Parental presence at induction of anaesthesia is controversial and of disputed value. Ninety out of 117 parents replied to a preoperative questionnaire designed to identify their preference and motivation with regard to accompanying their children to the anaesthetic room. Half the parents wished to be present at induction, irrespective of the child's age or previous surgical experience and the most commonly cited reasons for this were the child's anxiety or the parents' sense of duty; 32% of these parents changed their preference if their child were to be adequately sedated preoperatively. In addition, 18% of all parents felt that they would prefer not to be present at induction. The results suggest that in circumstances where parents are to be excluded from induction, adequate preoperative explanation and sedative premedication would contribute to allaying parental anxiety, but that a flexible policy may be most appropriate.
Premedication is rarely used in avian species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of premedication on the quality of sevoflurane induction and anaesthesia in parrots. We hypothesised that premedication would facilitate handling and decrease the minimum anaesthetic dose (MAD). Thirty-six adult parrots were randomly distributed in three groups: group S (n = 12) was premedicated with NaCl 0.9%; group KS (n = 12) was premedicated with 10 mg.kg-1 ketamine; and group KDS (n = 12) was premedicated with 10 mg.kg-1 ketamine and 0.5 mg.kg-1 diazepam, delivered intramuscularly. After induction using 4.5% sevoflurane introduced through a facemask, the MAD was determined for each animal. The heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), and cloacal temperature (CT) were recorded before premedication (T0), 15 minutes after premedication (T1), and after MAD determination (T2). Arterial blood gas analyses were performed at T0 and T2. The quality of anaesthesia was evaluated using subjective scales based on animal behaviour and handling during induction, maintenance, and recovery. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Tukey’s or Dunn’s tests.
The minimal anaesthetic doses obtained were 2.4 ± 0.37%, 1.7 ± 0.39%, and 1.3 ± 0.32% for groups S, KS, and KDS, respectively. There were no differences in HR, RR, or CT among groups, but SAP was significantly lower in group S. Sedation was observed in both the premedicated S-KS and S-KDS groups. There were no differences in the quality of intubation and recovery from anaesthesia among the three groups, although the induction time was significantly shorter in the pre-medicated groups, and the KS group showed less muscle relaxation.
Ketamine alone or the ketamine/diazepam combination decreased the MAD of sevoflurane in parrots (Amazona aestiva). Ketamine alone or in combination with diazepam promoted a good quality of sedation, which improved handling and reduced the stress of the birds. All protocols provided safe anaesthesia in this avian species.
Sevoflurane; Ketamine; Diazepam; Parrots
Two methods of administering papaveretum for relieving postoperative pain were compared in two groups of patients who had undergone cholecystectomy. In one group a loading dose of papaveretum was administered by continuous intravenous infusion (1 mg/min) until the patient could breathe deeply without undue pain. Eight times this loading dose was given as a continuous intravenous infusion over the subsequent 48 hours. This regimen was compared with a conventional intermittent intramuscular dose (0.25 mg/kg at four hourly intervals as necessary) in a second group of patients. The intravenous regimen relieved pain better than the intramuscular regimen, which may have reflected the larger dose of papaveretum given to the intravenous group, but it was accompanied by a greater degree of respiratory depression and potentially life-threatening changes in respiratory pattern. These findings suggest that the fear which often accounts for inadequate postoperative pain relief-that larger dose of analgesics will cause respiratory complications-is well founded.
We describe our experience of using continuous papaveretum infusions to control pain in 24 children admitted on 45 occasions with painful sickling crisis. The children were aged from 1.7 to 14.3 years. Infusion duration ranged from one to nine days (median three days), total dose from 0.3 to 21 mg/kg (median 2.4 mg/kg), with a pronounced tendency for dosage to increase with increasing age. No respiratory depression was observed. One infusion was discontinued because of cerebral toxicity.
This study was designed to compare the intra-operative and post-operative analgesic requirements and side effects of using fentanyl infusion versus remifentanil infusion during short-duration surgical procedures in children. The study comprised of 40 children randomly allocated into two equal groups: fentanyl (F-group) or remifentanil (R-group). Both were administered a continuous intravenous (i.v.) infusion. Anaesthetic recovery was assessed using the Brussels sedation scale every 5 min from the time of entry till discharge from recovery room. Post-operative analgesia was assessed throughout the first three post-operative (PO) hours using observational pain–discomfort scale (OPS) and adverse events were recorded. Haemodynamic variables showed a non-significant difference between both the groups. Patients who received remifentanil showed significantly shorter time to spontaneous respiration, eye opening, extubation and verbalization compared to those who received fentanyl. Discharge time was significantly shorter in R-group, and 18 patients fulfilled criteria for recovery-room discharge at ≤25 min with a significant difference in favour of remifentanil. Fentanyl provided significantly better PO analgesia than remifentanil and children in F-group showed a significantly lower mean cumulative OPS record than those in R-group; however, the number of patients requiring rescue analgesia did not show a significant difference between both the groups. Two cases in F-group and one in R-group had bradycardia, one case in R-group had mild hypotension and PO vomiting had occurred in three patients in the F-group and two patients in the R-group. In conclusion, remifentanil is appropriate for opioid-based anaesthesia for paediatric patients as it provides haemodynamic stability and rapid recovery with minimal post-operative side effects.
Opioid based; paediatric; remifentanil
Concentrations of acute phase proteins (CRP: C-reactive protein,
albumin) change during surgery. We investigated the acute phase
response to circumcision and the effects of anaesthesia on this
response. The children were divided into four groups; group 1
(intratracheal general anaesthesia, n = 40), group 2 (general
anaesthesia with mask, n = 20), group 3 (ketamine, n = 20), group
4 (local anaesthesia, n = 35). Blood samples were obtained, 24
hours before circumcision, after premedication, and 24 hours after
circumcision. CRP and albumin before circumcision were comparable
for all groups. There was no increase in CRP, and albumin remained
steady throughout the study. No difference was observed among the
groups, and related to anaesthesia. No responsiveness may be
explained with the size of injured tissue or anatomical and
histological type of preputium.
Aims: To assess the clinical effectiveness of a paediatric hospital at home service compared to conventional hospital care.
Methods: A total of 399 children suffering from breathing difficulty (n = 202), diarrhoea and vomiting (n = 125), or fever (n = 72) were randomised to Hospital at Home or in-patient paediatric care. Main outcome measures were: comparative clinical effectiveness as measured by readmission rate within three months (used as a proxy for parental coping with illness); and length of stay/care and comparative satisfaction of both patients and carers.
Results: Clinical effectiveness of both services was not significantly different. Length of care was one day longer in the Hospital at Home group; however, most parents and children preferred home care.
Conclusions: Hospital at Home is a clinically acceptable form of care for these groups of acute paediatric illness. Readmission rates within three months failed to show any advantage in terms of parental coping. Parents and patients expressed a strong preference for hospital at home.
Objective—To evaluate accident and emergency (A&E) department led practice of ketamine sedation for painful, short procedures in the paediatric population and to ascertain parental response.
Methods—Analysis of retrospective data for all children who received ketamine sedation over a 20 month period in a district general hospital. A data extraction form was used to record age, sex, dose, indication, side effects, and outcome. The parents were contacted by telephone afterwards and asked standardised questions about the child's treatment, their progress after discharge, and overall satisfaction with the treatment.
Results—Intramuscular ketamine was administered to 100 children under 12 years of age during the study period. The drug caused no adverse events pre-operatively or intraoperatively. The main early postoperative complication was vomiting (14%). Ninety three per cent of patients were discharged the same day. No re-attendance or treatment attributable to ketamine related side effects were necessary. Over the 24 hours after discharge, vomiting occurred in 12% and ataxia in 15% of patients. Ninety nine per cent of parents were either very satisfied or satisfied with ketamine sedation and were willing for their child to receive it again, if required.
Conclusion—This study, while confirming the known safety of ketamine sedation, established its suitability for "independent" use within A&E departments by suitably qualified staff.
The effects on cardiovascular changes during induction of anaesthesia and intubation of routine premedication with three different anticholinergic drugs, atropine, hyoscine, and glycopyrronium, were compared in a double blind trial. Administration of both atropine and hyoscine, whether intramuscularly or orally, was found to be associated with a high incidence of dysrhythmias. With glycopyrronium the incidence was much lower, but control patients receiving no anticholinergic premedication had no dysrhythmias. The heart rates and blood pressures were similar in all the groups during intubation and cuff inflation. A single dose of suxamethonium was not associated with any bradycardia. The need for routine anticholinergic drug administration should be reconsidered. However, if necessary, glycopyrronium appears to have an obvious advantage over atropine and hyoscine.
Peri-operative pain relief in children can be provided by conventional general anaesthesia or by regional nerve blocks. The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of penile block for penile surgery with the standard technique of general anaesthesia (GA) of short duration of less than two hours, and also to evaluate the postoperative pain relief obtained by penile block.
Materials and Methods:
The study was carried out in the department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive care of our hospital, on 60 children in the age group of 1-10 years, belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grades I and II, and divided randomly into two groups: Group B and group G, comprising of 30 patients each. Group B children received a penile block whereas group G children underwent a standard general anaesthetic procedure. Baseline, intra-operative and post-operative heart rate (HR), electrocardiogram (ECG), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) (systolic and diastolic) and pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded at regular intervals. The duration of post-operative pain relief, time to rescue analgesia and time to first feed were also evaluated and recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 11 version for windows and employing analysis of variance (ANOVA), unpaired student t test, Chi-square test and Mann Whitney U test for various parameters. Value of P<0.05 was considered as significant and P<0.0001 as highly significant.
The demographic characteristics were comparable in both the groups. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and pulse oximetry showed remarkable differences at various time intervals during intra-operative and post-operative period, which were statistically significant on comparison (P<0.05 and P<0.0001). Post-operative pain relief, time to first rescue analgesia and time to first feed also showed statistically significant differences.
Penile block is very effective when used along with light sedation for distal penile surgeries of less than 2 hours duration as compared to standard GA as reflected by more stable haemodynamics in peri-operative period, excellent pain relief extending up to 6-8 hrs postoperatively and absence of any significant complications or side effects.
Bupivacaine; general anaesthesia; penile block; penile surgery
Four hundred and sixty-nine anaesthetics were given to 27 children between the ages of 18 months and 5 years so that they could receive radiotherapy. When ketamine was used as the sole anaesthetic agent, the induction of anaesthesia was frequently stressful and traumatic, with problems and difficulties being encountered during 24% of anaesthetics. A change to an entirely gaseous method of inducing and maintaining anaesthesia resulted in a much more acceptable service being offered to the children and the incidence of complications fell to only 4%. The problems of monitoring children whilst they receive radiotherapy under general anaesthesia are discussed, the merits of different methods are reviewed and the use of the capnograph is commended.
Paediatric cardiac anaesthesia involves anaesthetizing very small children with complex congenital heart disease for major surgical procedures. The unique nature of this patient population requires considerable expertise and in-depth knowledge of the altered physiology. There have been several developments in the last decade in this subspecialty that has contributed to better care and improved outcome in this vulnerable group of patients. The purpose of this review is to present some of the recent advances in the anesthetic management of these children from preoperative evaluation to postoperative care. This article reviews the role of magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in preoperative evaluation, the use of ultrasound to secure vascular access, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes, the optimal haematocrit and the role of blood products, including the use of recombinant factor VIIa. It also deals with the advances in technology that have led to improved monitoring, the newer developments in cardiopulmonary bypass, the use of centrifugal pumps and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the role of DHCA. The role of new drugs, especially the α-2 agonists in paediatric cardiac anesthetic practice, fast tracking and effective postoperative pain management have also been reviewed.
Cardiopulmonary bypass; congenital heart disease; monitoring; paediatric cardiac anaesthesia; recent advances
To compare oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) versus oral clonidine (4 μg/kg) as a premedication in pediatric patients aged between 2-12 years with regard to sedation and anxiolysis.
Sixty pediatric patients belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists class I and II between the age group of 2-12 years scheduled for elective surgery were randomly allocated to receive either oral midazolam (group I) 30 min before induction or oral clonidine (group II) 90 min before induction of anesthesia. The children were evaluated for levels of sedation and anxiety at the time of separation from the parents, venepuncture, and at the time of mask application for induction of anesthesia.
After premedication, the percentage of children who were sedated and calm increased in both the groups. The overall level of sedation was better in the children in the clonidine group, but children in the midazolam group had a greater degree of anxiolysis at times of venepuncture and mask application. In addition, midazolam did not cause significant changes in hemodynamics unlike clonidine where a significant fall in blood pressure was noted, after premedication, but preinduction.
We conclude that under the conditions of the study, oral midazolam is superior to clonidine as an anxiolytic in pediatric population. Clonidine with its sedative action especially at the time of separation from parents along with its other perioperative benefits cannot be discounted.
Anxiolysis; oral clonidine; oral midazolam; pediatric anesthesia; premedication; sedation
Patients & Methods:
In a randomized , double blind clinical study, we studied 30 children, aged 6 months to 6 years, to compare halothane and sevoflurane anaesthesia in patients undergoing short surgical procedures under general anaesthesia. All the patients were premedicated with atropine 0.02mg kg-1and midazolam 0.1mg kg-1body weight intravenously and received inhalation induction using nitrous oxide in oxygen supplemented with either halothane (maximum inspired concentration of 5%) or sevoflurane (maximum inspired concentration of 8%). Induction was by inhalation of increasing concentrations of sevoflurane (1%) or halothane (0.5%) in the vaporizing setting after every three breaths of the patient.
Time to loss of eyelash reflex and tracheal intubation was more rapid using sevoflurane. Cardiac arrhythmias were significantly more frequent during halothane than sevoflurane anaesthesia. Psychomotor recovery was more rapid after sevoflurane anaesthesia. Children who received sevoflurane had comparatively less nausea and vomiting and the incidence of clinically important side effects was significantly less with sevoflurane anaesthesia.
We conclude that induction with sevoflurane in nitrous oxide and oxygen leads to fast loss of consciousness and provides ideal conditions for managing the airway without supplemental opioids or muscle relaxants with haemodynamic stability and is therefore a reasonable alternative to halothane for paediatric patients.
Halothane; Sevoflurane; paediatric; children
The airway instrumentation of direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are powerful noxious stimuli that should be attenuated by appropriate premedication, smooth induction and rapid intubation. The present study evaluated the safe and clinically effective dose of oral pregabalin premedication for attenuation of haemodynamic pressor response of airway instrumentation.
A total of 90 normotensive adult consented patients aged 24–56 years, ASA grade I and II, of both gender were randomized into three treatment groups of 30 patients each. Group I received oral placebo, Group II oral pregabalin 75 mg and Group III oral pregabalin 150 mg 1 h prior to induction. Anaesthetic technique was standardized and all groups were assessed for pre-operative sedation, haemodynamic changes after the premedication, before and after induction, after laryngoscopy and intubation, along with intraoperative haemodynamic stability and post-operative side-effects.
Pre-operative sedation levels were higher with pregabalin premedication. Significant increase in heart rate and mean arterial pressure was observed in Groups I and II after airway instrumentation, while statistically significant attenuation of mean arterial pressure was seen in Group III. No significant decrease in heart rate was observed in any group. None of the patient has suffered from any post-operative side-effects, and no significant differences in the parameters of recovery and awakening time were observed.
Oral pregabalin premedication has adequately sedated the patients. The haemodynamic pressor response of airway instrumentation was attenuated in a dose-related fashion. The premedicated patients were haemodynamically stable perioperatively without prolongation of recovery time and side-effects.
Haemodynamic pressor response; intubation; laryngoscopy; pregabalin; sedation
Anterior segment ophthalmic surgery is commonly performed under local anaesthesia. In order to improve patient comfort, a variety of sedation techniques has been employed in the past. The object of this study was, firstly, to determine whether continuous intravenous sedation during surgery offered any advantages in patients premedicated with temazepam and metoclopramide, and, secondly, to compare midazolam to propofol for this purpose. Forty nine patients were randomly allocated to receive no intravenous sedation (n = 15), continuous propofol infusion (n = 17), or continuous intravenous midazolam infusion (n = 17) after peribulbar anaesthesia. Each technique provided cardiovascular and respiratory stability and allowed early recovery with minimal postoperative sequelae. Unexpected ocular field movement occurred more commonly in the patients receiving intravenous sedation, although statistical significance was not shown (p = 0.06). Significantly more patients in the intravenous sedation groups reported amnesia (p = 0.03). Patient acceptability was good irrespective of the technique used. This study suggests that continuous sedation using propofol or midazolam is not beneficial and should be avoided in ophthalmic patients who have received a simple premedication.
ProSealTM Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) for children had been introduced in 2004, by Dr. Archie Brain. It has, in addition to Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway (CLMA), a drainage tube for providing a bypass channel for gastric contents to prevent regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration. A randomized prospective study was performed comprising of 60 ASA – I/II patients, between the age groups of 3 and 10 years, of either sex. All the patients were premedicated with oral Midazolam and Glycopyrollate. General anaesthesia with caudal epidural analgesia was given in all the cases. Inhalation with 8% Sevoflurane was used as a sole induction agent in all the patients. They were randomly divided into two groups. PLMA was inserted in patients of Group P and Endotracheal Tube (ETT) in patients of Group I. In all cases, after PLMA / ETT insertion; caudal epidural analgesia was given and general anaesthesia (GA) using Sevoflurane was provided for maintenance of anaesthesia. Muscle relaxant was not used in our study. We studied parameters such as number of attempts, ease of insertion and conditions during insertion, haemodynamic parameters, changes in SpO2, EtCO2, gastric insufflation, regurgitation, pulmonary aspiration, postoperative airway complications and so on. We found that insertion of PLMA as well as ETT was performed in the first attempt in all the patients. Ease of insertion and conditions during insertion were comparable in both the groups. Changes in SpO2 and EtCO2 were comparable. However, highly significant changes in haemodynamic parameters were observed in the ETT group. Complications such as sore throat (13.33% cases), coughing (40% cases), vomiting (3.33% cases) and hypoxia (3.33% cases) were observed in the ETT group. No gastric insufflation or regurgitation was noted in our study. Thus, we concluded that PLMA could be used as an effective and safe airway device in children compared to ETT undergoing general anaesthesia.
Anaesthesia: general anaesthesia; equipment: proseal laryngeal mask airway (plma); endotracheal tube (ett); patients: children
The diaphragm is the main inspiratory muscle and the main indicator of diaphragmatic contractility is the trans-diaphragmatic pressure (Pdi). The aim of this clinical study was to determine the effect of four different anaesthetic protocols on Pdi in anaesthetized healthy dogs. Eighty client-owned dogs were recruited in this clinical study. All the animals received dexmedetomidine and morphine as premedication and propofol for induction. Anaesthesia was maintained with one of four protocols: isoflurane (I), isoflurane with CRI of propofol (IP), isoflurane with CRI of fentanyl (IF), and isoflurane with CRI of ketamine (IK). When the surgical plane of anaesthesia was achieved, two balloon catheters were inserted, one into the stomach and one into the mid-third of the oesophagus for Pdi measurement. Pdi value was the highest in groups I (14.9±4.7 mmHg) and IK (15.2±3.5 mmHg) and the lowest in groups IP (12.2±3.2 mmHg) and IF (12.0±5.9 mmHg). There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.029) between groups IK and IF. PE’CO2 was statistically significantly higher (p<0.0005) in group IF (7.7±0.8 kPa) than in group IK (6.5±0.7 kPa). Isoflurane alone or isoflurane with ketamine for the maintenance of anaesthesia seem to better preserve the respiratory function and the diaphragmatic contractility than isoflurane with either propofol or fentanyl in dogs. Therefore, the use of isoflurane or isoflurane with ketamine may be of benefit when animals with respiratory problems have to be anaesthetized.
Relieving preoperative anxiety is an important concern for the pediatric anesthesiologist. Midazolam has become the most frequently used premedication in children. However, new drugs such as the α2 -agonists have emerged as alternatives for premedication in pediatric anesthesia.
One hundred and twenty children scheduled for adenotonsillectomy were enrolled in this prospective, double-blind, randomized study. The children were divided into two equal groups to receive either intranasal dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg (group D), or oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg (group M) at approximately 60 and 30 mins, respectively, before induction of anesthesia. Preoperative sedative effects, anxiety level changes, and the ease of child-parent separation were assessed. Also, the recovery profile and postoperative analgesic properties were assessed.
Children premedicated with intranasal dexmedetomidine achieved significantly lower sedation levels (P=0.042), lower anxiety levels (P=0.036), and easier child-parent separation (P=0.029) than children who received oral midazolam at the time of transferring the patients to the operating room. Postoperatively, the time to achieve an Aldrete score of 10 was similar in both the groups (P=0.067). Also, the number of children who required fentanyl as rescue analgesia medication was significantly less (P=0.027) in the dexmedetomidine group.
Intranasal dexmedetomidine appears to be a better choice for preanesthetic medication than oral midazolam in our study. Dexmedetomidine was associated with lower sedation levels, lower anxiety levels, and easier child-parent separation at the time of transferring patients to the operating room than children who received oral midazolam. Moreover, intranasal dexmedetomidine has better analgesic property than oral midazolam with discharge time from postanesthetic care unit similar to oral midazolam.
Dexmedetomidine; midazolam; pediatric; sedation
The cost-effectiveness for parents of day-care pediatric surgery was assessed by comparing time and financial costs associated with two surgical procedures, one (squint repair) performed exclusively as a day-care procedure, the other (adenoidectomy) performed exclusively as an inpatient procedure. All but 1 of 165 eligible families participated. The children underwent surgery between February and July 1981. The day-care surgery group (59 families) incurred average total time costs of 16.1 hours, compared with 37.1 hours for the inpatient surgery group (105 families), as parents in the latter group remained with their child during the longer hospital stay. Parents from out of town incurred the greater time and financial costs. In both groups parents of younger children tended to spend more time at the hospital than parents of older children. Type of surgical management was not a significant factor in out-of-pocket expenses. Loss of income was associated with employment of the mother as a professional or a manager and may reflect inequalities in access to compassionate leave between men and women in equivalent positions. Opening day-care surgery facilities on weekends might reduce the financial burden on working mothers. Overall, day-care surgery was found to be cost-effective for families.
Hemodynamic responses of laryngoscopy and laparoscopy should be attenuated by the appropriate premedication, smooth induction, and rapid intubation. The present study evaluated the clinical efficacy of oral premedication with pregabalin or clonidine for hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
A total of 180 healthy adult consented patients aged 35 to 52 years with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status I and II of both gender, who met the inclusion criteria for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were randomized to receive placebo Group I, pregabalin (150 mg) Group II, or clonidine (200 μg) Group III, given 75 to 90 minutes before surgery as oral premedication. All groups were compared for preoperative sedation and anxiety level along with changes of heart rate and mean arterial pressure prior to premedication, before induction, after laryngoscopy, pneumoperitoneum, release of carbon dioxide, and extubation. Intraoperative analgesic drug requirement and any postoperative complications were also recorded.
Pregabalin and clonidine proved to have sedative and anxiolytic effects as oral premedicants and decreased the need of intraoperative analgesic drug requirement. Clonidine was superior to pregabalin for attenuation of the hemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and laparoscopy, but it increased the incidence of intra-and postoperative bradycardia. No significant differences in the parameters of recovery were observed between the groups. None of the premedicated patient has suffered from any postoperative side effects.
Oral premedication with pregabalin 150 mg or clonidine 200 μg causes sedation and anxiolysis with hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, without prolongation of recovery time and side effects.
Clonidine; hemodynamic response; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; laryngoscopy; pneumoperitoneum; pregabalin
Approximately 70,000 patients/year undergo surgery for repair of a fractured hip in the United Kingdom. This is associated with 30-day mortality of 9% and survivors have a considerable length of acute hospital stay postoperatively (median 26 days). Use of oesophageal Doppler monitoring to guide intra-operative fluid administration in hip fracture repair has previously been associated with a reduction in hospital stay of 4-5 days. Most hip fracture surgery is now performed under spinal anaesthesia. Oesophageal Doppler monitoring may be unreliable in the presence of spinal anaesthesia and most patients would not tolerate the probes. An alternative method of guiding fluid administration (minimally-invasive arterial pulse contour analysis) has been shown to reduce length of stay in high-risk surgical patients but has never been studied in hip fracture surgery.
Single-centre randomised controlled parallel group trial. Randomisation by website using computer generated concealed tables. Setting: University hospital in UK. Participants: 128 patients with acute primary hip fracture listed for operative repair under spinal anaesthesia and aged > 65 years. Intervention: Stroke volume guided intra-operative fluid management. Continuous measurement of SV recorded by a calibrated cardiac output monitor (LiDCOplus). Maintenance fluid and 250 ml colloid boluses given to achieve sustained 10% increases in stroke volume. Control group: fluid administration at the responsible (blinded) anaesthetist's discretion. The intervention terminates at the end of the surgical procedure and post-operative fluid management is at the responsible anaesthetist's discretion. Primary outcome: length of acute hospital stay is determined by a blinded team of clinicians. Secondary outcomes include number of complications and total cost of care.
Funding NIHR/RfPB: PB-PG-0407-13073.
Trial registration number
Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN88284896.
The effects of sevoflurane or isoflurane on arterial blood gas, arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation and end-tidal CO2 tension were monitored during induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in 10 premedicated New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits.
For induction, the anaesthetic agents were delivered via a face-mask. After induction was completed, an endotracheal tube was introduced for maintenance of anaesthesia for a period of 90 minutes. Changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood gas, arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation, blood pH and end-tidal CO2 tension were recorded. Although sevoflurane and isoflurane produce similar cardiopulmonary effects in premedicated rabbits, sevoflurane provides a smoother and faster induction because of its lower blood/gas partition coefficient. Thus sevoflurane is probably a more suitable agent than isoflurane for mask induction and maintenance. Its lower blood solubility also makes sevoflurane more satisfactory than isoflurane for maintenance of anaesthesia because it allows the anaesthetist to change the depth of anaesthesia more rapidly.
Rabbit; Anaesthesia; Inhalation; Sevoflurane; Isoflurane
To compare the anaesthetic techniques for laparoscopic tubal ligation using either general anaesthesia with LMA or a combination of local anaesthetic and intravenous sedation, this study was conducted on 60 ASA-1/2 patients in the age group of 20-40 years.
Patients & Methods:
60 ASA grade I & II female patients undergoing laparoscopic tubal ligation on a day care basis were randomly divided in two groups- group I (GA using LMA, n=30), group II (Local anaesthesia, n=30). Both groups received similar premedication. General anaesthesia in group I was induced with propofol 2-3 mg kg-1 and following LMA insertion, the anaesthesia was maintained with 0.5-1.5% halothane. In group II the incision site was infiltrated with 10 ml of 1.5% lidocaine with adrenaline and patients were sedated with intravenous midazolam 0.07mg kg-1 and ketamine 0.5 mg kg-1. A rescue dose of 0.15 mg kg-1 of ketamine was given in group II if the patient complained of pain or discomfort during the procedure. Diclofenac sodium 1 mg kg-1 was used for postoperative analgesia in both the groups. All patients were observed in the PACU until they met the discharge criteria.
The demographic profile was similar in both the groups. The induction to skin incision time was significantly more in group I (5.13 ±0.93 min vs 3.01 ±1.86 min in group II). The decrease in pulse rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) was also significant in group I. The incidence of intraoperative bradycardia was 16.7% and 10% in group I & group II respectively. The changes in SpO2 during the procedure, recovery time and time to meet discharge criteria were comparable in both the groups. The incidence of PONV was 20% & 3.3% in group I and 10% & 6.6% in group II respectively. All patients in both the groups required postoperative analgesics.
Both the techniques were found to be comparable for laparoscopic sterilization, however a longer induction to skin incision time and higher incidence of PONV and shivering in GA group makes LA with sedation a better choice.
Laparoscopy; Tubal ligation; Propofol; Ketamine; Local anesthesia