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1.  Late Periprosthetic Joint Infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis Identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Medicine  2011;2011:608919.
Staphylococcus lugdunensis, member to the group of coagulase-negative staphylococci, is previously thought to be rarely isolated. Recently other staphylococci have been described, which were supposedly related to S. lugdunensis, such as Staphylococcus pseudolugdunensis and Staphylococcus pettenkoferi. To decrease the rate misidentifications, an accurate identification method, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry or molecular methods, should be used. S. lugdunensis is usually associated with severe infections similar to those caused by S. aureus. Moreover, it has been described that skin infections due to S. lugdunensis are severely underreported and could be also underreported in periprosthetic joint infections. Ours is the first case of a late periprosthetic infection of the hip due to S. lugdunensis, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A periprosthetic infection due to S. lugdunensis should be treated according to protocols of S. aureus periprosthetic infections, and therefore an accurate species identification is desirable.
doi:10.1155/2011/608919
PMCID: PMC3138060  PMID: 21776276
2.  Investigations on the efficacy of routinely used phenotypic methods compared to genotypic approaches for the identification of staphylococcal species isolated from companion animals in Irish veterinary hospitals 
Irish Veterinary Journal  2013;66(1):7.
Background
Identification of Staphylococci to species level in veterinary microbiology is important to inform therapeutic intervention and management. We report on the efficacy of three routinely used commercial phenotypic methods for staphylococcal species identification, namely API Staph 32 (bioMérieux), RapID (Remel) and Staph-Zym (Rosco Diagnostica) compared to genotyping as a reference method to identify 52 staphylococcal clinical isolates (23 coagulase positive; 29 coagulase negative) from companion animals in Irish veterinary hospitals.
Results
Genotyping of a 412 bp fragment of the staphylococcal tuf gene and coagulase testing were carried out on all 52 veterinary samples along with 7 reference strains. In addition, genotyping of the staphylococcal rpoB gene, as well as PCR-RFLP of the pta gene, were performed to definitively identify members of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG). The API Staph 32 correctly identified all S. aureus isolates (11/11), 83% (10/12) of the SIG species, and 66% (19/29) of the coagulase negative species. RapID and Staph-Zym correctly identified 61% (14/23) and 0% (0/23) respectively of the coagulase-positives, and 10% (3/29) and 3% (1/29) respectively of the coagulase-negative species.
Conclusions
Commercially available phenotypic species identification tests are inadequate for the correct identification of both coagulase negative and coagulase positive staphylococcal species from companion animals. Genotyping using the tuf gene sequence is superior to phenotyping for identification of staphylococcal species of animal origin. However, use of PCR-RFLP of pta gene or rpoB sequencing is recommended as a confirmatory method for discriminating between SIG isolates.
doi:10.1186/2046-0481-66-7
PMCID: PMC3649918  PMID: 23635328
Companion animals; Staphylococci species identification; Genotyping; tuf; rpoB
3.  Clinical significance of the isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis from bone biopsy in diabetic foot osteomyelitis 
Diabetic Foot & Ankle  2010;1:10.3402/dfa.v1i0.5418.
Introduction
Coagulase-negative staphylococci are considered as microorganisms with little virulence and usually as contaminants. In order to establish the role of Staphylococcus epidermidis as a pathogen in diabetic foot osteomyelitis, in addition to the isolation of the sole bacterium from the bone it will be necessary to demonstrate the histopathological changes caused by the infection.
Methods
A consecutive series of 222 diabetic patients with foot osteomyelitis treated surgically in the Diabetic Foot Unit at La Paloma Hospital (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain) between 1 October 2002 and 31 October 2008. From the entire series including 213 bone cultures with 241 isolated organisms, we have analyzed only the 139 cases where Staphylococci were found. We analyzed several variables between the two groups: Staphylococcus aureus versus Staphylococcus epidermidis.
Results
Of the 134 patients included in this study, Staphlylococcus epidermidis was found as the sole bacterium isolated in 11 cases and accompanied by other bacteria in 12 cases. Staphlylococcus aureus was found as the sole bacterium isolated in 72 cases and accompanied by other bacteria in 39 cases. Histopathological changes were found in the cases of osteomyelitis where Staphylococcus epidermidis was the sole bacterium isolated. Acute osteomyelitis was found to a lesser extent when Staphylococcus epidermidis was the sole bacterium isolated but without significant differences with the cases where Staphylococcus aureus was the sole bacterium isolated.
Conclusion
Staphylococcus epidermidis should be considered as a real pathogen, not only a contaminant, in diabetic patients with foot osteomyelitis when the bacterium is isolated from the bone. No differences in the outcomes of surgical treatment have been found with cases which Staphlylococcus aureus was isolated.
doi:10.3402/dfa.v1i0.5418
PMCID: PMC3284277  PMID: 22396808
diabetic foot; osteomyelitis; bone infection; diabetic foot infections; foot ulcer
4.  Therapy of intracellular Staphylococcus aureus by tigecyclin 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:267.
Background
In the fields of traumatology and orthopaedics staphylococci are the most frequently isolated pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are known to be the major causative agents of osteomyelitis. The increasing number of multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus and resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci as a trigger of complicated osteomyelitis and implant-associated infections is a major problem. Antibiotic therapy fails in 20% of cases. Therefore the development of novel antibiotics becomes necessary.
Methods
This study analyses tigecyclin, the first antibiotic of the glycylines, as a potential therapy for osteomyelitis caused by multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore its intracellular activity and the potential use in polymethylmetacrylate-bone cement are examined. The intracellular activity of tigecyclin is determined by a human osteoblast infection model. The investigation of the biomechanical characteristics is conducted concerning the ISO 5833-guidelines.
Results
Tigecyclin shows in vitro an intracellular activity that ranges between the antimicrobial activity of gentamicin and rifampicin. A significant negative effect on the biomechanical characteristics with an impaired stability is detected after adding tigecyclin to polymethylmetacrylate-bone cement with a percentage of 1.225% per weight.
Conclusions
This study shows that tigecyclin might be a potent alternative for the systemic therapy of osteomyelitis and implant-associated infections whereas the local application has to be reconsidered individually.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-267
PMCID: PMC3694521  PMID: 23738922
Osteomyelitis; Implant associated infection; Staphylococcus aureus; Tigecyclin; Biomechanical stability
5.  Lack of microbiological concordance between bone and non-bone specimens in chronic osteomyelitis: an observational study 
Background
Prognosis of chronic osteomyelitis depends heavily on proper identification and treatment of the bone-infecting organism. Current knowledge on selecting the best specimen for culture is confusing, and many consider that non-bone specimens are suitable to replace bone cultures. This paper compares the microbiology of non-bone specimens with bone cultures, taking the last as the diagnostic gold standard.
Methods
Retrospective observational analysis of 50 patients with bacterial chronic osteomyelitis in a 750-bed University-based hospital.
Results
Concordance between both specimens for all etiologic agents was 28%, for Staphylococcus aureus 38%, and for organisms other than S. aureus 19%. The culture of non-bone specimens to identify the causative organisms in chronic osteomyelitis produced 52% false negatives and 36% false positives when compared against bone cultures.
Conclusions
Diagnosis and therapy of chronic osteomyelitis cannot be guided by cultures of non-bone specimens because their microbiology is substantially different to the microbiology of the bone.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-2-8
PMCID: PMC115844  PMID: 12015818
6.  Vertebral osteomyelitis and native valve endocarditis due to Staphylococcus simulans: a case report 
Background
Staphylococcus simulans is a common animal pathogen that occasionally can colonize human skin. Unlike other coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. simulans tends to cause more severe infections that resemble those caused by S. aureus. We present a case of vertebral osteomyelitis and endocarditis due to S. simulans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of vertebral osteomyelitis associated with native valve endocarditis rather than orthopedic surgery.
Case presentation
A 46-year-old male butcher was admitted to the hospital with a 4-week history of high fever with profound sweating. He reported weakness in his legs and low back pain that compromised his walking ability. Blood cultures yielded Gram-positive cocci on Gram stain. These cocci were identified to the species level as S. simulans, a coagulase-negative staphylococcus. The patient was treated with antibiotics, which were discontinued after 6 months.
Conclusion
This case illustrates the importance of identifying coagulase-negative staphylococci to the species level. Accurate identification of S. simulans would further help investigations defining its pathogenic role in human infections.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-183
PMCID: PMC2426703  PMID: 18510763
7.  Serological diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1985;21(5):764-767.
We have evaluated serological tests for the diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. Antiteichoic acid antibodies were elevated in 17 of 23 patients with acute and 16 of 46 with chronic S. aureus osteomyelitis but in none of 33 patients infected with other gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. Immunoglobulin G antibodies to S. aureus were elevated in 12 of 23 patients with acute and 22 of 47 with chronic S. aureus osteomyelitis, in 2 of 12 infected with other gram-positive bacteria, and in 4 of 21 with other gram-negative bacteria. Assays for S. aureus antibodies may be useful for identifying patients with S. aureus bacteremia complicated by metastatic sites of infection in bone and for identifying the etiological agents in patients with negative or mixed cultures or from whom cultures are not readily available. Prospective studies are needed to test these hypotheses.
PMCID: PMC271776  PMID: 3998107
8.  Treatment of bone, joint, and vascular-access-associated gram-positive bacterial infections with teicoplanin. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1990;34(12):2392-2397.
Teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, was evaluated for safety and efficacy in the treatment of vascular-access-associated bacteremias and of bone and joint infections due to susceptible gram-positive organisms. Of 35 patients enrolled, 26 had osteomyelitis, 8 had vascular-access-associated bacteremias, and 1 had a joint infection. A total of 38 gram-positive isolates were identified: 23 Staphylococcus aureus and 6 coagulase-negative staphylococcus and 9 streptococcus isolates. After at least 6 months of follow-up, 17 patients were evaluable for efficacy: 10 of 14 (71%) with osteomyelitis and 3 of 3 with vascular-access-associated bacteremias had full resolution of their infections. Inadequate debridement, the presence of metal, and inadequate dosing were likely causes of two failures and two relapses in patients with osteomyelitis. For all but two organisms, teicoplanin MICs were less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. Patients who responded had median peak and trough serum bactericidal levels at serum dilutions of 1:64 and 1:16; trough levels of teicoplanin in serum were greater than 30 micrograms/ml. Patients did not respond as expected to daily doses of 4 mg/kg of body weight, which consequently were increased to greater than or equal to 15 mg/kg. Audiology testing of 20 patients found 2 with a mild loss of high-frequency hearing; 1 patient complained of tinnitus. Patients tolerated peak levels in serum as high as 127 micrograms/ml and trough levels of 49 micrograms/ml. However, 5 of 18 patients (28%) whose daily dose was greater than or equal to 12 mg/kg developed drug fever and rash and had teicoplanin discontinued. Further study of the antibiotic at such higher doses is needed.
PMCID: PMC172067  PMID: 2150908
9.  Staphylococcus simulans septicemia in a patient with chronic osteomyelitis and pyarthrosis. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1985;21(2):255-257.
Staphylococcus simulans was identified as the etiological agent of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in an adult male who had sustained a fracture of the fibula and syndesmosis separation which required the installation of orthopedic hardware. Identifying characteristics and antibiograms for this organism, recovered from blood, wound exudate, and deep tissue samples, were determined. Recent evidence has linked slime production (adherence to smooth surfaces) by coagulase-negative staphylococci to infections by these organisms at sites where foreign bodies had been inserted. Tests for adherence showed this S. simulans strain to be a strong slime producer. This is the first reported case of osteomyelitis and septicemia due to S. simulans.
PMCID: PMC271626  PMID: 3972995
10.  A new multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the identification a panel of bacteria involved in bacteremia 
Background:
Throughout the world, bloodstream infections (BSIs) are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Rapid pathogens identification is central significance for the outcome of the patient than culture techniques for microbial identification. To develop an end point multiplex PCR to identify a group of bacteria including Enterococcus spp., Pseudomons aeruginosa, Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter baumannii, 16S rDNA, and Drosophila Melanogaster were used as internal control (IC).
Materials and Methods:
Design of primers was done using Mega4, Allel ID6, Oligo6 and Oligo analyzer softwares. Genetic targets for primer designing and identification of genus Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and species of Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomons aeruginosa, included the rpoB, rpoB and gyrA, sss respectively. Then PCR and multiplex PCR were performed
Results:
The intended specificity was obtained for the bacteria, which used in this study and there wasn't seen any unspecific amplification by the multiplex PCR. The test showed a sensitivity ranging from 1 to 100 target copies per reaction depending on the bacterial species.
Conclusions:
The presented multiplex PCR offers a rapid and accurate molecular diagnostic tool for simultaneous detection of some pathogenic microorganisms. The IC exists in the multiplex PCR accompanied by other primers in the system, can serve as a simple, cost- effective internal control for the multiplex PCR assay.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.107972
PMCID: PMC3732891  PMID: 23930252
Conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction; primers design; bacterimia
11.  Application of the antibiotic batumin for accurate and rapid identification of staphylococcal small colony variants 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:374.
Background
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality. The S. aureus colonies in osteomyelitis, in patients with cystic fibrosis and patients with endoprosthesis rejection frequently have an atypical morphology, i.e. staphylococcal small-colony variants, which form a naturally occurring subpopulation of clinically important staphylococci. Identification of these small colony variants is difficult, because of the loss of typical phenotypic characteristics of these variants.
We wanted to improve and simplify the diagnosis of staphylococcal infection using a diagnostic preparation, consisting of 5 μg batumin paper disks. Batumin possesses a unique selective activity against all studied Staphylococcus spp., whereas all other species tested thus far are batumin resistant. We assessed the efficacy of the batumin diagnostic preparation to identify staphylococcal small colony variants, isolated from osteomyelitis patients.
Findings
With the batumin diagnostic preparation, all 30 tested staphylococcal small-colony variants had a growth inhibition zone around the disk of minimum 25 mm, accordant with the inhibition zones of the parent strains, isolated from the same patients.
Conclusions
The batumin diagnostic preparation correctly identified the small-colony variants of S. aureus, S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis as belonging to the genus Staphylococcus, which differ profoundly from parental strains and are difficult to identify with standard methods. Identification of staphylococcal small-colony variants with the batumin diagnostic preparation is technically simple and can facilitate practical laboratory work.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-374
PMCID: PMC3439339  PMID: 22828414
Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA; Batumin; Staphylococcal small-colony variants
12.  Staphylococcus lugdunensis Cultured from the Amniotic Fluid at Caesarean Section 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56373.
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a virulent coagulase-negative staphylococcus. It behaves like and can be mistaken in culture for Staphylococcus aureus. While originally thought to be a skin commensal rarely responsible for opportunistic infection, it was rapidly established as a significant human pathogen. It has been mainly associated with native and prosthetic valve endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and skin and soft tissue cellulitis, but has also been reported as a cause of fasciitis as well as peritonitis. Staphylococcus lugdunensis has been reported as a cause of endometritis but has not been previously isolated from amniotic fluid. Here, amniotic fluid samples were collected in the course of a larger study on amniotic fluid bacteriology, with prior ethical approval and informed patient consent. Amniotic fluid was obtained at Caesarean Section by direct needle aspiration from the intact amnion. Analysis with Staphylococcal API test kits led to identification of Staphylococcus lugdunensis in two cases. The clinical significance of the finding in these reported cases is undetermined. Staphylococcus lugdunensis has been shown to be a cause of serious and potentially fatal morbidities, but this is the first report of its culture from amniotic fluid. As caesarean delivery is accepted as the single most important factor associated with post-partum infectious complications in both mother and neonate, the identification of this pathogen is a new concern.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056373
PMCID: PMC3567050  PMID: 23409177
13.  Characterization of Some Bacterial Strains Isolated from Animal Clinical Materials and Identified as Corynebacterium xerosis by Molecular Biological Techniques▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(9):3138-3145.
Eighteen Corynebacterium xerosis strains isolated from different animal clinical specimens were subjected to phenotypic and molecular genetic studies. On the basis of the results of the biochemical characterization, the strains were tentatively identified as C. xerosis. Phylogenetic analysis based on comparative analysis of the sequences of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes revealed that the 18 strains were highly related to C. xerosis, C. amycolatum, C. freneyi, and C. hansenii. There was a good concordance between 16S rRNA and partial rpoB gene sequencing results, although partial rpoB gene sequencing allowed better differentiation of C. xerosis. Alternatively, C. xerosis was also differentiated from C. freneyi and C. amycolatum by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer region. Phenotypic characterization indicated that besides acid production from d-turanose and 5-ketogluconate, 90% of the strains were able to reduce nitrate. The absence of the fatty acids C14:0, C15:0, C16:1ϖ7c, and C17:1ϖ8c can also facilitate the differentiation of C. xerosis from closely related species. The results of the present investigation demonstrated that for reliable identification of C. xerosis strains from clinical samples, a combination of phenotypic and molecular-biology-based identification techniques is necessary.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02373-09
PMCID: PMC2937682  PMID: 20660219
14.  Sequencing of the rpoB Gene and Flanking Spacers for Molecular Identification of Acinetobacter Species†  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(3):827-832.
Acinetobacter species are defined on the basis of several phenotypic characters, results of DNA-DNA homology, and more recently, similarities or dissimilarities in 16S rRNA gene sequences. However, the 16S rRNA gene is not polymorphic enough to clearly distinguish all Acinetobacter species. We used an RNA polymerase β-subunit gene (rpoB)-based identification scheme for the delineation of species within the genus Acinetobacter, and towards that end, we determined the complete rpoB gene and flanking spacer (rplL-rpoB and rpoB-rpoC) sequences of the 17 reference strains of Acinetobacter species and 7 unnamed genomospecies. By using complete gene sequences (4,089 bp), we clearly separated all species and grouped them into different clusters. A phylogenetic tree constructed using these sequences was supported by bootstrap values higher than those obtained with 16S rRNA or the gyrB or recA gene. Four pairs of primers enabled us to amplify and sequence two highly polymorphic partial sequences (350 and 450 bp) of the rpoB gene. These and flanking spacers were designed and tested for rapid identification of the 17 reference strains of Acinetobacter species and 7 unnamed genomospecies. Each of these four variable sequences enabled us to delineate most species. Sequences of at least two polymorphic sequences should be used to distinguish Acinetobacter grimontii, Acinetobacter junii, Acinetobacter baylyi, and genomic species 9 from one another. Finally, 21 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were tested for intraspecies relationships and assigned correctly to the same species by comparing the partial sequences of the rpoB gene and its flanking spacers.
doi:10.1128/JCM.44.3.827-832.2006
PMCID: PMC1393131  PMID: 16517861
15.  Bacterial adherence and glycocalyx formation in osteomyelitis experimentally induced with Staphylococcus aureus. 
Infection and Immunity  1984;43(3):825-833.
A surgical procedure allowed the placement of a silicone rubber catheter in the marrow cavity of the tibia of a rabbit and also allowed the introduction of a sclerosing agent (sodium morrhuate) and cells of Staphylococcus aureus. Osteomyelitis developed in 60% of the animals so treated, and the infecting microorganism was recovered from the infected tibias of the animals that developed this disease. All blood cultures taken 24 h after the infection were negative for S. aureus. Radiological findings consisted of osteolytic changes, the occurrence of sequestration and periosteal reactions, and sclerosis in the infected bones. Sections of bone prepared for histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy of samples of bone marrow, bone chips, and the catheters taken from the infected tibiae revealed gram-positive cocci embedded in a very extensive matrix of ruthenium red-staining glycocalyx adhering to the bone and the implanted catheter. It is proposed that this extensive glycocalyx served a protective function for the bacteria and was important in bacterial adherence and thus played an important role in bacterial persistence and the development of osteomyelitis in these rabbits.
Images
PMCID: PMC264256  PMID: 6199302
16.  Rapid Identification of Staphylococcus aureus Directly from Blood Cultures by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(1):247-251.
A new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method with peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for identification of Staphylococcus aureus directly from positive blood culture bottles that contain gram-positive cocci in clusters (GPCC) is described. The test (the S. aureus PNA FISH assay) is based on a fluorescein-labeled PNA probe that targets a species-specific sequence of the 16S rRNA of S. aureus. Evaluations with 17 reference strains and 48 clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus species, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, and other clinically relevant and phylogenetically related bacteria and yeast species, showed that the assay had 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Clinical trials with 87 blood cultures positive for GPCC correctly identified 36 of 37 (97%) of the S. aureus-positive cultures identified by standard microbiological methods. The positive and negative predictive values were 100 and 98%, respectively. It is concluded that this rapid method (2.5 h) for identification of S. aureus directly from blood culture bottles that contain GPCC offers important information for optimal antibiotic therapy.
doi:10.1128/JCM.40.1.247-251.2002
PMCID: PMC120122  PMID: 11773123
17.  Hodgkin's lymphoma masquerading as vertebral osteomyelitis in a man with diabetes: a case report 
Introduction
Infection and malignancy often have common characteristics which render the differential diagnosis for a prolonged fever difficult. Imaging and tissue biopsy are crucial in making a correct diagnosis, though differentiating between chronic osteomyelitis and malignancy is not always straightforward as they possess many overlapping features.
Case Presentation
A 52-year-old Caucasian man was treated with antibiotics for his diabetic foot infection after a superficial culture showed Staphylococcus aureus. He had persistent fevers for several weeks and later developed acute onset of back pain which was treated with several courses of antibiotics. Radiographic and pathological findings were atypical, and a diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma was made 12 weeks later.
Conclusion
Clinicians should maintain a suspicion for Hodgkin's lymphoma or other occult malignancy when features of presumed osteomyelitis are atypical. Chronic vertebral osteomyelitis in particular often lacks features common to acute infectious disease processes, and the chronic lymphocytic infiltrates seen on histopathology have very similar features to Hodgkin's lymphoma, highlighting a similar inflammatory microenvironment sustained by both processes.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-102
PMCID: PMC2907869  PMID: 20370895
18.  Ventriculitis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis: two case reports 
Introduction
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an unusually virulent coagulase-negative staphylococcus that has rarely been implicated in central nervous system infections.
Case presentation
Two children hospitalized in the Neurosurgery Unit developed ventriculitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus lugdunensis following placement of external ventriculostomy drains. The causative organisms were identified by molecular studies. The patients recovered without significant sequelae after high doses of intrathecal vancomycin.
Conclusion
Distinguishing Staphylococcus lugdunensis from other coagulase-negative staphylococcus species is crucial because it carries a substantial risk for severe central nervous system infections displayed by patients with implanted cerebrospinal fluid devices. Clinicians should not underestimate the importance of the isolation of this species from cerebrospinal fluid specimens.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-267
PMCID: PMC2529306  PMID: 18694508
19.  Identification of Micrococcaceae in Clinical Bacteriology 
Applied Microbiology  1968;16(6):906-911.
The cellular morphology, identifying physiological characteristics, and a key to the human genera of Micrococcaceae are presented with flow charts for identification of aerobic and anaerobic isolates. These flow charts can be amended as desired, depending upon the degree of accuracy desired. Micrococcaceae isolates in a 350-bed private general hospital during a 15-week period are tabulated to show relative numbers of the different genera and species, with their probable relationship to infection or contamination. Only 11 of the 220 Micrococcaceae isolates were not Staphylococcus; no Sarcina or Peptococcus were isolated. Of the Staphylococcus isolates, 61% were S. epidermidis. Almost 18% of the S. aureus isolates were coagulase-negative. Of the S. aureus isolates, 80% of the coagulase-positive isolates were infecting agents, as were 67% of the coagulase-negative S. aureus isolates, compared to only 48% of S. epidermidis isolates. Two of four Gaffkya isolates but only one of seven Micrococcus isolates were infecting agents. If coagulase production is used as the sole criterion for speciation of staphylococci, and Micrococcus is not differentiated from Staphylococcus, the term “coagulase-negative staphylococci” does not differentiate three distinct levels of pathogenicity. Coagulase-negative S. aureus is more virulent than S. epidermidis or Gaffkya, which are more virulent than Micrococcus or Sarcina.
PMCID: PMC547552  PMID: 4874454
20.  Use of rpoB Gene Analysis for Detection and Identification of Bartonella Species 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2001;39(2):430-437.
Identification of Bartonella species is of increasing importance as the number of infections in which these bacteria are involved increases. To date, these gram-negative bacilli have been identified by various serological, biochemical, and genotypic methods. However, the development of alternative tools is required, principally to circumvent a major risk of contamination during sample manipulation. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible identification of various Bartonella species by comparison of RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) sequences. This approach has previously been shown to be useful for the identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (C. M. Mollet, M. Drancourt, and D. Raoult, Mol. Microbiol. 26:1005–1011, 1997). Following PCR amplification with specific oligonucleotides, a 825-bp region of the rpoB gene was sequenced from 13 distinct Bartonella strains. Analysis of these sequences allowed selection of three restriction enzymes (ApoI, AluI, and AflIII) useful for discerning the different strains by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. To confirm the potential value of such an approach for identification of Bartonella, the rpoB PCR was then applied to 94 clinical samples, and the results obtained were identical to those obtained by our reference PCR method. Twenty-four isolates were also adequately identified by PCR-RFLP analysis. In all cases, our results were in accordance with those of the reference method. Moreover, conserved regions of DNA were chosen as suitable primer targets for PCR amplification of a 439-bp fragment which can be easily sequenced.
doi:10.1128/JCM.39.2.430-437.2001
PMCID: PMC87755  PMID: 11158086
21.  Species-specific and ubiquitous DNA-based assays for rapid identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1996;34(12):2888-2893.
Staphylococcus epidermidis is an aerobic gram-positive coccus that is now recognized among the coagulase-negative staphylococci as an etiological agent with an important range of pathogenicity in humans. Several diagnostic kits based on biochemical or immunological reactions can efficiently identify Staphylococcus aureus. However, these tests are often unreliable for the identification of coagulase-negative staphylococcal species including S. epidermidis. Since DNA-based assays for the species-specific identification of S. epidermidis remain unavailable, we have developed such tests in order to improve the accuracy and the rapidity of tests for the diagnosis of S. epidermidis infections. On the basis of the results of hybridization assays with clones randomly selected from an S. epidermidis genomic library, we identified a chromosomal DNA fragment which is specific and 100% ubiquitous for the identification of S. epidermidis. This 705-bp fragment was sequenced and used to design PCR amplification primers. PCR assays with the selected primers were also highly specific and ubiquitous for the identification from bacterial cultures of clinical isolates of S. epidermidis from a variety of anatomic sites. While three strains of S. capitis were misidentified as S. epidermidis with the API Staph-Ident system and 2.5% of the S. epidermidis identifications were inconclusive with the MicroScan Autoscan-4 system, the PCR assay was highly specific and allowed for the correct identification of all 79 S. epidermidis strains tested. The PCR assays developed are simple and can be performed in about 1 h. The DNA-based tests provide novel diagnostic tools for improving the diagnosis of S. epidermidis infections.
PMCID: PMC229428  PMID: 8940417
22.  Evaluation of the Rapid Mastitis Test for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mammary glands. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1988;26(4):672-674.
A latex agglutination test system (Rapid Mastitis Test [RMT]; Immucell, Portland, Maine) containing reagents for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae from bovine intramammary infections was evaluated with 527 staphylococcal and 267 streptococcal isolates. The RMT Staphylococcus aureus reagent detected 94.2% of 242 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 80% of 25 Staphylococcus intermedius isolates, and 42.8% of 21 tube coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus isolates. All Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were correctly identified by the RMT Streptococcus agalactiae reagent. Cross-reactions were observed with one Streptococcus dysgalactiae and three Streptococcus uberis strains. The RMT was found to be an acceptable method for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mammary glands. The occurrence of coagulase-positive staphylococci other than Staphylococcus aureus requires biochemical testing for species level identification.
PMCID: PMC266407  PMID: 3284897
23.  Identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci with the API STAPH-IDENT system. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1983;18(2):254-257.
A group of 300 clinically derived isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci were tested in parallel with the API STAPH-IDENT system (Analytab Products) and 14 conventional biochemical tests contained in Kloos and Schleifer's simplified scheme for identification of human Staphylococcus species. STAPH-IDENT is a miniaturized biochemical test strip that incorporates four synthetic chromogenic substrates, urea, arginine, and four carbohydrates and that requires only a 5-h test period. Use of the STAPH-IDENT system alone allowed correct or partly correct classification of 67% (201 of 300) of the study isolates. However, if a supplemental test was performed (most often novobiocin susceptibility), correct classification of an additional 25.7% (77) was possible, for a total of 92.7% of isolates identified to the species level. Species correctly identified included 94% (116 of 123) of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates, 98% (63 of 64) of S. saprophyticus, 71% (34 of 48) of S. hominis, 100% (22) of S. simulans, 100% (18) of S. haemolyticus, 100% (17) of S. warneri, and 100% (8) of S. capitis. Fourteen percent (42 of 300) of profile codes encountered in this study were not included in the STAPH-IDENT profile register, but were included in Analytab Products' expanded computer data base.
PMCID: PMC270787  PMID: 6352730
24.  Daptomycin Therapy for Osteomyelitis: A Retrospective Study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:133.
Background
Daptomycin is a rapidly bactericidal agent with broad coverage against Gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, the most frequent cause of osteomyelitis. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical outcome of patients with non-hardware associated osteomyelitis, and the safety profile of daptomycin in the treatment of these infections.
Methods
All patients with osteomyelitis, excluding concurrent orthopedic foreign body infections, treated with daptomycin and identified between 2007–2008 in a retrospective, multicenter, observational registry, were included. Investigators assessed patient outcome (cured, improved, failed, non-evaluable) at the end of daptomycin therapy. Patients with a successful outcome at the end of daptomycin therapy were reassessed in 2009. All patients were included in the safety analysis; evaluable patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Data was assessed using descriptive statistics. A Kaplan Meier analysis was used to assess time to clinical failure.
Results
Two-hundred and nine osteomyelitis patients successfully completed daptomycin therapy in 2007–2008, 71 of which (34%) had a follow-up visit in 2009 and had an evaluable clinical outcome. The median (min, max) daptomycin dose and duration were 6 mg/kg (4, 10) and 42 days (1, 88), respectively. Of the 52 patients with a documented pathogen, S. aureus was the most common (42%); primarily methicillin-resistant S. aureus. All patients were included in the safety analysis; evaluable patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Clinical resolution was reported in 94% (CI - 86.2%, 98.44%) of patients. A Kaplan Meier analysis of time to clinical failure showed that approximately 85% (CI – 64%, 95%) of patients had a continued successful outcome at the time of re-evaluation. Eighteen patients (25%) in the safety population experienced an adverse event; 13 patients (18%) had an adverse event that was possibly-related to daptomycin treatment.
Conclusions
Daptomycin appears to be an effective therapeutic choice with an acceptable safety profile in the management of osteomyelitis that does not involve hardware.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-133
PMCID: PMC3521200  PMID: 22691420
25.  Capsule Expression and Genotypic Differences among Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Patients with Chronic or Acute Osteomyelitis▿  
Infection and Immunity  2009;77(5):1968-1975.
There is ample evidence that Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide (CP) promotes virulence. Loss of capsule expression, however, may lead to S. aureus persistence in a chronically infected host. This study was conducted to determine the relative prevalence of nonencapsulated S. aureus in patients with chronic and acute osteomyelitis. Only 76/118 (64%) S. aureus isolates from patients with osteomyelitis expressed CP, whereas all 50 isolates from blood cultures of patients with infections other than osteoarticular infections expressed CP (P = 0.0001). A significantly higher prevalence of nonencapsulated S. aureus was found in patients with chronic osteomyelitis (53%) than in those with acute osteomyelitis (21%) (P = 0.0046). S. aureus isolates obtained from multiple specimens from five of six patients with chronic osteomyelitis exhibited phenotypic (expression of CP, α-hemolysin, β-hemolysin, slime, and the small-colony variant phenotype) and/or genotypic (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and spa typing) differences. Nonencapsulated S. aureus was recovered from at least one specimen from each chronic osteomyelitis patient. Fourteen isolates obtained from two patients with acute osteomyelitis were indistinguishable from each other within each group, and all produced CP5. In conclusion, we demonstrated that nonencapsulated S. aureus is more frequently isolated from patients with chronic osteomyelitis than from those with acute osteomyelitis, suggesting that loss of CP expression may be advantageous to S. aureus during chronic infection. Our findings on multiple S. aureus isolates from individual patients allow us to suggest that selection of nonencapsulated S. aureus is likely to have occurred in the patient during long-term bone infection.
doi:10.1128/IAI.01214-08
PMCID: PMC2681770  PMID: 19273557

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