A summary utility index is useful for deriving quality-adjusted life years (QALY) for cost analyses or disability weights for burden of disease studies. However, many quality of life instruments provide descriptive profiles rather than a single utility index. Transforming quality of life instruments to a utility index could extend the use of quality of life instruments to costs analyses and burden of disease studies. The aims of the study were to map a specific oral health measure, the Oral Health Impact Profile to a generic health state measure, the EuroQol, in order to enable the estimation of health state values based on OHIP data.
Data were collected from patients treated by a random sample of South Australian dentists in 2001–02 using mailed self-complete questionnaires. Dentists recorded the diagnosis of dental conditions and provided patients with self-complete questionnaires to record the nature, severity and duration of symptoms using the EuroQol (EQ-5D) and 14-item version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) instruments. Data were available from 375 patients (response rate = 72%). A random two-thirds sample of patients was used in tobit regressions of EQ-5D health state values estimated using OHIP-14 in a model with categories of OHIP responses as indicator variables and in a model with OHIP responses as continuous variables. Age and sex were included as covariates in both models. The remaining one-third sample of patients was used to test the models.
The OHIP item 'painful aching in mouth' was significantly related to health state values in both models while 'life less satisfying' was also significant in the continuous model. Mean forecast errors relative to the mean observed health state value were higher when fitted to the categorical model (17.4%) compared to the continuous model (15.2%) (P < 0.05).
The findings enable health state values to be derived from OHIP-14 scores for populations where utility has not or cannot be measured directly.
Australian burden of disease estimates appeared inconsistent with the reported repetitive and ubiquitous nature of dental problems. The aims of the study were to measure the nature, severity and duration of symptoms for specific oral conditions, and calculate disability weights from these measures.
Data were collected in 2001–02 from a random sample of South Australian dentists using mailed self-complete questionnaires. Dentists recorded the diagnosis of dental problems and provided patients with self-complete questionnaires to record the nature, severity and duration of symptoms using the EuroQol instrument. Data were available from 378 dentists (response rate = 60%).
Disability weights were highest for pulpal infection (0.069), caries (0.044) and dentinal sensitivity (0.040), followed by denture problems (0.026), periodontal disease (0.023), failed restorations (0.019), tooth fractures (0.014) and tooth wear (0.011). Aesthetic problems had a low disability weight (0.002), and both recall/maintenance care and oral hygiene had adjusted weights of zero.
Disability weights for caries (0.044), periodontal disease (0.023) and denture problems (0.026) in this study were higher than comparable oral health conditions in the Australian Burden of Disease and Injury Study (0.005 for caries involving a filling and 0.014 for caries involving an extraction, 0.007 for periodontal disease, and 0.004 for edentulism). A range of common problems such as pulpal infection, failed restorations and tooth fracture that were not included in the Australian Burden of Disease and Injury Study had relatively high disability weights. The inclusion of a fuller range of oral health problems along with revised disability weights would result in oral health accounting for a larger amount of disability than originally estimated.
Oral disease; Burden of disease; EuroQol; Disability weight
Healthy Japan 21 (Japanese National Health Promotion in the 21st Century) was started in 2000 to promote extension of healthy life expectancy and improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The present study aims to describe HRQOL of Japanese subjects using the EuroQol questionnaire (EQ-5D) and investigate the influence of social background, health-related behaviors, and chronic conditions on HRQOL using representatives in Takamatsu, Japan.
Data were obtained from a 2005 Takamatsu City health survey mailed to 2,500 randomly selected Japanese individuals in Takamatsu, a medium-sized city. We examined data from 915 Japanese adults. The questionnaire addressed social background, health-related behaviors, chronic conditions, EQ-5D items, and self-rated health. The impact of social background, health-related behaviors, and chronic conditions on Japanese HRQOL was examined through multivariate regression, adjusting for age and sex.
EQ-5D scores decreased with age, particularly for respondents who were unemployed or retired. Adjusting for sex and age, the results showed that age, unemployment/retirement, feeling severe stress, and musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal diseases were significantly associated with decreased HRQOL. Conversely, sufficient sleep (7–8 h/day) and having a hobby were significantly associated with increased HRQOL.
Information is lacking regarding HRQOL in Japanese populations. This study furthers our understanding of some important determinants influencing Japanese HRQOL, using the EQ-5D in Takamatsu, Japan. Our results also resembled some findings from similar studies in other countries. We hope to use the EQ-5D with other health survey questionnaires to gather more data about HRQOL of Japanese people.
HRQOL; Healthy Japan 21; EQ-5D; Health-related behaviors; Chronic conditions
Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females).
To describe oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among New Zealand adults and assess the relationship between clinical measures of oral health status and a well-established OHRQoL measure, controlling for sex, socioeconomic status (SES) and use of dental services.
A birth cohort of 924 dentate adults (participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study) was systematically examined for dental caries, tooth loss, and periodontal attachment loss (CAL) at age 32 years. OHRQoL was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). The questionnaire also collected data on each study member’s occupation, self-rated oral health and reasons for seeing a dental care provider. SES was determined from each individual’s occupation at age 32 years.
The mean total OHIP-14 score was 8.0 (SD 8.1); 23.4% of the cohort reported one or more OHIP problems ‘fairly often’ or ‘very often’. When the prevalence of impacts ‘fairly/very often’ was modeled using logistic regression, having untreated caries, two or more sites with CAL of 4+ mm and 1 or more teeth missing by age 32 years remained significantly associated with OHRQoL, after adjusting for sex and ‘episodic’ dental care. Multivariate analysis using Poisson regression determined that being in the low SES group was also associated with the mean number of impacts (extent) and the rated severity of impacts.
OHIP-14 scores were significantly associated with clinical oral health status indicators, independently of sex and socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. The prevalence of impacts (23.4%) in the cohort was significantly greater than age- and sex-standardized estimates from Australia (18.2%) and the UK (15.9%).
adult; dental caries; oral health; Oral Health Impact Profile; periodontal diseases; prevalence; quality of life; tooth loss
There is paucity of data concerning the self-perceptions of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of veterans with multiple chronic medical conditions.
Veterans who attended an out-patient power wheelchair clinic at a tertiary VA Medical Center were assessed. Health status and HRQoL were measured by using the EuroQol (EQ-5D) questionnaire. The EuroQol (ED-5D) visual analogue scale (EQ-5DVAS) measured their health state, and average values of the (EQ-5D) questionnaire for mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain or discomfort, and anxiety or depression (EQ-5Dprofile), and the EQ-5Dutility measured their HRQoL.
Of the 170 veterans who attended the out-patient clinic, the mean (±SD) age was 69.6±10.7 years, male/female ratio was 163/7, and 88% were non-Hispanic whites. Fifty-four percent were retired, 39% had a registered disabled, and only 3% were employed. Thirty-three percent were current smokers. More than 64% of the veterans had 4 or more co-morbid conditions for which they were receiving treatment. The mean (±SD) initial EQ-5Dprofile, EQ-5Dutility, and EQ-5DVAS scores were 10.3±1.5, 0.75±0.05 and 45.3±18.9, respectively. The social-demographic variables studied (age, gender, education, marital status, employment, co-morbid conditions, and current smoking history) were only able to predict the mobility and anxiety/depression domains of the EQ-5D.
Veterans who considered themselves disabled had multiple chronic medical conditions. Age, employment state, and number of chronic medical conditions were associated with poor health state and HRQoL. No relationship was found between health state and HRQoL in this sample of veterans.
veterans; health state; quality of life; health care; health care initiatives; out-patient clinic; EuroQol questionnaire; co-morbidities; observation
Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a relevant outcome measures in intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to evaluate HRQL of ICU patients 3 months after discharge using the Arabic version for Morocco of the EuroQol-5-Dimension (EQ-5D), and to examine the psychometric properties of the questionnaire.
The Arabic version for Morocco of the EQ-5D was approved by the EuroQol group. A prospective cohort study was conducted after medical ICU discharge. At 3-month follow up, the EQ-5D (self classifier and EQ-VAS) was administered in consultation or by telephone. EQ-VAS varies from 0 (better HRQL) to 100 (worst HRQL). An unweighted scoring for EQ5D-index was calculated. EQ5D-index ranges from -0.59 to 1. Test-retest reliability of the EQ-5D was tested using Kappa coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Criterion validity was assessed by correlating EQ-VAS and EQ5D-index with the Short Form 36 (SF-36). Construct validity was tested using simple and multiple liner regression to assess factors influencing patients'HRQL. 145 survivors answered the EQ-5D. Median EQ5D-index was 0.52 [0.20-1]. Mean EQ-VAS was 62 ± 20. Test-retest reliability was conducted in 83 patients. ICCs of EQ5D-index and EQ-VAS were 0.95 and 0.92 respectively. For EQ-5D self classifier, agreement by kappa was above 0.40. Significant correlations were noted between EQ5D-index, EQ-VAS and SF-36 (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with poorer HRQL for EQ5D-index were longer ICU length of stay (β = -0.01; p = 0.017) and higher educational level (β = -0.2; p = 0.001). For EQ-VAS men were associated with better HRQL (β = 6.5; p = 0.048).
The Arabic version for Morocco of the EQ-5D is reliable and valid. Women, high educational level and longer ICU length of stay were associated with poorer HRQL.
EQ-5D; Intensive care; Quality of life
The need for appraisal of oral health-related quality of life has been increasingly recognized over the last decades. The aims of this study were to develop a Spanish version (OHIP-Sp) of the Oral Health Impact Profile and to evaluate its convergent and discriminative validity, and its internal consistency.
The original 49-items OHIP was translated to Spanish, revised for understanding and semantics by two independent dentists, and then translated back to English by an independent bilingual dentist. The data originated in a cross sectional study conducted among high school students from the Province of Santiago, Chile. The study group was sampled using a multistage random cluster procedure yielding 9,203 students aged 12–21 years. All selected students were invited to participate and all filled a questionnaire with information on socio-demographic factors; oral health related behaviors; and self-reported oral health status (good, fair or poor). From this group, 9,163 students also accepted to fill a detailed questionnaire on socio-economic indicators and to receive a clinical examination comprising direct recordings of clinical attachment levels (CAL) in molars and incisors, tooth loss, and the presence of necrotizing ulcerative gingival lesions.
The participation rate and the questionnaire completeness were high with OHIP-Sp total scores being computed for 9,133 subjects. Self-perceived oral health status was associated with the total OHIP-Sp score and all its domains (Spearman rank correlation). The OHIP-Sp total score was also directly associated with the 4 dental outcomes investigated (Mann-Whitney test) and the largest impact was found for the outcomes, 'tooth loss' with a mean OHIP-Sp score = 13.5 and 'CAL >= 3 mm' with a mean OHIP-Sp score = 13.0.
The OHIP-Sp revealed suitable convergent and discriminative validity and appropriate internal consistency (Cronbach's α). Further studies on OHIP-Sp warrant the inclusion of populations with a higher disease burden; and the use of test-retest reliability exercises to evaluate the stability of the test.
There is growing emphasis on the cost‐effectiveness of treating rheumatoid arthritis. Few trials directly record the health utility measures, like EuroQol, needed for economic analyses. Consequently linear regression methods have been used to transform Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores into utility measures. The authors examined whether this is justified.
The authors compared HAQ and EuroQol in cross‐sectional and treatment change observational studies of rheumatoid arthritis patients; they also measured SF‐36 and Nottingham Health Profiles.
In the cross‐sectional study, HAQ and EuroQol scores were moderately inversely correlated (Spearman rank correlation, r = 0.76). HAQ showed a Gaussian distribution whereas EuroQol was bimodal. In the treatment change study, changes in HAQ and EuroQol were unrelated (r = 0.08); the changes showed similar Gaussian and bimodal distributions.
Not all patient‐based measures are analogous, and evidence of clinical equivalence, especially in treatment response, is needed before data transformation is considered. Specifically, as HAQ and EuroQol are demonstrably not equivalent, economic evaluations of treatment cost effectiveness should not be based on EuroQol data transformed from HAQ. The use of such transformed data by regulatory bodies which determine drug availability means that the issue is no longer only of academic interest but a real clinical concern.
A parental/family history of poor oral health may influence the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) of adults.
To determine whether the oral health of mothers of young children can predict the OHRQOL of those same children when they reach adulthood.
Oral examination and interview data from the Dunedin Study's age-32 assessment, as well as maternal self-rated oral health data from the age-5 assessment were used. The main outcome measure was study members' short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) at age 32. Analyses involved 827 individuals (81.5% of the surviving cohort) dentally examined at both ages, who also completed the OHIP-14 questionnaire at age 32, and whose mothers were interviewed at the age-5 assessment.
There was a consistent gradient of relative risk across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status at the age-5 assessment for having one or more impacts in the overall OHIP-14 scale, whereby risk was greatest among the study members whose mothers rated their oral health as "poor/edentulous", and lowest among those with an "excellent/fairly good" rating. In addition, there was a gradient in the age-32 mean OHIP-14 score, and in the mean number of OHIP-14 impacts at age 32 across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status. The higher risk of having one or more impacts in the psychological discomfort subscale, when mother rated her oral health as "poor/edentulous", was statistically significant.
These data suggest that maternal self-rated oral health when a child is young has a bearing on that child's OHRQOL almost three decades later. The adult offspring of mothers with poor self-rated oral health had poorer OHRQOL outcomes, particularly in the psychological discomfort subscale.
oral health; oral health-related quality of life: OHIP-14; intergenerational; risk; family history
To investigate the association between oral health literacy (OHL) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and explore the racial differences therein among a low-income community-based group of female WIC participants.
Participants (N = 1,405) enrolled in the Carolina Oral Health Literacy (COHL) study completed the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile Index (OHIP-14, a measure of OHRQoL) and REALD-30 (a word recognition literacy test). Socio-demographic and self-reported dental attendance data were collected via structured interviews. Severity (cumulative OHIP-14 score) and extent of impact (number of items reported fairly/very often) scores were calculated as measures of OHRQoL. OHL was assessed by the cumulative REALD-30 score. The association of OHL with OHRQoL was examined using descriptive and visual methods, and was quantified using Spearman's rho and zero-inflated negative binomial modeling.
The study group included a substantial number of African Americans (AA = 41%) and American Indians (AI = 20%). The sample majority had a high school education or less and a mean age of 26.6 years. One-third of the participants reported at least one oral health impact. The OHIP-14 mean severity and extent scores were 10.6 [95% confidence limits (CL) = 10.0, 11.2] and 1.35 (95% CL = 1.21, 1.50), respectively. OHL scores were distributed normally with mean (standard deviation, SD) REALD-30 of 15.8 (5.3). OHL was weakly associated with OHRQoL: prevalence rho = -0.14 (95% CL = -0.20, -0.08); extent rho = -0.14 (95% CL = -0.19, -0.09); severity rho = -0.10 (95% CL = -0.16, -0.05). "Low" OHL (defined as < 13 REALD-30 score) was associated with worse OHRQoL, with increases in the prevalence of OHIP-14 impacts ranging from 11% for severity to 34% for extent. The inverse association of OHL with OHIP-14 impacts persisted in multivariate analysis: Problem Rate Ratio (PRR) = 0.91 (95% CL = 0.86, 0.98) for one SD change in OHL. Stratification by race revealed effect-measure modification: Whites--PRR = 1.01 (95% CL = 0.91, 1.11); AA--PRR = 0.86 (95% CL = 0.77, 0.96).
Although the inverse association between OHL and OHRQoL across the entire sample was weak, subjects in the "low" OHL group reported significantly more OHRQoL impacts versus those with higher literacy. Our findings indicate that the association between OHL and OHRQoL may be modified by race.
oral health literacy; oral health-related quality of life; OHIP-14; racial differences; effect measure modification
The oral health-related quality of life indicators are increasingly used to measure the impact of the oral conditions on quality of life. One of the most used indicators is the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), but it has never been applied in Iran. The aim of this study was to validate the usage of OHIP-14 among Iranians.
A cross-sectional study was performed in Kerman (Iran). A consecutive sample (n= 400) of the Kerman Dental School Clinics attending patients participated in this study. All participants self-completed the translated OHIP-14. Reliability analyses, validity tests, and responsiveness were carried out to evaluate the psychometric properties of the OHIP-14.
The reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) of the OHIP-14 was above the recommended 0.7 threshold and considered excellent (alpha: 0.85). The coefficient of the test-retest reliability measured by ICC was 0.88 (CI 95%: 0.80–0.93). Poorer oral condition was strongly associated with OHIP scores of the patients, supporting construct validity. Moreover, for evaluation of responsiveness, the ES was measured to be 0.43 and the SRM was 0.67.
The Persian version of OHIP-14 is a precise, valid and reliable instrument for assessing oral health-related quality of life among Persian population.
Oral health; Quality of life; Validity; Iran
The aims of the study were to assess the impact of both positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) on self-reported oral health-related quality of life and to determine the effect of including affectivity on the relationship between oral health-related quality of life and a set of explanatory variables consisting of oral health status, socio-economic status and dental visiting pattern.
A random sample of 45–54 year-olds from metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia was surveyed by mailed self-complete questionnaire during 2004–05 with up to four follow-up mailings of the questionnaire to non-respondents (n = 986 responded, response rate = 44.4%). Oral health-related quality of life was measured using OHIP-14 and affectivity using the Bradburn scale. Using OHIP-14 and subscales as the dependent variables, regression models were constructed first using oral health status, socio-economic characteristics and dental visit pattern and then adding PA and NA as independent variables, with nested models tested for change in R-squared values.
PA and NA exhibited a negative correlation of -0.49 (P < 0.01). NA accounted for a larger percentage of variance in OHIP-14 scores (3.0% to 7.3%) than PA (1.4% to 4.6%). In models that included both PA and NA, PA accounted for 0.2% to 1.1% of variance in OHIP-14 scores compared to 1.8% to 3.9% for NA.
PA and NA both accounted for additional variance in quality of life scores, but did not substantially diminish the effect of established explanatory variables such as oral health status, socio-economic status and dental visit patterns.
Interpretation of scores from oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments, such as the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is challenging. It was the aim of this study to determine how many oral impacts correspond to one point of the 49-item OHIP using a new approach which translates numeric problem counts into the traditionally used ordinal OHIP response categories.
A sample of 145 consecutively recruited prosthodontic patients seeking treatment or having a routine examination completed the German version of the 49-item OHIP with the original ordinal response format as a self-administered questionnaire. In addition, the numerical frequencies of impairment during the previous month were requested in personal interviews. Based on a multilevel mixed-effects linear regression, we estimated the mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) in numerical frequency between two adjacent ordinal responses.
A numerical frequency of 15.2 (CI: 14.8 – 15.7) impacts per month corresponded to one OHIP point. This translates to approximately one impact every other day in the past month.
The oral problem count per day that corresponds to one OHIP-49 point can be used to interpret this instrument’s scores in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. This number can help to better understand OHRQoL burden for patients, clinicians, and researchers alike.
OHIP; Response format; OHRQoL; Assessment
Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an important outcome in times of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART). We compared the HRQoL of HIV positive patients receiving HAART with those awaiting treatment in public sector facilities in the Free State province in South Africa.
A stratified random sample of 371 patients receiving or awaiting HAART were interviewed and the EuroQol-profile, EuroQol-index and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were compared. Independent associations between these outcomes and HAART, socio-demographic, clinical and health service variables were estimated using linear and ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for intra-clinic clustering of outcomes.
Patients receiving HAART reported better HRQoL for 3 of the 5 EuroQol-dimensions, for the VAS score and for the EuroQol index in bivariable analysis. They had a higher mean EuroQol index (0.11 difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04; 0.23), and were more likely to have a higher index (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.1; 1.3), compared to those awaiting HAART, in multivariate analysis. Higher mean VAS scores were reported for patients who were receiving HAART (6.5 difference, 95% CI 1.3; 11.7), were employed (9.1, 95% CI 4.3; 13.7) or were female (4.7, 95% CI 0.79; 8.5).
HAART was associated with improved HRQoL in patients enrolled in a public sector treatment program in South Africa. Our finding that the EuroQol instrument was sensitive to HAART supports its use in future evaluation of HIV/AIDS care in South Africa. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate changes in individuals' HRQoL.
The decision to get impacted teeth removed is not straightforward because of the concerns about its possible outcome. Assessment of quality of life is now regarded as an essential component for assessing outcomes of dental health care. The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of impacted third molar teeth surgery on a number of health related outcomes.
Patients and methods
A total of 72 patients undergoing surgical removal of their unilateral impacted mandibular third molar teeth were recruited to participate in this study. Patients were asked to complete two questionnaires, 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and the 16-item UK Oral Health related Quality of Life measure questionnaire (OHQOLUK-16) daily for one week following surgery.
There was significant decrease in the mean OHQOLUK-16 score and OHIP-14 scores for the first five postoperative days. There were no significant differences in changes in the mean OHIP-14 scores or OHQOLUK-16 scores on postoperative day 6 and 7.
There was a significant deterioration in oral health related quality of life in the immediate postoperative period, which slowly returned to preoperative level by day 6. This information may be useful in creating realistic expectation for patients who are considering third molar surgery.
Third molar surgery; Oral health; Oral surgery; Surgical removal
The objective of this study was to describe the evolution of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a cohort of breast cancer patients over 1 year after surgery and to analyse the predictive ability of HRQOL measurement instruments.
Observational, multicenter and prospective study of a cohort of breast cancer patients, assessing HRQOL at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery using three questionnaires: EuroQol-5D-3L, EORTC QLQ-C30, and EORTC QLQ-BR23.
A total of 364 women participated in the study. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores from the EuroQol improved (1 month vs. 1 year: 70 vs. 80; p<0.0001); however, the EuroQol score showed no significant change (0.81 vs. 0.83; p=0.1323). In contrast, Global Health Status on the EORTC QLQ-C30 improved (66.67 vs. 100.00; p<0.0001), as did all of this instrument's scales and most of its independent items. The EORTC QLQ-BR23 dimensions showed improvement, except for sexual functioning (100.00 vs. 86.67; p=0.0030) and future perspective (33.33 vs. 66.67; p<0.0001). Patients with good HRQOL outcomes at 1 month showed improved levels of HRQOL at 1 year; HRQOL measured at 1 month was predictive of HRQOL at 1 year.
HRQOL improved during the follow-up period. Likewise, HRQOL measurement instruments can predict early HRQOL.
Breast neoplasms; Quality of life; Questionnaires
Objective. This study assessed the impact of periodontal diseases on health-related quality of life of adult users of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Study Design. A cross-sectional study was conducted on an outpatient basis. The sample included 151 adults treated in the Periodontics section at Dental Specialty Centres of Juiz de Fora (Minas Gerais, Brazil). The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) measured the impact of periodontal disease on quality of life. Participants were interviewed to obtain self-perception of general and oral health and socioeconomic data, and dental records were consulted to obtain periodontal status data. The values of central tendency of the OHIP-14 were compared with socioeconomic, demographic, and self-reported health predictors using nonparametric tests. The final analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions. Results. The results showed that psychological discomfort and physical disability exhibited a negative impact. The following variables can explain approximately 27% of the impact of oral health conditions on health-related quality of life in this group: periodontal disease, self-perceived oral health, and the need to use or replace dental prosthesis. Conclusion. The need for prosthetic rehabilitation and worse periodontal status are associated with health-related quality of life, which can be predicted by the self-perception of health.
In health economic evaluations, mapping can be used to estimate utility values from other health outcomes in order to calculate quality adjusted life-years. Currently, no methods exist to map visual analog scale (VAS) scores to utility values. This study aimed to develop and propose a statistical algorithm for mapping five dimensions of health, measured on VASs, to utility scores in patients suffering from cardiovascular disease.
Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting at Aalborg University Hospital in Denmark were asked to score their health using the five VAS items (mobility, self-care, ability to perform usual activities, pain, and presence of anxiety or depression) and the EuroQol 5 Dimensions questionnaire. Regression analysis was used to estimate four mapping models from patients’ age, sex, and the self-reported VAS scores. Prediction errors were compared between mapping models and on subsets of the observed utility scores. Agreement between predicted and observed values was assessed using Bland–Altman plots.
Random effects generalized least squares (GLS) regression yielded the best results when quadratic terms of VAS scores were included. Mapping models fitted using the Tobit model and censored least absolute deviation regression did not appear superior to GLS regression. The mapping models were able to explain approximately 63%–65% of the variation in the observed utility scores. The mean absolute error of predictions increased as the observed utility values decreased.
We concluded that it was possible to predict utility scores from VAS scores of the five dimensions of health used in the EuroQol questionnaires. However, the use of the mapping model may be inappropriate in more severe conditions.
coronary artery bypass grafts; mapping; cross-walk; quality of life; outcomes research
The ExtaviJect® 30G autoinjector was developed to facilitate parenteral self-administration of interferon beta-1b (Extavia®), a first-line disease-modifying therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to assess patient compliance with treatment when using the autoinjector, patients’ and nurses’ experiences of using the device, its tolerability, and patient satisfaction.
This was a 12-week, real-world, prospective, observational, noninterventional study conducted in nine European countries. Questionnaires were used to measure patient compliance and to assess patients’ and nurses’ experiences. All adverse events were recorded by severity, including injection site reactions or pain. Patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life were assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9) and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) instruments, respectively.
Of 582 patients enrolled, 568 (98%) received at least one injection and attended the first follow-up visit at 6 weeks, and 542 (93%) attended the second follow-up visit at 12 weeks. For the whole study, 548 of 568 (97%) patients were compliant with treatment. Among the various questions assessing whether the device was easy and quick to use accurately, without fear of the needle, 56%–98% of patients and 59%–98% of nurses were in agreement. There were nine serious adverse events (four disease-related) reported among the 227 (39%) patients reporting adverse events. Scores increased in the TSQM-9 convenience domain between weeks 6 and 12 (P=0.0009), and in the EQ-5D visual analog scale between baseline and week 12 (P<0.0001), indicating improvement in health-related quality of life.
ExtaviJect 30G was convenient to use and was associated with high levels of compliance.
autoinjector; injections; subcutaneous; interferon beta; multiple sclerosis; relapsing-remitting; patient preference; self-administration
Some oral antihyperglycemic agents may increase risk of hypoglycemia and thereby reduce patient quality of life. Our objective was to assess the impact of the severity and frequency of self-reported hypoglycemia on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with type 2 diabetes treated with oral antihyperglycemic agents.
A follow-up survey was conducted in participants with self-reported type 2 diabetes treated with oral antihyperglycemic agents from the US National Health and Wellness Survey 2007. Data were collected on the severity and frequency of hypoglycemic episodes in the 6 months prior to the survey, with severity defined as mild (no interruption of activities), moderate (some interruption of activities), severe (needed assistance of others), or very severe (needed medical attention). HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol-5D Questionnaire (EQ-5D) US weighted summary score (utility) and Worry subscale of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS). Of the participants who completed the survey (N = 1,984), mean age was 58 years, 57% were male, 72% reported an HbA1c <7.0%, and 50% reported treatment with a sulfonylurea-containing regimen. Hypoglycemic episodes were reported by 63% of patients (46% mild, 37% moderate, 13% severe and 4% very severe). For patients reporting hypoglycemia, mean utility score was significantly lower (0.78 versus 0.86, p < 0.0001) and mean HFS score was significantly higher (17.5 versus 6.2, p < 0.0001) compared to patients not reporting hypoglycemia. Differences in mean scores between those with and without hypoglycemia increased with the level of severity (mild, moderate, severe, very severe) for utility (0.03, 0.09, 0.18, 0.23) and HFS (6.1, 13.9, 20.1, 25.6), respectively. After adjusting for age, gender, weight gain, HbA1c, microvascular complications, and selected cardiovascular conditions, the utility decrement was 0.045 (by level of severity: 0.009, 0.055, 0.131, 0.208), and the HFS increase was 9.6 (by severity: 5.3, 12.4, 17.6, 23.2). HRQoL further decreased with greater frequency of hypoglycemic episodes.
Self-reported hypoglycemia is independently associated with lower HRQoL, and the magnitude of this reduction increases with both severity and frequency of episodes in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with oral antihyperglycemic agents.
Oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) is conceived as a multidimensional construct. Here our aim was to investigate the dimensional structure of OHQoL as measured by the Spanish versions of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) and the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaires applied simultaneously.
We recruited a consecutive sample of 270 healthy Spanish workers visiting the Employment Risk Prevention Centre for a routine medical check-up. OHIP-14 was self-completed by participants but the OIDP was completed in face-to-face interviews. An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was performed to identify the underlying dimensions of the OHQoL construct assessed by both instruments. This factorial structure was later confirmed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using several estimators of goodness of fit indices.
EFA and the CFA identified and respectively confirmed a set of 3 underlying factors in both questionnaires that could be interpreted as functional limitation, pain-discomfort, and psychosocial impacts. The model achieved was seen to fit properly for both instruments, but the factorial structure was clearer for the OIDP.
The results provide evidence for construct equivalence in the latent factors assessed by both OIDP and OHIP-14, suggesting that OHQoL is a three-dimensional construct. The prevalence of impact on these three factors was coherent between both indicators, pain-discomfort having the highest prevalence, followed by psycho-social impact, and functional limitation.
Among uveitis patients, the vision-related function score correlated positively with visual acuity and correlated moderately positively with general quality-of-life measures.
To evaluate the associations between visual acuity and self-reported visual function; visual acuity and health-related quality of life (QoL) metrics; a summary measure of self-reported visual function and health-related QoL; and individual domains of self-reported visual function and health-related QoL in patients with uveitis.
Best-corrected visual acuity, vision-related functioning as assessed by the NEI VFQ-25, and health-related QoL as assessed by the SF-36 and EuroQoL EQ-5D questionnaires were obtained at enrollment in a clinical trial of uveitis treatments. Multivariate regression and Spearman correlations were used to evaluate associations between visual acuity, vision-related function, and health-related QoL.
Among the 255 patients, median visual acuity in the better-seeing eyes was 20/25, the vision-related function score indicated impairment (median, 60), and health-related QoL scores were within the normal population range. Better visual acuity was predictive of higher visual function scores (P ≤ 0.001), a higher SF-36 physical component score, and a higher EQ-5D health utility score (P < 0.001). The vision-specific function score was predictive of all general health-related QoL (P < 0.001). The correlations between visual function score and general quality of life measures were moderate (ρ = 0.29–0.52).
The vision-related function score correlated positively with visual acuity and moderately positively with general QoL measures. Cost–utility analyses relying on changes in generic healthy utility measures will be more likely to detect changes when there are clinically meaningful changes in vision-related function, rather than when there are only changes in visual acuity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00132691.)
A “utility” is a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) that ranges between 0 (death) and 1 (perfect health). Disease-targeted utilities are mandatory to conduct cost–utility analyses. Given the economic and healthcare burden of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), cost–utility analyses will play an important role in guiding health economic decision-making. To inform future cost–utility analyses in IBS, we measured and validated the IBS utilities.
We analyzed data from Rome III IBS patients in the Patient Reported Observed Outcomes and Function (PROOF) Cohort—a longitudinal multi-center IBS registry. At entry, the patients completed a multi-attribute utility instrument (EuroQOL), bowel symptom items, IBS severity measurements (IBS Severity Scale (IBSSS), Functional Bowel Disease Severity Index (FBDSI)), HRQOL indexes (IBS quality-of-life instrument (IBS-QOL), Center for disease control-4 (CDC-4)), and the Worker Productivity Activity Index for IBS (WPAI). We repeated assessments at 3 months.
There were 257 patients (79% women; age = 43±15 years) at baseline and 85 at 3 months. The mean utilities in patients with severe vs. non-severe IBS were 0.70 and 0.80, respectively (P < 0.001). There were no differences in utilities among IBS with constipation (IBS-C), IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), and mixed IBS (IBS-M) subgroups. EuroQOL utilities correlated with FBDSI (r = 0.31; P < 0.01), IBSSS (r = 0.36; P < 0.01), IBS-QOL (r = 0.36; P < 0.01), CDC-4 (r = 0.44; P < 0.01), WPAI presenteeism (r = 0.16; P < 0.01), abdominal pain (r = 0.43; P < 0.01), and distension (r = 0.18; P = 0.01). The utilities in patients reporting “considerable relief” of symptoms at 3 months vs. those without considerable relief were 0.78 and 0.73, respectively (P = 0.02).
EuroQOL utilities are valid and reliable in IBS. The utility of severe IBS (0.7) is similar to Class III congestive heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis. These validated utilities can be employed in future IBS cost–utility analyses.
Recent guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) state that COPD is both preventable and treatable. To gain a more positive outlook on the disease it is interesting to investigate factors associated with good, self-rated health and quality of life in subjects with self-reported COPD in the population.
In a cross-sectional study design, postal survey questionnaires were sent to a stratified, random population in Sweden in 2004 and 2008. The prevalence of subjects (40–84 years) who reported having COPD was 2.1% in 2004 and 2.7% in 2008. Data were analyzed for 1475 subjects. Regression models were used to analyze the associations between health measures (general health status, the General Health Questionnaire, the EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire) and influencing factors.
The most important factor associated with good, self-rated health and quality of life was level of physical activity. Odds ratios for general health varied from 2.4 to 7.7 depending on degree of physical activity, where subjects with the highest physical activity level reported the best health and also highest quality of life. Social support and absence of economic problems almost doubled the odds ratios for better health and quality of life.
In this population-based public health survey, better self-rated health status and quality of life in subjects with self-reported COPD was associated with higher levels of physical activity, social support, and absence of economic problems. The findings indicated that of possible factors that could be influenced, promoting physical activity and strengthening social support are important in maintaining or improving the health and quality of life in subjects with COPD. Severity of the disease as a possible confounding effect should be investigated in future population studies.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; health status; physical activity; quality of life; social support