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1.  Health-related quality of life in food hypersensitive schoolchildren and their families: parents' perceptions 
Background
About 20% of schoolchildren and adolescents in Sweden suffer from perceived food hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy or intolerance). Our knowledge of how child food hypersensitivity affects parents HRQL and what aspects of the hypersensitivity condition relate to HRQL deterioration in the family is limited. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the parent-reported HRQL in families with a schoolchild considered to be food hypersensitive. The allergy-associated parameters we operated with were number of offending food items, adverse food reactions, additional hypersensitivity, allergic diseases and additional family members with food hypersensitivity. These parameters, along with age and gender were assessed in relation to child, parent and family HRQL.
Methods
In May 2004, a postal questionnaire was distributed to parents of 220 schoolchildren with parent-reported food hypersensitivity (response rate 74%). Two questionnaires were used: CHQ-PF28 and a study-specific questionnaire including questions on allergy-associated parameters. In order to find factors that predict impact on HRQL, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were carried out.
Results
An important predictor of low HRQL was allergic disease (i.e. asthma, eczema, rhino conjunctivitis) in addition to food hypersensitivity. The higher the number of allergic diseases, the lower the physical HRQL for the child, the lower the parental HRQL and the more disruption in family activities. Male gender predicted lower physical HRQL than female gender. If the child had sibling(s) with food hypersensitivity this predicted lower psychosocial HRQL for the child and lower parental HRQL. Food-induced gastro-intestinal symptoms predicted lower parental HRQL while food-induced breathing difficulties predicted higher psychosocial HRQL for the child and enhanced HRQL with regards to the family's ability to get along.
Conclusion
The variance in the child's physical HRQL was to a considerable extent explained by the presence of allergic disease. However, food hypersensitivity by itself was associated with deterioration of child's psychosocial HRQL, regardless of additional allergic disease. The results suggest that it is rather the risk of food reactions and measures to avoid them that are associated with lower HRQL than the clinical reactivity induced by food intake. Therefore, food hypersensitivity must be considered to have a strong psychosocial impact.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-4-48
PMCID: PMC1564003  PMID: 16901348
2.  Health-related quality of life, assessed with a disease-specific questionnaire, in Swedish adults suffering from well-diagnosed food allergy to staple foods 
Background
Our aim was to investigate the factors that affect health related quality of life (HRQL) in adult Swedish food allergic patients objectively diagnosed with allergy to at least one of the staple foods cow’s milk, hen’s egg or wheat. The number of foods involved, the type and severity of symptoms, as well as concomitant allergic disorders were assessed.
Methods
The disease-specific food allergy quality of life questionnaire (FAQLQ-AF), developed within EuroPrevall, was utilized. The questionnaire had four domains: Allergen Avoidance and Dietary Restrictions (AADR), Emotional Impact (EI), Risk of Accidental Exposure (RAE) and Food Allergy related Health (FAH). Comparisons were made with the outcome of the generic questionnaire EuroQol Health Questionnaire, 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D). The patients were recruited at an outpatient allergy clinic, based on a convincing history of food allergy supplemented by analysis of specific IgE to the foods in question. Seventy-nine patients participated (28 males, 51 females, mean-age 41 years).
Results
The domain with the most negative impact on HRQL was AADR, assessing the patients’ experience of dietary restrictions. The domain with the least negative impact on HRQL was FAH, relating to health concerns due to the food allergy. One third of the patients had four concomitant allergic disorders, which had a negative impact on HRQL. Furthermore, asthma in combination with food allergy had a strong impact. Anaphylaxis, and particularly prescription of an epinephrine auto-injector, was associated with low HRQL. These effects were not seen using EQ-5D. Analyses of the symptoms revealed that oral allergy syndrome and cardiovascular symptoms had the greatest impact on HRQL. In contrast, no significant effect on HRQL was seen by the number of food allergies.
Conclusions
The FAQLQ-AF is a valid instrument, and more accurate among patients with allergy to staple foods in comparison to the commonly used generic EQ-5D. It adds important information on HRQL in food allergic adults. We found that the restrictions imposed on the patients due to the diet had the largest negative impact on HRQL. Both severity of the food allergy and the presence of concomitant allergic disorders had a profound impact on HRQL.
doi:10.1186/2045-7022-3-21
PMCID: PMC3702411  PMID: 23816063
Food allergy; Adults; Health-related quality of life; Instrument; Questionnaire
3.  Disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) instruments for food allergy: protocol for a systematic review 
Background
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is in the process of developing its Guideline for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, and this systematic review is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and clinical management, and impact on quality of life, which will be used to inform clinical recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to determine which validated instruments can be employed to enable assessment of the impact of, and investigations and interventions for, food allergy on health-related quality of life.
Methods
Seven bibliographic databases were searched from their inception to September 30, 2012 for disease-specific HRQL questionnaires that were specifically designed for use with patients/carers and any articles relating to the description, development and/or the validation of the above identified HRQLs. There were no language or geographic restrictions. We will assess the development of the instruments identified and their performance properties including: validity; generalizability; responsiveness; managing missing data; how variation in patient demography was managed; and cross-cultural and linguistic adaptation, using a previously reported quality assessment tool.
Discussion
Using appropriately developed and validated instruments is critical to the accurate evaluation of HRQL in people with food allergy. This review will systematically appraise the evidence on the subject and help to identify any gaps.
doi:10.1186/2045-7022-3-15
PMCID: PMC3651316  PMID: 23635302
Food allergy; IgE-mediated; QOL; Quality of life
4.  The Psychosocial Impact of Self-Reported Morning Allergy Symptoms: Findings from an Australian Internet-Based Survey 
Journal of Allergy  2010;2010:710926.
Background. Allergies can substantially impact health-related quality of life (HRQL). We investigated the psychosocial impact of morning symptoms amongst Australian adults with self-reported allergic rhinitis (AR). Method. An online survey comprising 24 questions was conducted in August 2008. Inclusion criteria were age (20–49 years) and self-reported moderate to severe symptoms of AR. Results. One thousand sixty respondents met the inclusion criteria. Amongst consumers with self-reported AR, symptoms were more severe in the morning in 597 (56%) and affected mood in 1025 (97%). Nine hundred seventy (91%) indicated that their symptoms had some impact on their day ahead and 868 (82%) reported a negative impact on relationships. Morning symptoms in particular had a substantial affect on mood for the day. HRQL impact was more pronounced in those who reported severe symptoms and in females. Discussion. Encouraging consumers with self-diagnosed AR to seek formal diagnosis and offering appropriate treatment strategies, such as those offering sustained effectiveness over 24-hours, may aid in negating the negative impact of morning symptoms.
doi:10.1155/2010/710926
PMCID: PMC2957588  PMID: 20976015
5.  A bioinformatics approach to identify patients with symptomatic peanut allergy using peptide microarray immunoassay 
Background
Peanut allergy is relatively common, typically permanent, and often severe. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of food allergy–related disorders. However, the complexity and potential of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cause life-threatening allergic reactions affects its clinical application. A laboratory test that could accurately diagnose symptomatic peanut allergy would greatly facilitate clinical practice.
Objective
We sought to develop an allergy diagnostic method that could correctly predict symptomatic peanut allergy by using peptide microarray immunoassays and bioinformatic methods.
Methods
Microarray immunoassays were performed by using the sera from 62 patients (31 with symptomatic peanut allergy and 31 who had outgrown their peanut allergy or were sensitized but were clinically tolerant to peanut). Specific IgE and IgG4 binding to 419 overlapping peptides (15 mers, 3 offset) covering the amino acid sequences of Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 were measured by using a peptide microarray immunoassay. Bioinformatic methods were applied for data analysis.
Results
Individuals with peanut allergy showed significantly greater IgE binding and broader epitope diversity than did peanut-tolerant individuals. No significant difference in IgG4 binding was found between groups. By using machine learning methods, 4 peptide biomarkers were identified and prediction models that can predict the outcome of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges with high accuracy were developed by using a combination of the biomarkers.
Conclusions
In this study, we developed a novel diagnostic approach that can predict peanut allergy with high accuracy by combining the results of a peptide microarray immunoassay and bioinformatic methods. Further studies are needed to validate the efficacy of this assay in clinical practice.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.02.012
PMCID: PMC3631605  PMID: 22444503
Epitope mapping; peptide microarray; peanut allergy; bioinformatics; machine learning; allergy diagnosis; epitope biomarker
6.  The development and preliminary validation of a Preference-Based Stroke Index (PBSI) 
Background
Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a key issue in disabling conditions like stroke. Unfortunately, HRQL is often difficult to quantify in a comprehensive measure that can be used in cost analyses. Preference-based HRQL measures meet this challenge. To date, there are no existing preference-based HRQL measure for stroke that could be used as an outcome in clinical and economic studies of stroke. The aim of this study was to develop the first stroke-specific health index, the Preference-based Stroke Index (PBSI).
Methods
The PBSI includes 10 items; walking, climbing stairs, physical activities/sports, recreational activities, work, driving, speech, memory, coping and self-esteem. Each item has a 3-point response scale. Items known to be impacted by a stroke were selected. Scaling properties and preference-weights obtained from individuals with stroke and their caregivers were used to develop a cumulative score.
Results
Compared to the EQ-5D, the PBSI showed no ceiling effect in a high-functioning stroke population. Moderately high correlations were found between the physical function (r = 0.78), vitality (r = 0.67), social functioning (r = 0.64) scales of the SF-36 and the PBSI. The lowest correlation was with the role emotional scale of the SF-36 (r = 0.32). Our results indicated that the PBSI can differentiate patients by severity of stroke (p < 0.05) and level of functional independence (p < 0.0001).
Conclusions
Content validity and preliminary evidence of construct validity has been demonstrated. Further work is needed to develop a multiattribute utility function to gather information on psychometric properties of the PBSI.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-1-43
PMCID: PMC222917  PMID: 14561225
Stroke; Patients' Preferences; Health Index
7.  Determinants for a low health-related quality of life in asthmatics 
People with asthma suffer from impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL), but the determinants of HRQL among asthmatics are not completely understood. The aim of this investigation was to study determinants of low HRQL in asthmatics and to study whether the determinants of HRQL differ between sexes and age groups. A cohort of three age groups in Sweden was investigated in 1990 using a questionnaire with focus on respiratory symptoms. To study quality of life, the generic instrument Gothenburg Quality of Life was used. The participants were also investigated with interviews, spirometry, and allergy testing. Asthma was diagnosed in 616 subjects. Fifty-eight per cent (n = 359) of the subjects were women; and 24% were smokers, 22% ex-smokers, and 54% were non-smokers. Women were more likely than men to report poor health-related quality of life. Respiratory symptoms severity was another independent determinant of a lower quality of life as well as airway responsiveness to irritants. Current and former smokers also reported lower quality of life. Finally, absenteeism from school and work was associated with lower quality of life. Factors such as sex, smoking habits, airway responsiveness to irritants, respiratory symptom severity, allergy, and absenteeism from school and work were associated with low HRQL in asthmatics.
doi:10.3109/03009734.2011.638730
PMCID: PMC3282244  PMID: 22200102
Asthma; GQL; generic instrument; quality of life
8.  359 Prevalence of Allergic Conjunctivitis in Childhood 
Background
The prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis (AC) has not been established. Estimates suggest that ocular allergies affect 15 to 20% of the worldwide population yet most epidemiological studies encompasses nasal and ocular allergy symptoms together and have not been specific with respect to AC. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of ocular allergy symptoms in adolescents.
Methods
Adolescents were selected from a sample of schools and self-completed in classrooms a previously validated questionnaire on symptoms of AC. AC was considered when more than 3 episodes of ocular itching were reported in the past 12 months. Related symptoms as tearing, photophobia, foreign body sensation, impact on daily activities, and diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis were analyzed.
Results
Questionnaires from 3120 adolescents (mean 13.3 ± 1.1 years) were analyzed. Ocular itching in the past 12 months occurred in 1,592 (51%). The most frequent associated symptom was tearing (74%) followed by photophobia (50.1%) and foreign body sensation (37.1%). The prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis was 20.7% affecting more females (56.1% vs 45.9%; P < 0.01). Moderate and severe interference in daily activities were reported by 66% and 21%, respectively. Diagnosis of AC was reported by 47% of them.
Conclusions
Symptoms of ocular allergy are common and cause great impact on daily activities in adolescents. Accessing risk factors and the allergic status of these patients should be the focus of future epidemiological studies on AC.
doi:10.1097/01.WOX.0000412122.49145.04
PMCID: PMC3512945
9.  A 24-h helpline for access to expert management advice for food allergy-related anaphylaxis in children: protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial 
BMJ Open  2012;2(4):e001282.
Objectives
Anaphylaxis is an important, potentially life-threatening paediatric emergency. It is responsible for considerable morbidity and, in some cases, death. Poor outcomes may be associated with an inability to differentiate between milder and potentially more severe reactions and an associated reluctance to administer self-injectable adrenaline. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a 24-h telephone access to specialist paediatric allergy expert advice in improving the quality of life of children and their families with potentially life-threatening food allergy (ie, anaphylaxis) compared with usual clinical care.
Methods and analysis
Children aged less than 16 years with food allergy and who carry an adrenaline autoinjector will be recruited from the Paediatric Allergy Clinic at Cork University Hospital, Ireland and baseline disease-specific quality of life will be ascertained using the validated Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (FAQLQ). Participants will be randomised for a period of 6 months to the 24-h telephone specialist support line or usual care. The primary outcome measure of interest is a change in FAQLQ scores, which will be assessed at 0, 1 and 6 months postrandomisation. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis using a 2×3 repeated measures within-between analysis of variance. Although lacking power, we will in addition assess the impact of the intervention on a range of relevant process and clinical endpoints.
Ethics and dissemination
This trial protocol has been approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Cork Teaching Hospitals. The findings will be presented at international scientific conferences and will be reported on in the peer-reviewed literature in early 2013.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001282
PMCID: PMC3425896  PMID: 22893666
Accident & Emergency medicine; Immunology; Paediatrics; Paediatric A&E and ambulatory care
10.  The Effects of Traumatic Stressors and HIV-Related Trauma Symptoms on Health and Health Related Quality of Life 
AIDS and behavior  2011;15(8):1870-1878.
The study identified relations among traumatic stressors, HIV-related trauma symptoms, comorbid medical conditions, and health related quality of life (HRQL) in individuals with HIV. Participants (N = 118) completed a structured clinical interview on HIV as a traumatic stressor and other severe traumatic stressors and completed the Impact of Event Scale to assess HIV-related trauma symptoms and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36) to assess HRQL. Medical chart reviews determined comorbid conditions. Path analysis findings indicated participants with prior severe traumatic stressors experienced their HIV diagnosis as traumatic and in turn were more likely to have current HIV-related trauma symptoms which were negatively related to HRQL. HIV as a traumatic stressor was related to coronary artery diseases and HRQL. Traumatic stressors and HIV-related trauma symptoms impact health in individuals with HIV and highlight the need for psychological interventions prior to diagnosis and throughout treatment.
doi:10.1007/s10461-011-9980-4
PMCID: PMC3629911  PMID: 21667297
Health related quality of life; HIV; Traumatic stress; Medical comorbidity; Path analysis
11.  421 Cow's Milk Allergy and Persistent Changes in a Multiple Food Allergy, A Case Report 
Background
Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy. Clinical manifestations are mediated immediate hypersensitivity and delayed. The allergy study include: specific IgE, prick and patch test. Regarding treatment, this is based on the exclusion diet and the replacement of cow's milk hydrolysates extensive.
Virtually all infants who have cow's milk allergy develop this condition in the first year of life, with clinical tolerance developing in about 80 percent by their fifth birthday.
Methods
Describe the case of a child with CMA, which moves without tolerance and also become sensitized to other foods.
Results
Female with 6 years of age. At 9 months presents watery diarrhea, weight loss and intermittent rash. Initial study (2006): Upper endoscopy: Duodenitis chronic nonspecific, total IgE: 72.60 IU/mL, IgE specific to cow's milk 10.40 IU/mL (Class III) and prick test positive. Exclusion diet starts to cow's milk, its derivatives and beef. Patient improvement. At 2 years, begins with rhinitis and diarrhea reappears with low weight. Colonoscopy (2007): Subacute nonspecific colitis histology. At 3 years old facial angioedema, throat and rash are associated with eating chicken, turkey, carrot and orange juice. New tests: specific IgE cow's milk, 24. 7 IU/mL (class IV), class II chicken. Prick test positive. At 4 years enter kindergarten, restarts with diarrhea and occasional angioedema. Cow's milk specific IgE (January 2009): 66, 6 IU/mL (class V). January 2010: 5 years post anaphylactic shock milk pudding. Besides diarrhea 10 times a day, intermittently throughout the year. Year 2011: intermittent diarrhea and specific IgE to cow's milk is kept in class V.
Conclusions
In this case the patient with CMA which evolved atypically because it has not been able to acquire tolerance. Moreover, awareness is added to other foods during their evolution. A recent study indicated a lower rate of development of clinical tolerance. As assessed by passing a milk challenge, 5 percent were tolerant at age 4 and 21 percent at age 8. Patients with persistent milk allergy have higher cow's milk sIgE levels in the first 2 years of life. Approximately 35 percent developed allergy to other foods.
doi:10.1097/01.WOX.0000412184.40629.eb
PMCID: PMC3512946
12.  Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for individuals with self-reported chronic physical and/or mental health conditions: panel survey of an adult sample in the United States 
Background
In the US, approximately 53% of adults have at least one chronic condition. Comorbid physical and mental health conditions often have an incremental negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Primary study objectives were to quantify the impact on HRQL of a) ≥ 1 physical condition , b) ≥ 1 comorbid mental health conditions added to a physical one, c) ≥ 1 mental health condition, and d) ≥ 1 comorbid physical conditions added to at least one related to mental health. Decrements were based on a “Healthy” reference group reporting no chronic conditions.
Methods
Participants were sampled (n = 3877) from the US adult population as part of a 2009 normative survey. Demographics, number/ type of chronic conditions, and HRQL data were self-reported. HRQL was defined through SF-36v2® Physical Component Summary (PCS) scores and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores. Participant “morbidity” groupings included Healthy; Physical Health Condition only, Mental Health Condition only, and Physical and Mental Health (Comorbid). PCS and MCS scores were also analyzed by physical disease clusters (e.g., cardiovascular, gastrointestinal). Multivariate regression models were used for all analyses.
Results
81% of participants were Caucasian; 9% African American. Males and females were about equally represented; 63% were ≥ 45 years old. The average number of reported chronic conditions was 2.4 (SD = 2.4). Relative to the Healthy group, the Physical Condition group scored 6.4 (males) and 7.5 (females) points lower on PCS. The addition of a comorbid mental health condition resulted in a total reduction of 11 points in PCS and 15 points in MCS. Compared to the Healthy group, ≥ 1 mental health conditions was associated with MCS decrements of 11–12 points. A physical comorbidity led to additional decrements of 3–4 points for MCS, with a total of 15 points. Incremental HRQL burden defined by both MCS and PCS scores was relatively similar across the 5 defined physical disease clusters.
Conclusion
Results provide quantitative information for US adults on specific PCS and MCS score decrements associated with a comorbid condition related to mental health, as well as a comorbid condition related to physical health.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-10-154
PMCID: PMC3541106  PMID: 23253258
13.  Relative Impact of Multimorbid Chronic Conditions on Health-Related Quality of Life – Results from the MultiCare Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66742.
Background
Multimorbidity has a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Previous studies included only a limited number of conditions. In this study, we analyse the impact of a large number of conditions on HRQL in multimorbid patients without preselecting particular diseases. We also explore the effects of these conditions on the specific dimensions of HRQL.
Materials and Methods
This analysis is based on a multicenter, prospective cohort study of 3189 multimorbid primary care patients aged 65 to 85. The impact of 45 conditions on HRQL was analysed. The severity of the conditions was rated. The EQ-5D, consisting of 5 dimensions and a visual-analogue-scale (EQ VAS), was employed. Data were analysed using multiple ordinary least squares and multiple logistic regressions. Multimorbidity measured by a weighted count score was significantly associated with lower overall HRQL (EQ VAS), b = −1.02 (SE: 0.06). Parkinson’s disease had the most pronounced negative effect on overall HRQL (EQ VAS), b = −12.29 (SE: 2.18), followed by rheumatism, depression, and obesity. With regard to the individual EQ-5D dimensions, depression (OR = 1.39 to 3.3) and obesity (OR = 1.44 to 1.95) affected all five dimensions of the EQ-5D negatively except for the dimension anxiety/depression. Obesity had a positive effect on this dimension, OR = 0.78 (SE: 0.07). The dimensions “self-care”, OR = 4.52 (SE: 1.37) and “usual activities”, OR = 3.59 (SE: 1.0), were most strongly affected by Parkinson’s disease. As a limitation our sample may only represent patients with at most moderate disease severity.
Conclusions
The overall HRQL of multimorbid patients decreases with an increasing count and severity of conditions. Parkinson’s disease, depression and obesity have the strongest impact on HRQL. Further studies should address the impact of disease combinations which require very large sample sizes as well as advanced statistical methods.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066742
PMCID: PMC3691259  PMID: 23826124
14.  Development of children’s hymenoptera venom allergy quality of life scale (CHVAQoLS) 
Background
Venom allergy is a rare but life-threatening disease and may have a considerable impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients, especially children. This paper presents development of the HRQoL scale for children and adolescents with Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA).
Methods
The study sample consisted of 71 children, born between 1992 and 2000, who presented with a history of insect sting reaction when referred for consultation in the allergy center of Polish-American Children’s Hospital, Krakow, Poland, during the period from 2000 to 2010. The initial pool of 60 items - divided into 6 domains - was prepared. The items with intercorrelations higher than 0.7 were removed from each domain and then principal component analysis was conducted for each domain separately, to provide a one-dimensional subscale for each domain. Reliability of the subscales was assessed using Cronbach alpha coefficient in terms of Classical Test Theory and with rho coefficient in terms of Item Response Theory. The multidimensionality of the scale was tested using multi-trait scaling.
Results
Three to four items from each domain were subsequently selected to constitute six subscales. Rho coefficients for all the subscales reached 0.8, similar results were achieved with the Cronbach alpha coefficients. Multi-trait method showed that the majority of the items indicated stronger correlations with their own subscales than with other subscales, which proves that our constructed subscales measure different dimensions of HRQoL.
Conclusions
The presented scale comprises high validity and reliability subscales measuring six dimensions of HRQoL related to Hymenoptera venom allergy in children and adolescents. Such information may be useful in everyday clinical practice.
doi:10.1186/2045-7022-3-25
PMCID: PMC3750314  PMID: 23915879
Development; Validity; Reliability; Health-related quality of life; Scale; Hymenoptera venom; Allergy
15.  The epidemiology of food allergy in Europe: protocol for a systematic review 
Background
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is in the process of developing its Guideline for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, and this protocol of a systematic review is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and clinical management and impact on quality of life, which will be used to inform the formulation of clinical recommendations.
The aims of the systematic review will be to understand and describe the epidemiology of food allergy, i.e. frequency, risk factors and outcomes of patients suffering from food allergy, and to describe how these characteristics vary by person, place and time.
Methods
A highly sensitive search strategy has been developed to retrieve articles that have investigated the various aspects of the epidemiology of food allergy. The search will be implemented by combining the concepts of food allergy and its epidemiology from electronic bibliographic databases.
Discussion
This systematic review will provide the most up to date estimates of the frequency of food allergy in Europe. We will attempt to break these down by age and geographical region in Europe. Our analysis will take into account the suitability of the study design and the respective study biases that could affect exposure and outcome. We will examine the different methods to diagnose food allergy and the associated measures of occurrence.
doi:10.1186/2045-7022-3-13
PMCID: PMC3762068  PMID: 23547766
Food allergy; IgE-mediated; Risk; Anaphylaxis; Epidemiology; Prevalence; Incidence
16.  Population norms and cut-off-points for suboptimal health related quality of life in two generic measures for adolescents: the Spanish VSP-A and KINDL-R 
Background
Health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcome measures are complex and for further application in clinical practice and health service research the meaning of their scorings should be studied in depth. The aim of this study was to increase the interpretability of the Spanish VSP-A and KINDL-R scores.
Methods
A representative sample of adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old was selected in Spain. The Spanish VSP-A and KINDL-R, two generic HRQL measures (range: 0–100), were self-administered along with other external anchor measures (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Oslo Social Support Scale and self-declaration of chronic conditions) and sent by post. Percentiles of both HRQL questionnaires were obtained by gender, and age group and effect sizes (ES) were calculated. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and related sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) values were also computed.
Results
The Spanish VSP-A and KINDL-R were completed by 555 adolescents. A moderate ES was shown in Psychological well-being between younger and older girls (ES: 0.77) in the VSP-A and small ES in the KINDL (ES: 0.41) between these groups. A SE and SP value close to 0.70 was associated to a global HRQL score of 65 in the VSP-A and 70 in the KINDL-R, when compared to anchors measuring mental and psychosocial health. Adolescents with scores bellow these cut-off points showed a moderate probability of presenting more impairment in their HRQL.
Conclusion
The results of this study will be of help to interpret the VSP-A AND KINDL-R questionnaires by comparing with the general population and also provide cut-off points to define adolescents with health problems.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-7-35
PMCID: PMC2678997  PMID: 19383145
17.  550 The Impact of Nasal Allergies: Results from the Allergies Surveys in America, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East 
Background
The Allergies surveys have been conducted in several regions of the world, and provide the first worldwide comparative data on the prevalence and impact of nasal allergies. Here we report specifically on the impact of nasal allergies on daily life and work productivity in America (AIA), Asia Pacific (AIAP), Latin America (AILA) and Middle East (AIME) surveys.
Methods
Patients who were previously diagnosed by a health care professional with nasal allergies (hay fever, allergic rhinitis or nasal allergies, plus sinus disease in AIAP), exhibited symptoms, and/or had received treatment, were included. Standardized questionnaires provided by Abt SRBI were used; individual questions and methodology varied slightly between regions. In total, around 90,000 households were screened, including responses from 6,081 patients.
Results
Patients reported that allergies have a big impact on their daily lives, including limiting indoor and outdoor activities, work and having pets. A high percentage of those surveyed missed work or had their work performance affected by allergies in the past year, with work productivity decreasing by 23% in AIA, 24% in AIAP, 33% in AILA and 30% in AIME when allergy symptoms were at their worst. Nasal allergies also interfered with many patients' sleep, and were associated with feelings of depression, anxiety, irritability and tiredness. In terms of the impact of symptoms, 38% of those surveyed in AIA, 53% in AIAP and 46% in AILA reported that they could not tolerate the discomfort of an allergy attack without relief.
Conclusions
Nasal allergies have a big impact on patients' lives all around the world, and there is still an unmet need for effective treatments that reduce symptoms. As a result, work productivity levels and daily activities are hugely affected in a large proportion of individuals with nasal allergies, throughout the world.
doi:10.1097/01.WOX.0000411665.15258.21
PMCID: PMC3512844
18.  The impact of food allergy on asthma 
Food allergy is a potentially severe immune response to a food or food additive. Although a majority of children will outgrow their food allergies, some may have lifelong issues. Food allergies and other atopic conditions, such as asthma, are increasing in prevalence in Western countries. As such, it is not uncommon to note the co-existence of food allergy and asthma in the same patient. As part of the atopic march, many food allergic patients may develop asthma later in life. Each can adversely affect the other. Food allergic patients with asthma have a higher risk of developing life-threatening food-induced reactions. Although food allergy is not typically an etiology of asthma, an asthmatic patient with food allergy may have higher rates of morbidity and mortality associated with the asthma. Asthma is rarely a manifestation of food allergy alone, but the symptoms can be seen with allergic reactions to foods. There may be evidence to suggest that early childhood environmental factors, such as the mother’s and child’s diets, factor in the development of asthma; however, the evidence continues to be conflicting. All food allergic patients and their families should be counseled on the management of food allergy and the risk of developing co-morbid asthma.
PMCID: PMC3047906  PMID: 21437041
food allergy; diagnosis; treatment; asthma
19.  Health-related quality of life deficits associated with varying degrees of disease severity in type 2 diabetes 
Background
Diabetes is a chronic medical condition accompanied by a considerable health-related quality of life (HRQL) burden. The purpose of this analysis was to use generic measures of HRQL to describe HRQL deficits associated with varying degrees of severity of type 2 diabetes.
Methods
The RAND-12 physical and mental health composites (PHC and MHC, respectively) and Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) were self-completed by 372 subjects enrolled in a prospective, controlled study of an intervention to improve care for individuals with type 2 diabetes in rural communities. Analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in HRQL according to disease severity and control of blood glucose. Disease severity was defined in terms of treatment intensity, emergency room visits and absenteeism from work specifically attributable to diabetes. To control for potential confounding, the analysis was adjusted for important sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.
Results
The PHC and MHC were significantly lower for individuals treated with insulin as compared to diet alone (PHC: 41.01 vs 45.11, MHC: 43.23 vs 47.00, p < 0.05). Individuals treated with insulin had lower scores on the vision, emotion and pain attributes of the HUI3 than individuals managed with oral medication or diet. The PHC, MHC, pain attribute and overall score on the HUI3 captured substantial decrements in HRQL associated with absenteeism from work due to diabetes, while the burden associated with emergency room utilization for diabetes was seen in the PHC and HUI3 pain attribute.
Conclusions
We concluded that generic measures of HRQL captured deficits associated with more severe disease in type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-1-78
PMCID: PMC320495  PMID: 14675484
20.  Work-related allergy in medical doctors: atopy, exposure to domestic animals, eczema induced by common chemicals and membership of the surgical profession as potential risk factors 
Purpose
To investigate the risk factors associated with work-related allergy-like symptoms in medical doctors.
Methods
Self-administered questionnaire survey and CAP test were conducted among medical school students in the 4th grade of their 6-year medical course in 1993–1996 and 1999–2001. Follow-up questionnaires were sent in 2004 to the graduates. These questionnaires enquired into personal and family history of allergic diseases, lifestyle, history of allergy-like symptoms including work-relatedness and occupational history as medical doctors. Relationships between allergy-like symptoms and relevant factors were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results
Of 261 respondents at the follow-up survey, 139 (53.3%) and 54 (20.7%) had a history of any allergy-like symptoms and any work-related allergy-like symptoms, respectively. Female gender and family history of allergic diseases were significantly associated with any allergy-like symptoms. Personal history of allergic disease, exposure to domestic animals, eczema caused by rubber gloves, metallic accessories, or cosmetics during schooling days, and membership of the surgical profession were significant risk factors for work-related allergy-like symptoms. On the contrary, to work-related allergy-like symptoms, gender, age, and smoking status were not significantly related, and consumption of prepared foods was inversely related.
Conclusions
Personal history of atopy and eczema induced by common goods and the history of keeping domestic animals may be predictors of work-related allergy-like symptoms in doctors. After graduation from medical school, physicians start with exposure to various allergens and irritants at work, which relate to work-related allergy-like symptoms, especially for surgeons.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00420-011-0682-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00420-011-0682-z
PMCID: PMC3334482  PMID: 21853315
Occupational allergy; Doctor; Dermatitis; Rhinitis; Asthma; Environment; Occupational Medicine/Industrial Medicine; Environmental Health; Rehabilitation
21.  Influence of health behaviours on the incidence of infection and allergy in adolescents: the AFINOS cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:19.
Background
Some health behaviours are liable to affect the incidence of allergies and/or common infections in young people; however, the extent and ways in which these might occur are mostly unknown. This study examines the association of health behaviours related to physical activity, sedentariness, diet and sleep with allergy and infection symptoms in adolescents, and also with biological markers that might mediate disease incidence.
Methods
The study comprised a total of 2054 adolescents (50.7% girls) from the Madrid region of Spain. The incidence of infection and allergy symptoms three months prior to the study was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Physical and sedentary activities, height and weight, food habits and sleep duration were also self-reported and their influence on infection and allergy incidence was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Blood biomarkers (IgE, eosinophil percentage, leptin, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) were evaluated in a subsample of 198 subjects.
Results
Adequate sleep duration (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.64 to 0.97) and unhealthy weight status (overweight/obesity) (OR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.04-1.74) were independently associated with decreased and increased allergy incidence, respectively. No significant association was observed with infection incidence. IgE and leptin differed between adolescents with and without allergy symptoms. In regression models IgE was significantly associated with inadequate sleep duration and leptin with weight status.
Conclusion
Excess weight and inadequate sleep duration are independently associated with the incidence of allergy symptoms in adolescents. Adequate sleep duration and weight during adolescence might be relevant for a decreased risk of suffering allergy symptoms.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-19
PMCID: PMC3893496  PMID: 24405509
Allergy; Healthy habits; Infection; Overweight; Obesity; Sleep; IgE; Leptin
22.  Quality of Life and Capsaicin Sensitivity in Patients with Airway Symptoms Induced by Chemicals and Scents: A Longitudinal Study 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2006;115(3):425-429.
Objective
It is common in asthma and allergy clinics to see patients presenting with upper and lower airway symptoms that are induced by chemicals and scents and not explained by allergic or asthmatic reactions. Previous studies have shown that these patients often have increased cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin; such sensitivity is known to reflect the airway sensory reactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the duration of symptoms induced by chemicals and scents and to measure health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chemically induced airway symptoms. We also wished to determine and compare repeatability of the cough response to capsaicin inhalation, and to evaluate the patients’ airway sensory reactivity in a long-term perspective.
Participants
Seventeen patients with a history of at least 12 months of airway symptoms induced by chemicals and scents were followed over 5 years with repeated questionnaires, measurements of HRQL, and capsaicin inhalation tests.
Results
The symptoms persisted and did not change significantly over time, and the patients had a reduced HRQL that did not change during the 5-year period. The capsaicin sensitivity was increased at the start of the study, the cough sensitivity was long-lasting, and the repeatability of the capsaicin inhalation test was considered to be good in a long-term perspective.
Conclusions
Upper and lower airway symptoms induced by chemicals and scents represent an entity of chronic diseases, different from asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with persistent symptoms, a reduced HRQL, and unchanged sensory hyperreactivity.
doi:10.1289/ehp.9624
PMCID: PMC1849925  PMID: 17431493
asthma; capsaicin; cough; environment; health-related quality of ife; multiple chemical sensitivity; sensory hyperreactivity
23.  Preventing food allergy: protocol for a rapid systematic review 
Background
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and clinical management, and impact on quality of life, which will be used to inform clinical recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy.
Methods
Seven bibliographic databases will be searched from their inception to September 30, 2012 for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-and-after studies, interrupted time series and cohort studies. Cohort studies will be included due to an inability to randomize with interventions such as breastfeeding. Studies that focused on the development of either food sensitization (a proxy measure) or food allergy will also be eligible for inclusion. Studies will be critically appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program and Cochrane Risk of Bias tools, as appropriate.
Discussion
There is a lack of rigorous evidence to support recommendations about how to prevent the development of food allergy. It would appear that it is important to see the prevention of food allergy in the context of individual, family and wider factors that may influence its development. There is much left to learn about preventing food allergy, and this is a priority given the high societal and healthcare costs involved. This systematic review will help to further this learning.
doi:10.1186/2045-7022-3-10
PMCID: PMC3621602  PMID: 23537280
Food allergy; lLgE-mediated; Prevention
24.  The diagnosis of food allergy: protocol for a systematic review 
Background
The literature on diagnostic tests for food allergy currently lacks clear consensus regarding the accuracy and safety of different investigative approaches. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is in the process of developing its Guideline for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, and this systematic review is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and clinical management, and impact on quality of life, which will be used to inform the formulation of clinical recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the diagnostic accuracy of tests aimed at supporting the clinical diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy.
Methods
The following databases from inception to September 30, 2012 will be searched for studies of diagnostic tests: Cochrane Library (Wiley&Sons); MEDLINE (OVID); Embase (OVID); CINAHL (Ebscohost); ISI Web of Science (Thomson Web of Knowledge); TRIP Database (web http://www.tripdatabase.com); and Clinicaltrials.gov (NIH web). These database searches will be supplemented by contacting an international panel of experts. Studies evaluating APT, SPT, specific-IgE, and component specific-IgE in participants of any age with suspected food allergy will be included. The reference standard will be DBPCFC in at least 50% of the participants. Studies will be quality assessed by using the QUADAS-2 instrument. We will report summary statistics such as sensitivity, specificity, and/or likelihood ratios. We will use the hierarchical summary ROC (HSROC) model to summarize the accuracy of each test and to compare the accuracy of two or more tests.
Discussion
Decisions on which tests to use need to be guided by availability of tests, populations being cared for, risks, financial considerations and test properties. This review will examine papers from around the world, covering children and adults with suspected food allergy in varying populations and concentrated on four type of tests: APT, SPT, specific-IgEs, and component specific-IgEs.
doi:10.1186/2045-7022-3-18
PMCID: PMC3679851  PMID: 23742215
Food allergy; IgE-mediated; Diagnosis; Diagnostic tests
25.  Demographic Predictors of Peanut, Tree Nut, Fish, Shellfish, and Sesame Allergy in Canada 
Journal of Allergy  2011;2012:858306.
Background. Studies suggest that the rising prevalence of food allergy during recent decades may have stabilized. Although genetics undoubtedly contribute to the emergence of food allergy, it is likely that other factors play a crucial role in mediating such short-term changes. Objective. To identify potential demographic predictors of food allergies. Methods. We performed a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Criteria for food allergy were self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis of allergy. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess potential determinants. Results. Of 10,596 households surveyed in 2008/2009, 3666 responded, representing 9667 individuals. Peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy were more common in children (odds ratio (OR) 2.24 (95% CI, 1.40, 3.59), 1.73 (95% CI, 1.11, 2.68), and 5.63 (95% CI, 1.39, 22.87), resp.) while fish and shellfish allergy were less common in children (OR 0.17 (95% CI, 0.04, 0.72) and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.14, 0.61)). Tree nut and shellfish allergy were less common in males (OR 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36, 0.83) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.91)). Shellfish allergy was more common in urban settings (OR 1.55 (95% CI, 1.04, 2.31)). There was a trend for most food allergies to be more prevalent in the more educated (tree nut OR 1.90 (95% CI, 1.18, 3.04)) and less prevalent in immigrants (shellfish OR 0.49 (95% CI, 0.26, 0.95)), but wide CIs preclude definitive conclusions for most foods. Conclusions. Our results reveal that in addition to age and sex, place of residence, socioeconomic status, and birth place may influence the development of food allergy.
doi:10.1155/2012/858306
PMCID: PMC3236463  PMID: 22187574

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