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1.  Subcellular distribution of daptomycin given alone or with tobramycin in renal proximal tubular cells. 
Previous studies in experimental animals showed that daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic, protects against aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity (C. A. Wood, H. C. Finkbeiner, S. J. Kohlhepp, P. W. Kohnen, and D. N. Gilbert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1280-1285, 1989; D. Beauchamp, M. Pellerin, P. Gourde, M. Pettigrew, and M. G. Bergeron, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:139-147, 1990). In order to better understand the mechanism involved in this protective effect, the subcellular distribution of daptomycin was investigated in the proximal tubular cells of animals treated with daptomycin alone or in combination with tobramycin. A first group of female Sprague-Dawley rats received a single intravenous injection of daptomycin at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight and were killed at 10 min, 1 h, or 24 h after the injection. Other groups of rats were treated during 10 days with saline (NaCl, 0.9%), tobramycin at dosages of 20 mg/kg/12 h, daptomycin at dosages of 10 mg/kg/12 h, or the combination tobramycin-daptomycin at the same dosages. At the time of sacrifice, the renal cortex of the right kidney of each animal was dissected, and small blocks of tissue were fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in Araldite 502 epoxy resin. The subcellular distribution of daptomycin and tobramycin was determined on ultrathin sections by immunogold labeling. Ten minutes after the injection of daptomycin alone, gold particles were seen over the brush border membrane and on the membranes of the endocytic vacuoles of proximal tubular cells. One hour after the injection, a similar distribution was seen and numerous gold particles were found over the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells. The results suggest that daptomycin might protect against aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity by interfering with the interaction between the aminoglycoside and phospholipids inside the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells.
PMCID: PMC284424  PMID: 8192441
2.  Attenuation by daptomycin of gentamicin-induced experimental nephrotoxicity. 
Previously, daptomycin was shown to reduce tobramycin nephrotoxicity in vivo (D. Beauchamp, M. Pellerin, P. Gourde, M. Pettigrew, and M. G. Bergeron, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:139-147, 1990; C. A. Wood, H. C. Finkbeiner, S. J. Kohlhepp, P. W. Kohnen, and D. C. Gilbert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1280-1285, 1989). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline (NaCl, 0.9%), daptomycin (10 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h, subcutaneously), gentamicin (30 mg/kg/12 h, intraperitoneally) or with a combination of daptomycin plus gentamicin over a 10-day period. Animals were killed 4, 10, and 20 days after the end of treatment. Four days after the end of drug administration, gentamicin and daptomycin levels in the renal cortices of animals treated with the combination of daptomycin and gentamicin were significantly higher than in those of rats given gentamicin or daptomycin alone (P < 0.01). Despite the higher cortical concentrations of gentamicin, rats given the combination of gentamicin and daptomycin had less reduction in renal cortex sphingomyelinase activity, less evidence of regeneration of cellular cortical cells ([3H]thymidine incorporation into cortex DNA), lower creatinine concentration in serum, and less histopathologic evidence of injury than rats given gentamicin alone. By immunogold technique, both daptomycin and gentamicin were localized to the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells, regardless of whether animals received the drugs alone or in combination. Interestingly, myeloid body formation occurred in both those animals given gentamicin alone and those given daptomycin plus gentamicin. No significant changes were observed for all groups between 10 and 20 days after the end of therapy, suggesting that the toxicity of gentamicin was not delayed by the concomitant injection of daptomycin. The results confirm that daptomycin can attenuate experimental gentamicin nephrotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC188145  PMID: 8067733
3.  Effects of daptomycin and vancomycin on tobramycin nephrotoxicity in rats. 
Daptomycin is a new biosynthetic antibiotic which belongs to a new class of drugs known as lipopeptides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of daptomycin and vancomycin on tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated during 4 and 10 days with either saline (NaCl, 0.9%) or tobramycin at doses of 4 and 40 mg/kg per day (given every 12 h [q12h] intraperitoneally). Each treatment was combined with saline, daptomycin at a dose of 20 mg/kg per day (given q12h subcutaneously), and ancomycin at a dose of 50 mg/kg per day (given q12h subcutaneously). Daptomycin and vancomycin had no effect on the intracortical accumulation of tobramycin. Daptomycin did not accumulate in renal tissue even after 10 days of treatment. Tobramycin given at a dose of 40 mg/kg per day during 10 days induced a significant inhibition of sphingomyelinase activity in the renal cortex (P less than 0.01) and increased cellular regeneration (P less than 0.01), as measured by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA of the renal cortex. These changes were minimal when daptomycin was combined with tobramycin. Histologically, signs of tobramycin toxicity were also less severe in the presence of daptomycin. The intracortical accumulation of vancomycin was not modified by tobramycin. The sphingomyelinase activity was significantly more inhibited (P less than 0.01) when vancomycin was associated with tobramycin (4 and 40 mg/kg) without affecting the rate of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. Histologically, signs of tobramycin toxicity were not affected by vancomuycin, but the cellular vacuolizations which were also observed in vancomycin-treated animals were still present in the proximal tubular cells of animals that were treated with the combination vancomycin-tobramycin. This study strongly suggests that daptomycin protects animals from tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity but that vancomycin may enhance the effect of tobramycin. We conclude that daptomycin is safe and protects kidney cells from tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC171535  PMID: 2158272
4.  Influence of daptomycin on staphylococcal abscesses and experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity. 
The antibacterial efficacies of daptomycin and vancomycin were compared in male Fischer rats with subcutaneous abscesses caused by either methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) or methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The influence of daptomycin on tobramycin nephrotoxicity was also assessed. MSSA or MRSA abscesses were treated with subcutaneous daptomycin (10 mg/kg every 12 h), vancomycin (125 mg/kg every 12 h), or diluent (every 12 h) for 5 to 10 days. Rats in both antibiotic treatment groups had lower abscess bacterial counts than did controls at days 5 and 10 (P less than 0.0025). The daptomycin treatment groups had lower abscess bacterial counts than did the vancomycin treatment groups for MSSA at day 5 (P less than 0.0025) and day 10 (P less than 0.025) and for MRSA at day 10 (P less than 0.0025). Nephrotoxicity treatment groups included animals treated for 3, 7, 10, 14, and 17 days with subcutaneous diluent (every 12 h), daptomycin (20 mg/kg every 12 h), tobramycin (40 mg/kg every 12 h), and the combination of daptomycin and tobramycin. Compared with controls, animals treated with daptomycin alone exhibited no detectable nephrotoxicity. Rats given tobramycin alone developed functional and histopathologic abnormalities from days 7 through 17. Animals treated with daptomycin and tobramycin for 14 days had a lower mean concentration of creatinine in serum (P less than 0.005), higher mean creatinine clearance values (P less than 0.05), and less cortical tubular cell regeneration (P less than 0.05) than did rats treated with tobramycin alone. In rats with staphylococcal subcutaneous abscesses, daptomycin was superior to vancomycin in treating both MSSA and MRSA. Daptomycin alone caused no detectable renal injury, and in rats given daptomycin combined with tombramycin, there was less histologic and functional renal injury than in animals given tobramycin alone.
PMCID: PMC172640  PMID: 2552905
5.  Ceftriaxone protects against tobramycin nephrotoxicity. 
The effect of ceftriaxone on tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated during 4 and 10 days with saline (NaCl, 0.9%), ceftriaxone at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight/12 h subcutaneously, tobramycin at doses of 40 and 60 mg/kg/12 h intraperitoneally, or the combination ceftriaxone-tobramycin. Creatinine levels in serum were significantly higher in animals treated with tobramycin alone given at 60 mg/kg/12 h during 10 days, compared with control animals (P < 0.01) or animals receiving the combination tobramycin-ceftriaxone (P < 0.01). After 10 days of treatment, ceftriaxone did not accumulate in renal tissue but did reduce the renal intracortical accumulation of tobramycin (P < 0.05). Tobramycin given alone at either 40 or 60 mg/kg/12 h induced a significant inhibition of sphingomyelinase activity compared with control animals (P < 0.05). However, this enzyme activity was significantly less inhibited when tobramycin was injected in combination with ceftriaxone (P < 0.05). Ceftriaxone alone had no effect on the activity of this enzyme. The [3H]thymidine incorporation into the DNA of renal cortex was also significantly lower in animals treated with tobramycin-ceftriaxone compared with animals receiving tobramycin alone (P < 0.05). The 24-h urinary excretion of beta-galactosidase was significantly reduced in animals treated with the combination tobramycin-ceftriaxone compared with the administration of tobramycin alone at 40 and 60 mg/kg/12 h after 5 and 10 days (P < 0.05). Histologically, ceftriazone induced very few cellular alterations and reduced considerably the presence of typical signs of tobramycin nephrotoxicity. This investigation demonstrated that ceftriaxone protects animals against tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC284537  PMID: 8031041
6.  Addition of Ceftaroline to Daptomycin after Emergence of Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus during Therapy Improves Antibacterial Activity 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(10):5296-5302.
Antistaphylococcal beta-lactams enhance daptomycin activity and have been used successfully in combination for refractory methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Ceftaroline possesses MRSA activity, but it is unknown if it improves the daptomycin potency comparably to other beta-lactams. We report a complex patient case of endocarditis who was treated with daptomycin in combination with ceftaroline, which resulted in clearance of a daptomycin-nonsusceptible strain. An in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of renal failure was used to simulate the development of daptomycin resistance and evaluate the microbiologic effects of daptomycin plus ceftaroline treatment. Combination therapy with daptomycin and ceftaroline restored daptomycin sensitivity in vivo and resulted in clearance of persistent blood cultures. Daptomycin susceptibility in vitro was increased in the presence of either ceftaroline or oxacillin. Daptomycin at 6 mg/kg of body weight every 48 h was bactericidal in the model but resulted in regrowth and daptomycin resistance (MIC, 2 to 4 μg/ml) with continued monotherapy. The addition of ceftaroline at 200 mg every 12 h after the emergence of daptomycin resistance enhanced bacterial killing. Importantly, daptomycin plus ceftaroline as the initial combination therapy produced rapid and sustained bactericidal activity and prevented daptomycin resistance. Both in vivo- and in vitro-derived daptomycin resistance resulted in bacteria with more fluid cell membranes. After ceftaroline was added in the model, fluidity was restored to the level of the initial in vivo isolate. Daptomycin-resistant isolates required high daptomycin exposures (at least 10 mg/kg) to optimize cell membrane damage with daptomycin alone. Ceftaroline combined with daptomycin was effective in eliminating daptomycin-resistant MRSA, and these results further justify the potential use of daptomycin plus beta-lactam therapy for these refractory infections.
PMCID: PMC3457349  PMID: 22869564
7.  Attenuation of experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity by ticarcillin. 
It is well known that in vitro the combination of carbenicillin, ticarcillin, or other antipseudomonal penicillins with gentamicin, tobramycin, or other aminoglycoside antibiotics results in the inactivation of the antibacterial activity of the aminoglycoside. To assess the influence of the in vivo interaction of tobramycin and ticarcillin on experimental nephrotoxicity, male Fischer 344 rats were given either tobramycin alone (120 mg/kg per day), tobramycin (120 mg/kg per day) and ticarcillin (250 mg/kg per day) concomitantly, or the combination of these drugs at the same doses that had been preincubated for 24 h and at the time of delivery contained but 63 and 25%, respectively, of the initial concentrations of tobramycin and ticarcillin as measured by conventional analytical procedures. Initial experiments were conducted to determine the concentrations of the antibiotics in serum achieved after administration of each test solution. After a single dose of the test solution, ticarcillin concentrations in serum were higher and more prolonged in rats given tobramycin plus ticarcillin than in rats given ticarcillin alone. After 7 days of exposure to the test solutions, inulin clearance in animals given tobramycin alone was 0.15 +/- 0.1 (mean +/- 2 standard errors) ml/min per 100 g of body weight as compared with 0.53 +/- 0.1 in rats given tobramycin and ticarcillin concomitantly, 0.59 +/- 0.1 in animals given the partially inactivated tobramycin-ticarcillin mixture, and 0.79 +/- 0.1 in control rats. Although there was some improvement in inulin clearance in the group containing tobramycin alone, the three treatment groups maintained the same rank relationship in inulin clearance through 14 days of treatment. Real histology confirmed the attenuation of tubular injury in animals given tobramycin and ticarcillin concomitantly. There was no evidence of toxicity from the presumed inactivation complexes of tobramycin-ticarcillin. These results document an in vivo protective effect of ticarcillin on experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC180182  PMID: 4026263
8.  Efficacy of Daptomycin-Cloxacillin Combination in Experimental Foreign-Body Infection Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Despite the use of daptomycin alone at high doses (greater than 6 mg/kg of body weight/day) against difficult-to-treat infections, clinical failures and resistance appeared. Recently, the combination daptomycin-cloxacillin showed enhanced efficacy in clearing bacteremia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of daptomycin at usual and high doses (equivalent to 6 and 10 mg/kg/day in humans, respectively) in combination with cloxacillin in a rat tissue cage infection model by MRSA and to compare its efficacy to that of daptomycin-rifampin. We used MRSA strain ATCC BAA-39. In the log- and stationary-phase kill curves, daptomycin-cloxacillin improved the bactericidal activity of daptomycin, especially in log phase. For in vivo studies, therapy was administered intraperitoneally for 7 days with daptomycin at 100 mg/kg/day and 45/mg/kg/day (daptomycin 100 and daptomycin 45), daptomycin 100-cloxacillin at 200 mg/kg/12 h, daptomycin 45-cloxacillin, and daptomycin 100-rifampin at 25 mg/kg/12 h. Daptomycin-rifampin was the best therapy (P < 0.05). Daptomycin 45 was the least effective treatment and did not protect against the emergence of resistant strains. There were no differences between the two dosages of daptomycin plus cloxacillin in any situation, and both protected against resistance. The overall effect of the addition of cloxacillin to daptomycin was a significantly greater cure rate (against adhered bacteria) than that for daptomycin alone. In conclusion, daptomycin-cloxacillin enhanced modestly the in vivo efficacy of daptomycin alone against foreign-body infection by MRSA and was less effective than daptomycin plus rifampin. The benefits of adding cloxacillin to daptomycin should be especially evaluated against infections by rifampin-resistant MRSA and for protection against the emergence of daptomycin nonsusceptibility.
PMCID: PMC3393403  PMID: 22585211
9.  Vancomycin enhancement of experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity. 
The influence of vancomycin on tobramycin nephrotoxicity was assessed in male Fischer rats. Treatment groups included controls receiving diluent and groups receiving vancomycin alone at a dosage of 200 mg/kg (body weight) per day, tobramycin alone at a dosage of 80 mg/kg per day, and a combination of vancomycin and tobramycin at the above dosages. All regimens were injected on a twice-a-day schedule. The animals were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 10, 14, 17, and 21. When compared with controls, animals receiving vancomycin alone exhibited no detectable renal toxicity. Compared with the case with controls, tobramycin alone was toxic, as manifested by lower mean animal weights, increased blood urea nitrogen concentrations on days 14 and 17 (P less than 0.005), increased serum creatinine concentrations on days 17 and 21 (P less than 0.005), and the presence of renal cortical tubular necrosis and regeneration. When compared with tobramycin alone, the combination of vancomycin and tobramycin caused earlier and more severe toxicity. By day 10, the magnitude of weight loss, the rise in blood urea nitrogen, and the increase in serum creatinine concentration were all greater in the rats given the combination of vancomycin plus tobramycin than in the animals given tobramycin alone (P less than 0.005). In addition, there was more proximal tubular necrosis and regeneration in rats given vancomycin plus tobramycin compared with those given tobramycin alone. In this animal model, vancomycin alone caused no detectable renal injury, tobramycin alone produced minimal proximal tubular damage, and the combination of vancomycin and tobramycin resulted in a greater degree of kidney injury than observed with tobramycin alone.
PMCID: PMC176427  PMID: 3752981
10.  Daptomycin in experimental murine pneumococcal meningitis 
Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic, could be an alternative to vancomycin for treatment of pneumococcal meningitis. We determined the activity of daptomycin versus vancomycin, with dexamethasone as an adjuvant, in a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis.
Ninety-six 25–30 gram mice were inoculated intracisternally with serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae modified by the integration of a luminescent lux operon. All mice were treated with either dexamethasone 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally every 6 hours alone or in combination with either vancomycin or daptomycin, also administered intraperitoneally. Serum antimicrobial concentrations were selected to approximate those achieved in humans. Following treatment, bioluminescence and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacterial concentrations were determined. Caspase-3 staining was used to assess apoptosis on brain histopathology.
Sixteen hours post intracisternal inoculation, bacterial titers in CSF were 6.8 log10 cfu/ml. Amongst the animals given no antibiotic, vancomycin 50 mg/kg at 16 and 20 hours or daptomycin 25 mg/kg at 16 hours, CSF titers were 7.6, 3.4, and 3.9 log10 cfu/ml, respectively, at 24 hours post infection (p-value, < 0.001 for both vancomycin or daptomycin versus no antibiotic); there was no significant difference in bactericidal activity between the vancomycin and daptomycin groups (p-value, 0.18). CSF bioluminescence correlated with bacterial titer (Pearson regression coefficient, 0.75). The amount of apoptosis of brain parenchymal cells was equivalent among treatment groups.
Daptomycin or vancomycin, when given in combination with dexamethasone, is active in the treatment of experimental pneumococcal meningitis.
PMCID: PMC2685802  PMID: 19405978
11.  Addition of Gentamicin or Rifampin Does Not Enhance the Effectiveness of Daptomycin in Treatment of Experimental Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2009;53(10):4172-4177.
This study evaluated the activity of daptomycin combined with either gentamicin or rifampin against three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates in vitro and one isolate in vivo against a representative strain (MRSA-572). Time-kill experiments showed that daptomycin was bactericidal against these strains at concentrations over the MIC. Daptomycin at sub-MIC concentrations plus gentamicin at 1× and 2× the MIC yielded synergy, while the addition of rifampin at 2 to 4 μg/ml resulted in indifference (two strains) or antagonism (one strain). The in vivo activity of daptomycin (6 mg/kg of body weight once a day) was evaluated ± gentamicin (1 mg/kg intravenously [i.v.] every 8 h [q8h]) or rifampin (300 mg i.v. q8h) in a rabbit model of infective endocarditis by simulating human pharmacokinetics. Daptomycin plus gentamicin (median, 0 [interquartile range, 0 to 2] log10 CFU/g vegetation) was as effective as daptomycin alone (0 [0 to 2] log10 CFU/g vegetation) in reducing the density of bacteria in valve vegetations (P = 0.83), and both were more effective than daptomycin plus rifampin (3 [2 to 3.5] log10 CFU/g vegetation; P < 0.05) for the strain studied. In addition, daptomycin sterilized a ratio of vegetations that was similar to that of daptomycin plus gentamicin (10/15 [67%] versus 9/15 [60%]; P = 0.7), and both regimens did so more than daptomycin plus rifampin (3/15 [20%]; P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). No statistical difference was noted between daptomycin plus gentamicin and daptomycin alone for MRSA treatment. In the combination arm, all isolates from vegetations remained susceptible to daptomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Sixty-one percent of the isolates (8/13) acquired resistance to rifampin during monotherapy. In the daptomycin arm, resistance was detected in only one case, in which the daptomycin MIC rose to 2 μg/ml among the recovered bacteria. In conclusion, the addition of gentamicin or rifampin does not enhance the effectiveness of daptomycin in the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to MRSA.
PMCID: PMC2764216  PMID: 19620326
12.  Endotoxin-tobramycin additive toxicity on renal proximal tubular cells in culture. 
Aminoglycoside-induced renal damage is enhanced in animals with Escherichia coli pyelonephritis. Bacterial endotoxin is liberated during antibiotic therapy. The toxic effect of endotoxin and tobramycin, alone or in combination, was investigated in primary cultures of rabbit proximal tubular cells grown to confluence in serum-free medium. Sodium-dependent uptakes of Pi and alpha-methylglucopyranoside (MGP) and enzymatic activities (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] released as a marker of cell necrosis and gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT] and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase [NAG] present in the homogenate as markers of brush border membrane and lysosome integrity) were measured. Cells were exposed to (i) endotoxin (20 mg/liter), tobramycin (1 mM), or endotoxin plus tobramycin for 48 h, or (ii) endotoxin (100 mg/liter), tobramycin (4 mM), or endotoxin plus tobramycin for 72 h. Endotoxin alone did not alter Pi uptake, but tobramycin inhibited Pi uptake through a decrease in Vmax. The effect was not enhanced by the combination of endotoxin and tobramycin. Endotoxin and tobramycin alone exerted no significant effect upon MGP uptake, but strong inhibition of the Vmax was observed after exposure to a combination of endotoxin plus tobramycin, without alteration of the Km. Endotoxin decreased residual GGT activity in the cell homogenate. Tobramycin increased LDH release in the medium and NAG activity in the homogenate. Endotoxin plus tobramycin resulted in an additive effect upon LDH and NAG activities. In conclusion, by disturbing apical membrane integrity, endotoxin increased tobramycin toxicity in vitro in the absence of serum hormonal mediator.
PMCID: PMC245004  PMID: 1673835
13.  Daptomycin plus Fosfomycin, a Synergistic Combination in Experimental Implant-Associated Osteomyelitis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Rats 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of daptomycin and fosfomycin in experimental chronic implant-associated osteomyelitis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Infection was induced in the tibiae of rats by the insertion of a bacterial inoculum (1 to 5 × 108 CFU/ml) of a clinical MRSA isolate and a titanium wire. Four weeks after infection, each animal was assigned to a treatment group: daptomycin monotherapy at 60 mg/kg of body weight once daily (n = 10), fosfomycin monotherapy at 40 mg/kg once daily (n = 10), or daptomycin and fosfomycin combined at 60 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, respectively, once daily (n = 9). Ten animals were left untreated. After a 3-week treatment period, the animals were euthanized, and the infected tibiae and implants were processed for quantitative bacterial cultures. The bacterial cultures from bones were positive for MRSA in all animals in the untreated group, the daptomycin group, and the fosfomycin group, with median bacterial counts of 2.34 × 106 CFU/g bone, 1.57 × 106 CFU/g bone, and 3.48 × 102 CFU/g bone, respectively. In the daptomycin-fosfomycin group, 6 out of 9 animals were positive for MRSA, with a median count of 7.92 CFU/g bone. Bacterial cultures derived from the titanium wires were negative in the fosfomycin- and daptomycin-fosfomycin-treated groups. Based on bacterial counts in bones, treatment with daptomycin-fosfomycin was statistically significantly superior to all that of the other groups (P ≤ 0.003). Fosfomycin was superior to daptomycin and no treatment (P < 0.0001). No development of resistance was observed in any treatment arm. The combination of daptomycin and fosfomycin demonstrated synergism against MRSA in experimental implant-associated osteomyelitis.
PMCID: PMC4335895  PMID: 25403675
14.  Efficacy of Daptomycin in Experimental Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is becoming increasingly prevalent as both a nosocomial and a community-acquired pathogen. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic now in phase III clinical trials, is rapidly bactericidal in vitro against a range of gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In this study, we compared the efficacy of daptomycin with that of vancomycin, each with or without rifampin, in a model of experimental aortic valve endocarditis due to MRSA. The infecting strain (MRSA strain 32) was susceptible to daptomycin (MIC = 1 μg/ml), vancomycin (MIC = 0.5 μg/ml), and rifampin (MIC = 0.5 μg/ml). Daptomycin was administered at 25 or 40 mg/kg q24h (q24h) by subcutaneous injection in an attempt to simulate human doses of 4 and 6 mg/kg q24h, respectively. Vancomycin was given at 150 mg/kg q24h by continuous intravenous infusion. Rifampin was given at 25 mg/kg by intramuscular injection q24h. Treatment was started 6 h postinoculation and continued for 4.5 days. Outcome was assessed by counting the residual viable bacteria in vegetations. The mean peak daptomycin levels in serum at 2 h after subcutaneous administration of 25 and 40 mg/kg were 64 and 91 μg/ml, respectively. Daptomycin was undetectable in serum at 24 h. The total exposure was comparable to that achieved clinically in humans receiving the drug. Bacterial counts (mean log10 number of CFU per gram ± the standard deviation) in untreated controls reached 10.6 ± 0.8. In treated rats, bacterial counts were as follows: vancomycin, 7.1 ± 2.5; daptomycin at 25 mg/kg, 5.5 ± 1.7; daptomycin at 40 mg/kg, 4.2 ± 1.5. The difference between daptomycin at 40 mg/kg and vancomycin at 150 mg/kg was statistically significant (P = 0.004). In the study of combination therapy, vegetation bacterial counts were as follows: daptomycin at 40 mg/kg, 4.6 ± 1.6; rifampin, 3.6 ± 1.3; vancomycin plus rifampin, 3.3 ± 1.1; daptomycin plus rifampin, 2.9 ± 0.8. The difference between daptomycin and daptomycin plus rifampin was statistically significant (P = 0.006). These results support the continued evaluation of daptomycin for serious MRSA infections, including infective endocarditis.
PMCID: PMC153308  PMID: 12709345
15.  Daptomycin compared with teicoplanin and vancomycin for therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1990;34(11):2081-2085.
The efficacies of daptomycin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were compared in the therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Rabbits infected with either of two methicillin-susceptible strains (SA-12871 or its moderately teicoplanin-resistant derivative SA-12873) or a methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain (MRSA-494) were treated with daptomycin, 8 mg/kg of body weight, every 8 h; teicoplanin, 12.5 mg/kg (low-dose teicoplanin [teicoplanin-LD], excluding MRSA-494) or 40 mg/kg (high-dose teicoplanin [teicoplanin-HD]) every 12 h; or vancomycin, 17.5 mg/kg every 6 h, for 4 days. Compared with no treatment daptomycin, teicoplamin-HD, and vancomycin significantly reduced bacterial counts of all test strains in vegetations and renal and splenic tissues (P less than 0.001). Teicoplanin-LD was equally effective against SA-12871 but failed against SA-12873, with three of six animals still being bacteremic at the end of therapy. For SA-12871, daptomycin was as effective as teicoplanin-HD and was superior to teicoplanin-LD and vancomycin (P = 0.02) in lowering vegetation bacterial counts. There were no differences between daptomycin, teicoplanin-HD, or vancomycin in the reduction of bacterial counts in tissues for any of the test strains. In rabbits infected with SA-12871, vegetations from 33% of teicoplanin-LD-treated, 6% of teicoplanin-HD-treated, and 13% of daptomycin-treated animals yielded organisms for which there were up to eightfold increases in the MICs. Resistance may have contributed to early death in one daptomycin-treated animal. No increases in the MICs for the test strain were detected in animals infected with SA-12873 or MRSA-494. We conclude that in this model and against these strains of S. aureus, daptomycin and teicoplanin-HD are as efficacious as vancomycin, but diminished susceptibility to both can develop during therapy.
PMCID: PMC172003  PMID: 1963526
16.  Efficacy of temafloxacin in experimental Streptococcus adjacens endocarditis and autoradiographic diffusion pattern of [14C]temafloxacin in cardiac vegetations. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1992;36(10):2216-2221.
Temafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone, alone or in combination with tobramycin, was compared with penicillin, tobramycin, and their combination in the therapy of rabbits with endocarditis caused by Streptococcus adjacens GaDT, a new species of nutritionally variant streptococci. Animals were injected intramuscularly for 4 days with temafloxacin (50 mg/kg of body weight twice daily [b.i.d.]) alone or combined with tobramycin (12 mg/kg once daily), with procaine penicillin (150,000 U/kg b.i.d.) alone or combined with tobramycin (12 mg/kg once daily), or with tobramycin (12 mg/kg once daily) alone. Another group of animals was treated with a higher dose of temafloxacin (100 mg/kg b.i.d.). Temafloxacin, penicillin, and tobramycin MICs and MBCs were 1 and 2, 0.015 and 1, and 8 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively. Time-kill curves showed that the addition of tobramycin to penicillin or temafloxacin increased the killing rate. In vivo, treatment with temafloxacin (50 and 100 mg/kg b.i.d.) alone reduced the bacterial counts in vegetations (3.9 +/- 0.9 and 3.1 +/- 0.8 log10 CFU/g of vegetation) compared with those in the vegetations of control animals (7.5 +/- 0.9 log10 CFU/g of vegetation). This result was similar to that obtained with penicillin alone (4.5 +/- 0.8 log10 CFU/g of vegetation). The combination of temafloxacin (50 mg/kg) and tobramycin was as effective as penicillin plus tobramycin (2.5 +/- 0.3 versus 2.3 +/- 0.4 log10 CFU/g of vegetation, respectively). The autoradiographic pattern of [14C]temafloxacin diffusion into infected cardiac vegetations was studied. Thirty minutes after the end of infusion of 250 microCi of [14C]temafloxacin, the [14C]temafloxacin was homogeneously distributed throughout the vegetations. These data support further evaluation of quinolones in experimental endocarditis.
PMCID: PMC245479  PMID: 1332590
17.  Optimal aminoglycoside dosing regimen for penicillin-tobramycin synergism in experimental Streptococcus adjacens endocarditis. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1992;36(11):2403-2407.
The combination of penicillin and aminoglycoside is the recommended therapy for endocarditis caused by nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS). However, the optimal aminoglycoside dosing regimen remains controversial. We compared the efficacies of four regimens of tobramycin alone or combined with procaine penicillin in the therapy of rabbits with endocarditis caused by Streptococcus adjacens, a new species of NVS. Animals were injected intramuscularly for 4 days with procaine penicillin (150,000 U/kg of body weight twice daily) or tobramycin at a low dose (3 mg/kg every 24 h) or a high dose (12 mg/kg every 24 h) either once or three times daily (t.i.d.) alone or in combination with procaine penicillin. Additional groups of animals were treated with the combination regimens for a shorter period of time (2 days) in order to demonstrate a possible difference in the rapidity of efficacy between the regimens. The MICs and MBCs were 0.015 and 1 micrograms/ml and 8 and 16 micrograms/ml for penicillin and tobramycin, respectively. The mean peak tobramycin levels in plasma were 2.4 +/- 1.3 (1 mg/kg t.i.d.), 5.4 +/- 3.7 (4 mg/kg t.i.d.), and 25 +/- 9.3 (12 mg/kg once daily). The mean penicillin levels in serum were always above the MIC. In vitro kill curves plotted at the time that peak concentrations were reached in plasma showed a concentration-dependent killing effect of tobramycin alone but not in combination with penicillin. In vivo, low-dose tobramycin was significantly less effective than the high dose. Results for the combinations of the different dosing regimens of tobramycin with procaine penicillin were not significantly different. Our results suggest that (i) against susceptible strains of streptococci, aminoglycoside alone exhibits a concentration-dependent killing effect both in vitro and in vivo; (ii) against NVS strains, combinations of penicillin and high- or low-dose tobramycin are equally effective; and (iii) aminoglycoside given once daily or at a low dose t.i.d. with penicillin could be a cost-effective alternative with reduced toxic risk for patients with NVS endocarditis when the bacteria are susceptible to the killing activities of both compounds.
PMCID: PMC284343  PMID: 1489184
18.  Early In Vitro and In Vivo Development of High-Level Daptomycin Resistance Is Common in Mitis Group Streptococci after Exposure to Daptomycin 
The development of high-level daptomycin resistance (HLDR; MIC of ≥256 mg/liter) after exposure to daptomycin has recently been reported in viridans group streptococcus (VGS) isolates. Our study objectives were as follows: to know whether in vitro development of HLDR after exposure to daptomycin was common among clinical isolates of VGS and Streptococcus bovis; to determine whether HLDR also developed during the administration of daptomycin to treat experimental endocarditis caused by the daptomycin-susceptible, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus mitis strain S. mitis 351; and to establish whether combination with gentamicin prevented the development of HLDR in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies were performed with 114 VGS strains (mitis group, 92; anginosus group, 10; mutans group, 8; and salivarius group, 4) and 54 Streptococcus bovis strains isolated from 168 consecutive patients with infective endocarditis diagnosed between 1995 and 2010. HLDR was only observed after 24 h of exposure to daptomycin in 27% of the mitis group, including 27% of S. mitis isolates, 47% of S. oralis isolates, and 13% of S. sanguis isolates. In our experimental model, HLDR was detected in 7/11 (63%) and 8/12 (67%) isolates recovered from vegetations after 48 h of daptomycin administered at 6 mg/kg of body weight/24 h and 10 mg/kg/24 h, respectively. In vitro, time-kill experiments showed that daptomycin plus gentamicin was bactericidal against S. mitis 351 at tested concentrations of 0.5 and 1 times the MIC and prevented the development of HLDR. In vivo, the addition of gentamicin at 1 mg/kg/8 h to both daptomycin arms prevented HLDR in 21 out of 23 (91%) rabbits. Daptomycin plus gentamicin was at least as effective as vancomycin plus gentamicin. In conclusion, HLDR develops rapidly and frequently in vitro and in vivo among mitis group streptococci. Combining daptomycin with gentamicin enhanced its activity and prevented the development of HLDR in most cases.
PMCID: PMC3632914  PMID: 23478959
19.  Pharmacodynamics of Cefepime Alone and in Combination with Various Antimicrobials against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Infection Model 
Treatment options for gram-positive resistant bacteria are limited; therefore, efforts to evaluate therapy options in the critical care population are warranted. Cefepime has broad-spectrum activity against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. We have previously demonstrated that the combination of cefepime with vancomycin, linezolid, or quinupristin-dalfopristin had an improved or enhanced effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We investigated various regimens of cefepime alone and in combination against two clinical MRSA isolates (R2481 and R2484) in an established in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Human pharmacokinetic regimen simulations were as follows: cefepime, 2 g every 8 h (q8h) (C8) and 12 h (C12), continuous-infusion 2-g loading dose followed by 4 g alone or in combination with gentamicin and tobramycin (1.0 or 2.0 [G1 and G2 or TB1 and TB2] mg/kg of body weight q12h and 5.0 [G5 or TB5] mg/kg q24h), arbekacin (ARB) (100 mg q12h), linezolid (LIN) (600 mg q12h), tigecycline (TIG) (100 mg q24h), or daptomycin (DAP) (6 mg/kg q24h) for 48 h. The MICs for cefepime, gentamicin, tobramycin, ARB, LIN, TIG, and DAP for the two clinical MRSA isolates (R2481 and R2484) were 4 and 4, 0.25 and 0.5, 128 and 0.5, 0.5 and 0.125, 2 and 4, 0.25 and 0.25, and 0.0625 and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively. At 48 h, combinations of C12 and C8 plus ARB, G1, or G5 (range, −2.05- to −4.32-log10 decrease) demonstrated enhanced lethality against R2481 (resistant to tobramycin) (P < 0.05). A similar relationship was demonstrated against R2484 with cefepime plus ARB, gentamicin, or tobramycin (range, −2.05- to −3.63-log10 decrease) (P < 0.05). A 99.9% kill was achieved with cefepime plus aminoglycoside combinations as early as 2 h and maintained throughout the 48-h period. TIG was antagonistic when combined with C12 against both isolates. DAP alone achieved 99.9% kill for up to 48 h for both isolates and was the most active agent against R2481 and R2484 (−2.89- and −3.61-log10 decrease at 48 h); therefore, combination therapy did not enhance lethality. Overall, the most potent combinations noted were cefepime in combination with low- and high-dose aminoglycosides. Further investigations with combination therapies are warranted.
PMCID: PMC538893  PMID: 15616309
20.  Comparison of daptomycin, vancomycin, and ampicillin-gentamicin for treatment of experimental endocarditis caused by penicillin-resistant enterococci. 
Infections with enterococci that are resistant to multiple antibiotics are an emerging clinical problem. We evaluated the antibiotic treatment of experimental enterococcal endocarditis caused by two strains with different mechanisms of penicillin resistance. Enterococcus faecalis HH-22 is resistant to aminoglycosides and penicillin on the basis of plasmid-mediated modifying enzymes; Enterococcus raffinosus SF-195 is susceptible to aminoglycosides but is resistant to penicillin on the basis of low-affinity penicillin-binding proteins. Animals infected with strain HH-22 received 5 days of treatment with the following: no treatment; daptomycin (20 mg/kg of body weight twice daily [b.i.d.], intramuscularly [i.m.]), vancomycin (20 mg/kg b.i.d., intravenously), or ampicillin (100 mg/kg three times daily, i.m.) plus gentamicin (2.5 mg/kg b.i.d. i.m.). Although vancomycin was superior to ampicillin-gentamicin (P less than 0.01), daptomycin was significantly better than all other treatment regimens (P less than 0.01) in reducing intravegetation enterococcal densities, although no vegetations were rendered culture negative by this agent. Animals infected with strain SF-195 received 5 days of no therapy, ampicillin, ampicillin-gentamicin, vancomycin, or daptomycin (all at the dosage regimens described above). Daptomycin, vancomycin, and ampicillin-gentamicin each lowered intravegetation enterococcal densities significantly better than did ampicillin monotherapy or no treatment (P less than 0.01); moreover, these three treatment regimens rendered significantly more vegetations culture negative than did ampicillin monotherapy or no treatment (P less than 0.05). Serum daptomycin levels remained above the MICs and MBCs for both enterococcal strains throughout the 12-h dosing interval used in the study. Daptomycin and vancomycin were both active in vivo in these models of experimental enterococcal endocarditis caused by penicillin-resistant strains, irrespective of the mechanism of resistance. This activity correlated with the unique cell wall sites of action of these agents (binding to lipoteichoic acid and pentapeptide precursor, respectively) compared with the sites of action of beta-lactams (penicillin-binding proteins). Beta-Lactamase production by strain HH-22 precluded in vivo efficacy with ampicillin-gentamicin combinations. In contrast, this combination was active in vivo against strain SF-195, which exhibited intermediate-level penicillin resistance (MIC, 32 micrograms/ml), likely reflecting the ability of high-dose ampicillin to achieve enough binding to low-affinity penicillin-binding proteins to cause augmented aminoglycoside uptake.
PMCID: PMC192201  PMID: 1329632
21.  Comparative nephrotoxicity of gentamicin and tobramycin: pharmacokinetic and clinical studies in 201 patients. 
A total of 201 critically ill patients were studied during 267 courses of gentamicin or tobramycin treatment (139 gentamicin courses and 128 tobramycin courses). Of these 267 courses, pharmacokinetic and clinical data were obtained for 240 (120 gentamicin and 120 tobramycin). The data collected for pharmacokinetic analysis included measurements of serial blood and urine levels, urinary excretion of beta 2-microglobulin, protein levels, and granular casts. A two-compartment model was used to assess tissue accumulation, and in 89 courses the predicted accumulation was confirmed by cumulative urine collection or postmortem tissue analysis. As groups, the patients given gentamicin and tobramycin did not differ in age, weight, creatine clearance, total dose given, duration of treatment, initial aminoglycoside through serum levels, number of dosage adjustments, concurrent use of furosemide, or concurrent cephalosporins. Previous aminoglycoside treatment (usually gentamicin) had occurred more frequently in the tobramycin treated patients (P less than 0.01), and more males than females received tobramycin (P less than 0.05). Pharmacokinetic assessments of renal damage were based on both changes in glomerular filtration rate (serum creatinine levels, creatinine clearance) and renal tubular damage (beta 2-microglobin, casts), but only patients with elevated aminoglycoside tissue levels leading to renal tubular damage and subsequent creatinine clearance decreases were considered to have experienced aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. In the pharmacokinetic analysis of nephrotoxicity, 29 gentamicin courses (24%) and 12 tobramycin courses (10%) were complicated by nephrotoxicity (P less than 0.01). The 201 study patients were also evaluated independently for clinical nephrotoxicity (defined as a serum creatinine level increase of 0.5 mg/dl or more). Clinical nephrotoxicity occurred at rates of 37% in the gentamicin-treated group and 22% in the tobramycin-treated group (P less than 0.02). In these similar groups of critically ill patients, tobramycin was less nephrotic than gentamicin.
PMCID: PMC181535  PMID: 7294770
22.  Daptomycin, Fosfomycin, or Both for Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis in an Experimental Rat Model▿ 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2011;55(11):4999-5003.
The in vivo activities of daptomycin, fosfomycin, and a combination of both antibiotics against a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (daptomycin MIC, 0.25 μg/ml; fosfomycin MIC, 0.5 μg/ml) were evaluated in a rat model of osteomyelitis. A total of 37 rats with experimental osteomyelitis were treated for 4 weeks with either 60 mg/kg of body weight of daptomycin subcutaneously once daily, 75 mg/kg fosfomycin intraperitoneally once daily, a combination of both drugs, or a saline placebo. After the completion of treatment, animals were euthanized, and the infected tibiae were processed for quantitative bacterial culture. Bone cultures were found to be positive for methicillin-resistant S. aureus in 9 of 9 (100%) animals of the placebo group, in 9 of 9 (100%) animals treated with daptomycin, in 1 of 10 (10%) fosfomycin-treated rats, and in 1 of 9 (22.2%) rats comprising the combination group. Results of bacterial counts in the bone samples were expressed as log10 CFU/g of bone and analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney U test followed by Bonferroni's multiple-comparison test. Based on bacterial counts, treatment with daptomycin was significantly superior to placebo, although it remained inferior to treatment with fosfomycin. No synergistic or antagonistic effect was observed for the combination therapy. No development of resistance against daptomycin or fosfomycin was observed after the 4-week treatment period.
PMCID: PMC3194995  PMID: 21859942
23.  Multicenter Evaluation of the Clinical Outcomes of Daptomycin with and without Concomitant β-Lactams in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia and Mild to Moderate Renal Impairment 
Patients with underlying renal disease may be vulnerable to vancomycin-mediated nephrotoxicity and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia treatment failure. In light of recent data demonstrating the successful use of β-lactam plus daptomycin in very difficult cases of S. aureus bacteremia, we examined safety and clinical outcomes for patients who received daptomycin with or without concomitant β-lactams. We identified 106 patients who received daptomycin for S. aureus bacteremia, had mild or moderate renal insufficiency according to FDA criteria, and enrolled in the Cubicin Outcomes Registry and Experience (CORE), a multicenter registry, from 2005 to 2009. Daptomycin treatment success was 81%. Overall treatment efficacy was slightly enhanced with the addition of a β-lactam (87% versus 78%; P = 0.336), but this trend was most pronounced for bacteremia associated with endocarditis or bone/joint infection or bacteremia from an unknown source (90% versus 57%; P = 0.061). Factors associated with reduced daptomycin efficacy (by logistic regression) were an unknown source of bacteremia (odds ratio [OR] = 7.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55 to 37.2), moderate renal impairment (OR = 9.11; 95% CI = 1.46 to 56.8), and prior vancomycin failure (OR = 11.2; 95% CI = 1.95 to 64.5). Two patients experienced an increase in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) that resolved after stopping daptomycin. No patients developed worsening renal insufficiency related to daptomycin. In conclusion, daptomycin appeared to be effective and well tolerated in patients with S. aureus bacteremia and mild to moderate renal insufficiency. Daptomycin treatment efficacy might be enhanced with β-lactam combination therapy in primary endovascular and bone/joint infections. Additional studies will be necessary to confirm these findings.
PMCID: PMC3591880  PMID: 23254428
24.  Synergy of Daptomycin with Oxacillin and Other β-Lactams against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
We previously observed marked synergy between daptomycin and both rifampin and ampicillin against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Because the synergy between daptomycin and ampicillin was observed for 100% of VRE strains with high-level ampicillin resistance (ampicillin MIC of ≥128 μg/ml), we looked for synergy between daptomycin and other β-lactams against 18 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by employing a time-kill method using Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented to 50 mg of Ca2+/liter. All strains were resistant to oxacillin (16 of 18 strains were resistant at drug concentrations of ≥256 μg/ml), and all strains were susceptible to daptomycin (the MIC at which 90% of the tested isolates were inhibited was 1 μg/ml). Daptomycin was tested at concentrations of 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, and 0.0625 μg/ml alone or in combination with oxacillin at a fixed concentration of 32 μg/ml. Synergy was found for all 18 strains with daptomycin at one-half the MIC in combination with 32 μg of oxacillin/ml, and synergy was found for 11 of 18 strains (61%) with daptomycin at one-fourth the MIC or less in combination with oxacillin. At 24 h, the daptomycin-oxacillin combination with daptomycin at one-half the MIC showed bactericidal activity against all 18 strains, and the combination with one-fourth the daptomycin MIC showed bactericidal activity against 9 of 18 strains. We also used a novel screening method to look for synergy between daptomycin and other β-lactams. In this approach, daptomycin was incorporated into Ca2+-supplemented Mueller-Hinton agar at subinhibitory concentrations, and synergy was screened by comparing test antibiotic Kirby-Bauer disks on agar with and without daptomycin. By this method, daptomycin with ampicillin-sulbactam, ticarcillin-clavulanate, or piperacillin-tazobactam showed synergy comparable to or greater than daptomycin with oxacillin. For seven of the eight strains tested, time-kill studies confirmed synergy between daptomycin and ampicillin-sulbactam with ampicillin in the range of 2 to 8 μg/ml. The combination of daptomycin and β-lactams may be useful for the treatment of MRSA infection, but further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms and to determine the in vivo efficacy of the combination.
PMCID: PMC478518  PMID: 15273094
25.  Adjunctive Rifampin Is Crucial to Optimizing Daptomycin Efficacy against Rabbit Prosthetic Joint Infection Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿† 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2011;55(10):4589-4593.
Daptomycin is an attractive option for treating prosthetic joint infection, but the 6-mg/kg of body weight/day dose was linked to clinical failure and emergence of resistance. Using a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) knee prosthesis infection in rabbits, we studied the efficacies of high-dose daptomycin (22 mg/kg given intravenously [i.v.] once daily [o.d.]; equivalent to 8 mg/kg/day in humans) or vancomycin (60 mg/kg given intramuscularly [i.m.] twice daily [b.i.d.]), both either alone or with adjunctive rifampin (10 mg/kg i.m. b.i.d.). After partial knee replacement with a silicone implant, 107 MRSA CFU was injected into the knees. Treatment started 7 days postinoculation and lasted 7 days. Positive cultures were screened for the emergence of mutant strains, defined as having 3-fold-increased MICs. Although in vivo mean log10 CFU/g of daptomycin-treated (4.23 ± 1.44; n = 12) or vancomycin-treated (4.63 ± 1.08; n = 12) crushed bone was significantly lower than that of controls (5.93 ± 1.15; n = 9) (P < 0.01), neither treatment sterilized bone (2/12 and 0/12 rabbits with sterile bone, respectively). Daptomycin mutant strains were found in 6/12, 3/12, and 2/9 daptomycin-treated, vancomycin-treated, and control rabbits, respectively; no resistant strains emerged (MIC was always <1 mg/liter). Adjunctive rifampin with daptomycin (1.47 ± 0.04 CFU/g of bone [detection threshold]; 11/11 sterile bones) or vancomycin (1.5 ± 0.12 CFU/g of bone; 6/8 sterile bones) was significantly more effective than monotherapy (P < 0.01) and prevented the emergence of daptomycin mutant strains. In this MRSA joint prosthesis infection model, combining rifampin with daptomycin was highly effective. Daptomycin mutant strains were isolated in vivo even without treatment, but adjunctive rifampin prevented this phenomenon, previously found after monotherapy in humans.
PMCID: PMC3186998  PMID: 21825285

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