > 199 mg/dL. Overall, 19% of subjects were diabetics, 37% were obese, and 32% had either sleep disturbance or sleep disorder. Using multiple logistic regression models adjusting for covariates without including BMI, the odds ratios (OR, (95% CI)) of diabetes were 1.40 (1.06, 1.84) and 2.04 (1.40, 2.95) for those with sleep disturbance and with sleep disorder, respectively. When further adjusting for BMI, the ORs were similar for those with sleep disturbance 1.36 (1.06, 1.73) but greatly attenuated for those with sleep disorders (1.38 [0.95, 2.00]). In conclusion, the impact of sleep disorders on diabetes may be explained through the individuals' obesity status.
PMCID: PMC3730157  PMID: 23956743
25.  Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Sleep Disorders: Evidence for a Causal Link and Therapeutic Implications 
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and sleep disturbances are both common health problems. There is a significant association between disturbed sleep and GERD, and this may be bidirectional. Sleep disorders may induce gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances, while GI symptoms also may provoke or worsen sleep derangements. Reflux of gastric acid is a less frequent event during sleep, however, acid clearance mechanisms (including swallowing, salivation and primary esophageal motility) are impaired during sleep resulting in prolongation of acid contact time. Nighttime reflux can lead to sleep disturbance and sleep disturbance may further aggravate GERD by prolonged acid contact time and heightened sensory perception. This may facilitate the occurrence of complicated GERD and decreased quality of life. However, the interplay between sleep problems and GERD is complex, and there are still relatively limited data on this issue. Further investigation of sleep-related GERD may identify common pathophysiological themes and new therapeutic targets.
PMCID: PMC2879818  PMID: 20535322
Sleep; Gastroesophageal reflux disease

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