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1.  Ethnic and socio-economic disparities in oral health outcomes and quality of life among Sri Lankan preschoolers: a cross-sectional study 
Introduction
The distribution and severity of dental caries among preschool children vary according to the socio-economic and ethnic differences within and between countries. Understanding socio-economic influences on child oral health could inform early interventions to reduce the oral health burden throughout the life-cycle. The aim of this study is to examine the socio-economic and ethnic influences on oral health among preschoolers in Kegalle, Sri Lanka.
Methods
The study involved 784 children aged between 48–72 months recruited from 84 pre-schools in the Kegalle district in Sri Lanka. Cross-sectional data were collected by means of an oral examination of the children and a self-administered questionnaire to their parents/caregivers. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) was used to assess Oral Health related Quality of Life (OHQoL). Univariate and multivariate models of Poisson regression were used to investigate the associations between the variables.
Results
Compared to children whose fathers had tertiary education, those whose fathers did not study beyond grade 5, had more caries measured in terms of decayed, missing and filled surfaces (dmfs) (IRR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.06; p < 0.01) and experienced poor OHQoL at child (IRR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.20, 5.31; p < 0.05) and family (IRR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.27; p < 0.05) levels. However, lower educational attainment among mothers was associated with better OHQoL among children. Compared to the Sinhalese ethnic group, Tamils had more gingival bleeding (bleeding surfaces) (IRR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.92, 4.81; p < 0.001) and poor OHQoL at child level (IRR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.19, 3.60; p < 0.01), whereas Muslims had poor OHQoL at family level (IRR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.84; p < 0.01). Children of low-income families had more gum bleeding (IRR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.00; p < 0.05) compared to children of high-income families.
Conclusions
Socio-economic and ethnic differences in oral health outcomes exist among this population of preschoolers. Interventions targeting children of fathers with low educational levels and ethnic minority groups are required to reduce inequalities in oral health in Sri Lanka and other similar countries.
doi:10.1186/1475-9276-12-89
PMCID: PMC3830507  PMID: 24228941
Oral health; Dental caries; Bleeding gums; Quality of life; Socio-economic disparities; Preschoolers; Sri Lanka
2.  Influence of the usual motivation for dental attendance on dental status and oral health-related quality of life 
Objectives: To evaluate the influence of dental visiting patterns on the dental status and Oral Health-related Qua-lity of Life (OHQoL) of patients visiting the University Clinic of Salamanca (Spain). Study Design: This cross-sectional study consisted of a clinical oral examination and a questionnaire-based interview in a consecutive sample of patients seeking a dental examination. Patients were classified as problem-based dental attendees (PB) and regular dental attendees (RB). Clinical and OHQoL (OHIP-14 & OIDP) data were compared between groups. Pair-wise comparisons were performed and a Logistic Regression Model was fitted for predicting the Odds Ratio (OR) of being a PB patient. Results: The sample was composed of 255 patients aged 18 to 87 years (mean age: 63.1 ± 12.7; women: 51.8%). The PB patients had a poorer dental status (i.e. caries, periodontal and prosthetic needs), brushed their teeth less,and were significantly more impaired in their OHQoL according to both instruments. The logistic regression coefficients demonstrated that on average the OR of being a PB patient was high in this dental patient sample, but this OR increased significantly if the patient was a male (OR= 1.1-5.0) or referred pain-related impacts according to the OHIP and, additionally, the OR decreased significantly as a function of the number of healthy fillings and the number of sextants coded as CPI=0. Conclusions: Regular dental check-ups are associated with better dental status and a better OHQoL after controlling for potentially related confounding factors.
Key words:Dental attendance, oral health-related quality of life.
doi:10.4317/medoral.19366
PMCID: PMC4048109  PMID: 24121918
3.  Association of oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh 
Background: To associate oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional questionnaires based survey was conducted among the subjects of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. The survey was carried among 101 subjects aging from 20-40 years. Subjects under investigation were belonging to various occupations. They were assigned a questionnaire. Questionnaire consisted of four parts, first part consists of socio-demographic data along with dental visiting habits, second part has OHqOL-questionnaire, third part has general health (sf-12) and fourth part has hospital anxiety and depression questionnaire. Questionnaire was used for assessment of OHqOL. It consists of 16 questions which takes into account both effect and impact of oral health on quality of life. Dental anxiety and depression was measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Each question was provided with four options and numbering ranging from 0-3. For general health consideration sf-12 v2 was being used, which calculates two values PCS and MCS giving result in percentage. Results: A large proportion of respondent perceived oral health as having an enhanced effect on their quality of life in all three aspects that is general health, social and psychological. This is in stark contrast to other studies, where only physical aspects of oral health were more frequently considered to have the greatest overall impact of life quality compared with items relating to social, psychological and general health aspects. Conclusion: Gender variations were not apparent in the study. Both genders were likely to perceive oral health as it is impacting strongly on their quality of life. No significant gender variations are seen. But both have specific oral health needs and are most likely to utilize dental services which may be the key in understanding oral health behavior, including dental attendance patterns. How to cite this article: Shet RG, Jain G, Maroli S, Srivastava KJ, Kasina SP, Shwetha GS. Association of oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):1-8 .
PMCID: PMC3895711  PMID: 24453438
Dental anxiety and depression; general health; hospital anxiety and depression scale; OHqOL
4.  Quality of Life Implications of Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw 
The Oncologist  2011;16(1):121-132.
Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw is a growing clinical concern that affects treatment decisions because of its potential negative impact on quality of life. It significantly affects the quality of life of patients with cancer and may be an important consideration for intravenous and oral bisphosphonate treatment decisions by patients, clinicians, and policy makers.
Purpose.
Potentially debilitating, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is an emerging complication of bisphosphonates. However, its effect on quality of life (QoL) is unknown. We determined the ONJ-related QoL decline in a cancer patient cohort.
Patients and Methods.
Thirty-four cancer patients with bisphosphonate-associated ONJ completed a telephone survey (October 2007 through May 2008). The Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP) retrospectively assessed participant oral health–related QoL before and after ONJ. Standardized ONJ descriptions were developed in a multidisciplinary, iterative process and were evaluated with three frequently used preference-based QoL measurement methods on a 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health) scale: Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Time Trade-Off (TTO), and EQ-5D.
Results.
ONJ significantly (p < .001) increased OHIP scores (worse QoL) for additive (3.56–16.53) and weighted (7.0–17.5) methods. Seven individual OHIP items significantly increased (Bonferroni correction p < .0035): pain, eating discomfort, self-consciousness, unsatisfactory diet, interrupted meals, irritability, and decreased life satisfaction. Mean preference-based QoL values significantly decreased (p < .001) with worsening ONJ stage (VAS, TTO, and EQ-5D): no ONJ (0.76, 0.86, 0.82), ONJ stage 1 (0.69, 0.82, 0.78), ONJ stage 2 (0.51, 0.67, 0.55), and ONJ stage 3 (0.37, 0.61, 0.32). As ONJ worsened, EQ-5D domain scores significantly increased (p < .001). Pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression contributed most to declining QoL.
Conclusions.
ONJ significantly affects QoL, a detriment that increases with worsening ONJ. QoL impairments for ONJ stages 2 and 3 are similar to other treatment side effects that influence decision-making. Bisphosphonate-associated ONJ QoL is an important consideration for patients, clinicians, and policy makers.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2010-0183
PMCID: PMC3228058  PMID: 21212433
Quality of life; Osteonecrosis; Bisphosphonates; Zoledronic acid; Pamidronate; Utility
5.  Dimensional structure of the oral health-related quality of life in healthy Spanish workers 
Background
Oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) is conceived as a multidimensional construct. Here our aim was to investigate the dimensional structure of OHQoL as measured by the Spanish versions of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) and the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaires applied simultaneously.
Methods
We recruited a consecutive sample of 270 healthy Spanish workers visiting the Employment Risk Prevention Centre for a routine medical check-up. OHIP-14 was self-completed by participants but the OIDP was completed in face-to-face interviews. An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was performed to identify the underlying dimensions of the OHQoL construct assessed by both instruments. This factorial structure was later confirmed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using several estimators of goodness of fit indices.
Results
EFA and the CFA identified and respectively confirmed a set of 3 underlying factors in both questionnaires that could be interpreted as functional limitation, pain-discomfort, and psychosocial impacts. The model achieved was seen to fit properly for both instruments, but the factorial structure was clearer for the OIDP.
Conclusions
The results provide evidence for construct equivalence in the latent factors assessed by both OIDP and OHIP-14, suggesting that OHQoL is a three-dimensional construct. The prevalence of impact on these three factors was coherent between both indicators, pain-discomfort having the highest prevalence, followed by psycho-social impact, and functional limitation.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-8-24
PMCID: PMC2833145  PMID: 20170546
6.  HIV/AIDS-related attitudes and oral impacts on daily performances: a cross-sectional study of Sudanese adult dental patients 
Background
Few studies have investigated the relationships between HIV-related knowledge, fear of contagion in dental environments and Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) among dental patients. Our objectives were to investigate the associations between HIV-related knowledge and fear of contagion in dental environments and OIDP among dental patients, and to evaluate whether those associations were modified by the frequency of dental service attendance.
Methods
A total of 1262 patients (mean age 30.7 years, 56.5% females) were recruited from the Khartoum Dental Teaching Hospital and the University of Science and Technology during March–July 2008. The participants underwent a full-mouth oral clinical examination and completed an interview in a face-to-face setting.
Results
Of the study participants, 41.4% had visited a dentist at least twice during the last 2 years, 96.2% had caries experience (DT > 0) and 79.1% reported oral impacts (OIDP > 0). The most frequently reported oral impacts were problems eating, sleeping and cleaning teeth. In total, 26.3% of the participants had HIV transmission knowledge, 75.6% knew people with HIV/AIDS and 58.7% perceived a high risk of cross-infection in dental environments. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, frequency of dental service attendance and caries experience, patients who had high HIV-related information exposure, a positive attitude toward people with HIV/AIDS and a high perceived risk of cross-infection were more likely to report oral impacts, whereas patients who knew people with HIV/AIDS were less likely to report oral impacts. The association between OIDP and HIV transmission knowledge was modified by frequency of dental service attendance.
Conclusions
Dental patients who were informed about HIV and had a high HIV/AIDS risk perception were more likely to report impaired oral health-related quality of life than their less informed counterparts and those who perceived a low risk of contagion. The effect of HIV transmission knowledge on oral impacts was influenced by frequency of dental service attendance.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-335
PMCID: PMC3765642  PMID: 23971974
HIV; AIDS; Attitudes; Oral impacts on daily performance; Dental; Sudan
7.  Level of oral health impacts among patients participating in PEARL: a dental practice-based research network 
Objectives
To determine whether participants of a dental practice-based research network (PBRN) differ in their level of oral health impact as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) questionnaire.
Methods
A total of 2410 patients contributed 2432 OHIP measurements (median age = 43 years; interquartile range = 28) were enrolled in four dental studies. All participants completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) during a baseline visit. The main outcome of the current study was the level of oral health impact, defined as follows: no impact (“Never” reported on all items); low (“Occasionally” or “Hardly ever” as the greatest frequency score reported on any item); and high (“Fairly often” or “Very often” as the greatest frequency reported on any item). Polychotomous logistic regression was used to develop a predictive model for the level of oral health impact considering the following predictors: patient’s age, gender, race, practice location, type of dentist, and number of years the enrolling dentist has been practicing.
Results
A high level of oral health impacts was reported in 8% of the sample; almost a third (29%) of the sample reported a low level of impacts, and 63% had no oral health impacts. The prevalence of impacts differed significantly across protocols (P<0.001). Females were more likely to be in the high oral impact group than the no impact group compared to males (OR=1.46; 95% CI= 1.06–1.99). African-Americans were more likely to report high oral impacts when compared to other racial/ethnic groups (OR=2.11; 95% CI = 1.26–3.55). Protective effects for being in the high or in the low impact groups were observed among patients enrolled by a solo practice (P<0.001) or by more experienced dentists (P=0.01). A small but highly significant statistical association was obtained for patient age (P<0.001). In the multivariate model, patient’s age, practice size and gender were found to jointly be significant predictors of oral health impact level.
Conclusions
Patients’ subjective report of oral health impact in the clinical setting is of importance for their health. In the context of a dental PBRN, the report of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was different across four dental studies. The observed findings validate the differential impact that oral health has on the patients’ perception of OHRQoL particularly among specific groups. Similar investigations to elucidate the factors associated with patient’s report of quality of life are warranted.
doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2012.00676.x
PMCID: PMC3380181  PMID: 22390788
Oral-Health Impact; OHRQoL; Dental PBRN; OHIP-14; Patient Reported Outcomes; Subjective Health
8.  Influence of cigarette smoking on the overall perception of dental health among adults aged 20-79 years, United States, 1988-1994. 
Public Health Reports  2005;120(2):124-132.
OBJECTIVE: Investigation into the relationship between lifestyle factors (particularly cigarette smoking) and perceived oral health has been limited. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), 1988-1994, were used to explore this relationship in a large sample of U.S. adults. METHODS: This study used data on 13,357 dentate participants in NHANES III aged 20-79 years. In NHANES III, information on perceived dental health, sociodemographic attributes, smoking status, frequency of dental visits, dental insurance, and general health perception were collected during a home interview, and oral health status was assessed at a mobile examination center. RESULTS: Overall, 34.4% of individuals in the study sample reported having an unfavorable perception of their dental health by qualifying it as "fair" or "poor." Furthermore, 46.6% of smokers had an unfavorable dental health perception, compared to 28.3% of non-smokers. An interaction between smoking and race/ethnicity was found in logistic regression modeling. Stratified results show that cigarette smoking was not a significant predictor for an unfavorable dental health perception among individuals who self-identified as Mexican American, but smoking was a significant predictor for an unfavorable dental health perception among those who identified as non-Hispanic black or non-Hispanic white. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe the effects of smoking on dental health perception while controlling for examined oral health status. Because perceived dental health is a potential indicator for dental care utilization, a better knowledge of the factors that influence dental health perception is not only important for dental services planning, but also for understanding oral health-related quality of life issues. Additionally, given that smoking may negatively affect dental health perception, these findings have potential implications for smoking cessation activities conducted by dental care providers.
PMCID: PMC1497695  PMID: 15842113
9.  The influence of oral health conditions, socioeconomic status and home environment factors on schoolchildren's self-perception of quality of life 
Background
The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL).
Methods
A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically examined for presence of caries lesions (DMFT and dmft index), dental trauma, enamel defects, periodontal status (presence/absence of bleeding), dental treatment and orthodontic treatment needs (DAI). The SiC index was calculated. The participants were asked to complete the Brazilian version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) and a questionnaire about home environment. Questions were asked about the presence of general diseases and children's self-perception of their general and oral health status. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to their parents inquiring about their socioeconomic status (family income, parents' education level, home ownership) and perceptions about the general and oral health of their school-aged children. The chi-square test was used for comparisons between proportions. Poisson's regression was used for multivariate analysis with adjustment for variances.
Results
Univariate analysis revealed that school type, monthly family income, mother's education, family structure, number of siblings, use of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs in the family, parents' perception of oral health of schoolchildren, schoolchildren's self perception their general and oral health, orthodontic treatment needs were significantly associated with poor OHRQoL (p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, variables were included in a Multivariate Poisson regression. It was found that the variables children's self perception of their oral health status, monthly family income, gender, orthodontic treatment need, mother's education, number of siblings, and household overcrowding showed a strong negative effect on oral health-related quality of life.
Conclusions
It was concluded that the clinical, socioeconomic and home environment factors evaluated exerted a negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren, demonstrating the importance of health managers addressing all these factors when planning oral health promotion interventions for this population.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-10-6
PMCID: PMC3285522  PMID: 22244092
10.  What is known about the influence of dentine hypersensitivity on oral health-related quality of life? 
Clinical Oral Investigations  2012;17(Suppl 1):45-51.
Objectives
Oral health-related quality of life is a relatively new but rapidly growing concept in dentistry. It is an aspect of dental health addressing the patient’s perception of whether his/her current oral health status has an impact upon his/her actual quality of life. Dentine hypersensitivity (DHS), which is a common condition of transient tooth pain associated with a variety of exogenous stimuli, may disturb the patient during eating, drinking, toothbrushing and sometimes even breathing. The resulting restrictions on everyday activities can have an important effect on the patient’s quality of life. The aims of this paper were to consider the concept of oral health-related quality of life and to review and discuss the literature on oral health-related quality of life and DHS.
Material and methods
A PubMed literature research was conducted using the terms (“dentin sensitivity” [MeSH Terms] OR (“dentin” [All Fields] AND “sensitivity” [All Fields]) OR “dentin sensitivity” [All Fields]) AND ((“oral health” [MeSH Terms] OR (“oral” [All Fields] AND “health” [All Fields]) OR “oral health” [All Fields]) AND related [All Fields] AND (“quality of life” [MeSH Terms] OR (“quality” [All Fields] AND “life” [All Fields]) OR “quality of life” [All Fields])). Furthermore, a manual search was carried out. Any relevant work published presenting pertinent information about the described issue was considered for inclusion in the review.
Results
The combination of the search terms resulted in a list of only three titles. The few published studies convincingly demonstrated that oral health-related quality of life is negatively affected in patients suffering from DHS.
Conclusions
Patients with sensitive teeth report substantial oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) impairment. Nevertheless, knowledge about the influence of DHS on oral health-related quality of life is incomplete and, therefore, needs further research.
Clinical relevance
Oral diseases can lead to physical, psychological and social disability. This paper shows that DHS can have a negative impact on the patients’ OHRQoL.
doi:10.1007/s00784-012-0888-9
PMCID: PMC3585945  PMID: 22290063
Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL); Dentine hypersensitivity; Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP); Dentine Hypersensitivity Experience Questionnaire (DHEQ)
11.  Evaluation of oral health related quality of life in patient with mild periodontitis among young male population of Namakkal district 
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences  2013;5(Suppl 1):S30-S32.
Aim:
The aim of the study is to assess the impact of oral health related quality of life (QOL) on patients presenting for scaling and oral prophylaxis using a the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL) questionnaire.
Materials and Methods:
This prospective study includes a total of 100 male patients of age group 25-35 years, who visited private clinic in Namakkal district, South India. They were assessed for their perceptions of oral health using OHRQL questionnaire before initial periodontal therapy including scaling and root planning.
Results:
A total of 100 patients (mean age:29 years) participated in the study and completed initial periodontal therapy. Before treatment 98% of the patients perceived that their oral health status impacted on their QOL in one or more ways. Bad breath was the most common complaint. Social well-being, personality and psychological function were identified as compromised OHRQL domains. More than 60% of the patients stated their overall general health is affected by periodontal disease.
Conclusion:
Periodontitis negatively affected QOL in this Namakkal district population of young male patients with mild periodontitis. Conventional non-surgical periodontal therapy and personality development counseling has a potential to ameliorate patient perceptions of oral health and improve their QOL.
doi:10.4103/0975-7406.113289
PMCID: PMC3722700  PMID: 23946571
Oral health; oral prophylaxis scaling; quality of life
12.  Orthodontic Treatment and the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Patients 
Objective:
Malocclusion is a common oral disorder, can cause negative impacts on oral conditions, social life and patients’ self confidence. The objective of this study was to determine whether orthodontic treatment influence oral health related quality of life (OHQoL).
Materials and Methods:
Cross-sectional design with self-reported data were collected from 302 participants attended at professional orthodontic office (62% female; mean age, 21.71 years) in two “treatment” and “no treatment” groups. The measure namely (oral health impact profile) OHIP-14 was used to assess the patient’s OHQol. Linear regression model was used in the data analysis.
Results:
A significant relationship was found in one question and one domain of OHIP-14 between the two groups (P<0.05) which showed difference in physical limitation. Linear regression model showed that in the treatment group, this domain of OHQoL was 1.86 times less likely complicated than in the “no treatment” group.
Conclusion:
Patients who had completed orthodontic treatment had a better OHQoL in physical aspects than those who never had treatment.
PMCID: PMC3484829  PMID: 23119134
Oral Health-Related Quality of Life; OHQoL; Orthodontic Treatment
13.  The prevalence and severity of oral impacts on daily performances in Thai primary school children 
Background
Traditional methods of measuring oral health mainly use clinical dental indices and have been complemented by oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures. Most OHRQoL studies have been on adults and elderly populations. There are no systematic OHRQoL studies of a population-based sample of children. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, characteristics and severity of oral impacts in primary school children.
Methods
Cross-sectional study of all 1126 children aged 11–12 years in a municipal area of Suphanburi province, Thailand. An OHRQoL measure, Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (Child-OIDP) was used to assess oral impacts. Children were also clinically examined and completed a self-administered questionnaire about demographic information and oral behaviours.
Results
89.8% of children had one or more oral impacts. The median impact score was 7.6 and mean score was 8.8. Nearly half (47.0%) of the children with impacts had impacts at very little or little levels of intensity. Most (84.8%) of those with impacts had 1–4 daily performances affected (out of 8 performances). Eating was the most common performance affected (72.9%). The severity of impacts was high for eating and smiling and low for study and social contact performances. The main clinical causes of impacts were sensitive tooth (27.9%), oral ulcers (25.8%), toothache (25.1%) and an exfoliating primary tooth (23.4%).
Conclusions
The study reveals that oral health impacts on quality of life in Thai primary school children. Oral impacts were prevalent, but not severe. The impacts mainly related to difficulty eating and smiling. Toothache, oral ulcers and natural processes contributed largely to the incidence of oral impacts.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-2-57
PMCID: PMC529463  PMID: 15476561
oral impacts; quality of life; children
14.  Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:245.
Background
Severe untreated dental decay affects a child’s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children’s eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity.
Methods
The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6–12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child–parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; “lift the lip”. The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG.
Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent proportions and means. Multivariate statistical tests will also be used to take account of socio-economic and demographic factors in addition to parental knowledge, behaviour, self-efficacy, and parent/child stress.
Discussion
The study will test the effects of an oral health promotion intervention to affect oral health and general health and have the potential to demonstrate the “common risk factor” approach to health promotion.
Trial registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: http://ACTRN12611000997954
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-245
PMCID: PMC3610190  PMID: 23509932
Motivational interviewing; Anticipatory guidance; Early childhood dental decay; Oral health promotion
15.  Oral health related quality of life among dental students in a private dental institution in India 
Background:
The compartmentalization involved in viewing the mouth separately from the rest of the body must cease. This is because oral health affects general health by causing considerable pain and suffering; and, by changing what people eat and their speech, can bring about a change in their quality of life and well-being. There are several instruments for measuring oral health related quality of life, and, OIDP (Oral Impact on Daily Performance) is one among them.
Aim:
The aim of this study is to assess the OIDP among dental students and to know whether students in different stages of the dental course had any difference in impact on their daily performance.
Materials and Methods:
372 students of Bachelor of Dental Sciences’ (BDS) course at Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka, India, from the first to final year, and interns answered a structured questionnaire recording their demographic characteristics, behavioral characteristics and eight items of OIDP.
Results:
The mean OIDP Additive scores (ADD) and OIDP Simple count scores (SC) scores were 7.02 (sd = 3.3, range 8 - 40) and 2.16 (sd = 1.55, range 0 - 8), repectively. A total of 36.6%, 12.9% and 12.9% of the dental students confirmed difficulties with eating, enjoying contact with other people and carrying out major college work, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that compared with the first BDS dental students, the Odds ratio (OR) for the second, third, fourth year and intern dental students for being without oral impacts, despite reporting poor oral health, were 0.21 (95% CI: 0.24 – 1.9), 0.61 (95% CI: 0.06 – 6.2), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.61 – 8.2) and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.3 – 9.3), respectively.
Conclusion:
The study reported the OIPD among dental students and provided evidence of importance of social and behavioral characteristics in shaping the response by dental students.
doi:10.4103/2231-0762.97708
PMCID: PMC3894072  PMID: 24478957
Dental students; oral health; oral health related quality of life; Oral Impact on Daily Performance; socio – demographic factors
16.  Trigeminal Neurosensory Deficit and Patient Reported Outcome Measures: The Effect on Quality of Life 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77391.
Objectives
To investigate the effect of persistent neurosensory disturbance of the lingual nerve (LN) or inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) on general health and oral health- related quality of life (QoL).
Methods
The study design was a case-control study. Patients with persistent neurosensory deficit of LN or IAN after lower third molar surgery (for 12 months or more) were the study group. The control group was an age and gender matched sample of patients who had dental extractions or lower third molar surgeries without trigeminal neurosensory deficit. The outcome variables were the general health and oral health-related QoL. General health-related QoL was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and oral health-related QoL using the 14-item Short Form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Differences in SF-36 scores and OHIP-14 scores between the groups were compared.
Results
Forty-eight subjects (24 cases and 24 controls) were recruited. When compared to the control group, patients with neurosensory deficits had poorer Mental-Health Component Scores (MCS) (p = 0.005), General Health (p = 0.023), Vitality (p = 0.048), Social Functioning (p = 0.003), Role-emotion (p = 0.008) and Mental Health (p = 0.022). The OHIP-14 scores were also significantly worse in this patients with neurosensory deficits compared with the control group (p = 0.002). When compared within the study group, older patient with neurosensory deficit was found to correlate with worse Physical Health Component Scores (PCS) (p = 0.02) and OHIP-14 scores (p = 0.02), while more severe visualized analog scaling rating of numbness was correlated with a worse PCS (p = 0.034).
Conclusions
Patients with persistent LN or IAN deficit after lower third molar surgery have poorer health-related QoL and poorer oral health-related QoL than those without such deficits.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077391
PMCID: PMC3812273  PMID: 24204820
17.  Common risk factor approach to address socioeconomic inequality in the oral health of preschool children – a prospective cohort study 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:429.
Background
Dental caries remains the most prevalent chronic condition in children and a major contributor to poor general health. There is ample evidence of a skewed distribution of oral health, with a small proportion of children in the population bearing the majority of the burden of the disease. This minority group is comprised disproportionately of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. An in-depth longitudinal study is needed to better understand the determinants of child oral health, in order to support effective evidence-based policies and interventions in improving child oral health. The aim of the Study of Mothers’ and Infants’ Life Events Affecting Oral Health (SMILE) project is to identify and evaluate the relative importance and timing of critical factors that shape the oral health of young children and then to seek to evaluate those factors in their inter-relationship with socioeconomic influences.
Methods/Design
This investigation will apply an observational prospective study design to a cohort of socioeconomically-diverse South Australian newborns and their mothers, intensively following these dyads as the children grow to toddler age. Mothers of newborn children will be invited to participate in the study in the early post-partum period. At enrolment, data will be collected on parental socioeconomic status, mothers’ general and dental health conditions, details of the pregnancy, infant feeding practice and parental health behaviours and practices. Data on diet and feeding practices, oral health behaviours and practices, and dental visiting patterns will be collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age. When children turn 24-30 months, the children and their mothers/primary care givers will be invited to an oral examination to record oral health status. Anthropometric assessment will also be conducted.
Discussion
This prospective cohort study will examine a wide range of determinants influencing child oral health and related general conditions such as overweight. It will lead to the evaluation of the inter-relationship among main influences and their relative effect on child oral health. The study findings will provide high level evidence of pathways through which socio-environmental factors impact child oral health. It will also provide an opportunity to examine the relationship between oral health and childhood overweight.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-429
PMCID: PMC4039048  PMID: 24885129
Children; Early childhood caries; Socioeconomic inequality; Prospective cohort study
18.  A longitudinal study of quality of life of earthquake survivors in L’Aquila, Italy 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:1143.
Background
People’s well-being after loss resulting from an earthquake is a concern in countries prone to natural disasters. Most studies on post-earthquake subjective quality of life (QOL) have focused on the effects of psychological impairment and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the psychological dimension of QOL. However, there is a need for studies focusing on QOL in populations not affected by PTSD or psychological impairment. The aim of this study was to estimate QOL changes over an 18-month period in an adult population sample after the L’Aquila 2009 earthquake.
Methods
The study was designed as a longitudinal survey with four repeated measurements performed at six monthly intervals. The setting was the general population of an urban environment after a disruptive earthquake. Participants included 397 healthy adult subjects. Exclusion criteria were comorbidities such as physical, psychological, psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases at the beginning of the study. The primary outcome measure was QOL, as assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF instrument. A generalised estimating equation model was run for each WHOQOL-BREF domain.
Results
Overall, QOL scores were observed to be significantly higher 18 months after the earthquake in all WHOQOL-BREF domains. The model detected an average increase in the physical QOL scores (from 66.6 ± 5.2 to 69.3 ± 4.7), indicating a better overall physical QOL for men. Psychological domain scores (from 64.9 ± 5.1 to 71.5 ± 6.5) were observed to be worse in men than in women. Levels at the WHOQOL domain for psychological health increased from the second assessment onwards in women, indicating higher resiliency. Men averaged higher scores than women in terms of social relationships and the environmental domain. Regarding the physical, psychological and social domains of QOL, scores in the elderly group (age > 60) were observed to be similar to each other regardless of the significant covariates used.
Conclusions
WHOQOL-BREF scores of the psychological domain displayed trends conditioned by age and education: older subjects experienced less satisfaction with psychological health on average. Less-educated subjects always demonstrated the worst QOL scores. Gender, age and education impacted the variability of QOL in the environmental dimension in the elderly.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1143
PMCID: PMC4029473  PMID: 24314066
Quality of life; Mental health; Earthquake; Disaster relief; Longitudinal studies; Psychosocial factors
19.  Assessment of Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Oral Mucosal Diseases: A Questionnaire-Based Study 
The Permanente Journal  2014;18(1):e123-e127.
Seventy patients seen in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology with oral lichen planus, recurrent aphthous ulcers, and pemphigus were included in the study. Patients older than age 35 years reported significantly lower quality of life (QOL) in the domain of social and emotional status. Significant age-related differences in QOL were not observed in other domains. Men reported significantly better oral health-related QOL than women did in pain and functional limitation.
Context:
A validated discipline-specific questionnaire has been developed recently to assess the quality of life (QOL) in patients with chronic oral mucosal diseases.
Objective:
Use the Chronic Oral Mucosal Diseases Questionnaire for evaluating a diverse group of patients with chronic oral mucosal disease after therapy.
Design:
Prospective convenience sample.
Main Outcome Measure:
Quality of life.
Methods:
Seventy patients seen in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology with oral lichen planus, recurrent aphthous ulcers, pemphigus, and other chronic oral mucosal diseases were included in the study. Patients completed the questionnaire after undergoing treatment of their oral mucosal disease to assess their QOL.
Results:
Patients older than age 35 years reported significantly lower QOL (p = 0.015) in the domain of social and emotional status. Significant age-related differences in QOL were not observed in other domains. Older individuals also reported a significantly lower overall QOL. Men reported significantly better oral health-related QOL than women did in pain and functional limitation: 16.14 ± 8.94 vs 21.44 ± 7.696, respectively (p = 0.010). Significant differences were not observed between sexes for other domains. Significant differences were observed between the disease groups only for recurrent aphthous ulcers and pemphigus (p = 0.005). Patients with pemphigus had the worst overall QOL (73.6 ± 5.6).
Conclusion:
Even after treatment, chronic oral mucosal diseases negatively affect patients’ QOL. Use of the Chronic Oral Mucosal Diseases Questionnaire may allow physicians to more effectively care for their patients with these diseases.
doi:10.7812/TPP/13-095
PMCID: PMC3951046  PMID: 24626087
20.  Illness-related behaviour and utilization of oral health services among adult city-dwellers in Burkina Faso: evidence from a household survey 
Background
In sub-Saharan Africa, the availability and accessibility of oral health services are seriously constrained and the provision of essential oral care is limited. Reports from the region show a very low utilization of oral health care services, and visits to dental-care facilities are mostly undertaken for symptomatic reasons. The objectives of the present study were to describe the prevalence of oral symptoms among adults in Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso and the use of oral health services and self-medication in response to these symptoms and to measure the associations between predisposing, enabling and needs factors and decisions to seek oral health care.
Methods
The conceptual design of the study was derived from both the Andersen-Newman model of health care utilization and the conceptual framework of the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes. Data were obtained by two-stage stratified sampling through four areas representative of different stages of urbanization of Ouagadougou. The final study population comprised 3030 adults aged 15 years or over and the response rate was 65%.
Results
Overall, 28% of the respondents had experienced an oral health problem during the past 12 months; a high proportion (62%) reported pain or acute discomfort affecting daily life. In response to symptoms, only 28% used oral health facilities, 48% used self-medication and 24% sought no treatment at all. Multivariate analyses revealed that several socio-economic and socio-cultural factors such as religious affiliation, material living conditions and participation in a social network were significantly associated with the use of oral health care services by adults who had experienced oral health problems during the previous year.
Conclusion
The proportion of people who have obtained oral health care is alarmingly low in Ouagadougou and self-medication appears to be an important alternative source of care for adult city-dwellers. Decision-makers in sub-Saharan countries must seek to ensure that access to essential oral health care is improved.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-6-164
PMCID: PMC1769368  PMID: 17192172
21.  Oral health conditions and frailty in Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a cross sectional analysis 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:773.
Background
Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly.
Methods
Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate), utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors
Results
Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being frail included women (OR = 1.9), those who reported myocardial infarction (OR = 3.8), urinary incontinence (OR = 2.7), those who rated their oral health worse than others (OR = 3.2), and those who did not use dental services (OR = 2.1). For each additional year of age and each additional drug consumed, the probability of being frail increased 10% and 30%, respectively.
Conclusions
Utilization of dental services and self-perception of oral health were associated with a higher probability of being frail.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-773
PMCID: PMC3490998  PMID: 22971075
Elderly; Oral health; Frailty syndrome; Utilization of dental services
22.  A Cross-sectional Study of QOL of Diabetic Patients at Tertiary Care Hospitals in Delhi 
Background:
According to WHO estimates India will be the global capital of diabetes by 2025, accounting for 57.2 million diabetics. Worsening the situation is the fact that diabetes affects the economically productive age-group (45-65 years) in developing countries.
Objective:
To measure quality of life (QOL) and study the clinical profiles and associated sociodemographic factors affecting diabetic patients aged 20 years and above.
Materials and Methods:
We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study using a generic instrument, Short-Form 36 (SF-36 of the Medical Outcome Study Group) to measure QOL of diabetic subjects aged ≥20 years. Two hundred and sixty diabetics, including 91 males and 169 females, were selected from the clinics of SSK Hospital and Dr RML Hospital of New Delhi. Data was analysed using SPSS for Windows, version 12.
Results:
The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 years, with 80% of respondents being in the age-group of 40-69 years. The majority (52.1%) of female respondents were illiterate and 91.1% were economically dependent. Of the male respondents, 65.9% were skilled workers. Substance abuse was present among 41.8% male subjects. Type 2 diabetes was the commonest, with 94.6% of the subjects having this form. The mean duration of diabetes was 6.96 ± 6.08 years. Oral hypoglycemic agents were being taken by 70.77% of the respondents. Among the diabetics the most common comorbidity was hypertension (30.8%) and the commonest complication was neuropathy (26.2%). We calculated the body mass index (BMI) of all subjects and found that, 46.2% of the male and 59.8% of the female respondents were either overweight or obese. As predicted by the waist/hip ratio (WHR), 53.8% of the male and 66.9% of the female respondents had high risk for CHD. Regular physical activity was undertaken by less than half of the subjects (46.5%). Out of eight domains of QOL in the SF-36, the two most affected were ‘General Health’ and ‘Vitality.’ Overall, males had higher QOL scores; this was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.0001). SF-36 and its eight domain scores had significant association with socioeconomic status, education, and habitual physical activity.
Conclusion:
Diabetes had an adverse effect on the QOL of these study subjects. Females had a significantly poorer QOL than males. The domains most affected were ‘General Health’ and ‘Vitality.’ Poor scores in the QOL domains were significantly associated with lower socioeconomic status, lesser education, and lesser habitual physical activity.
doi:10.4103/0970-0218.58397
PMCID: PMC2822199  PMID: 20165632
Diabetes; QOL; SF-36
23.  Positive and negative affect and oral health-related quality of life 
Background
The aims of the study were to assess the impact of both positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) on self-reported oral health-related quality of life and to determine the effect of including affectivity on the relationship between oral health-related quality of life and a set of explanatory variables consisting of oral health status, socio-economic status and dental visiting pattern.
Methods
A random sample of 45–54 year-olds from metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia was surveyed by mailed self-complete questionnaire during 2004–05 with up to four follow-up mailings of the questionnaire to non-respondents (n = 986 responded, response rate = 44.4%). Oral health-related quality of life was measured using OHIP-14 and affectivity using the Bradburn scale. Using OHIP-14 and subscales as the dependent variables, regression models were constructed first using oral health status, socio-economic characteristics and dental visit pattern and then adding PA and NA as independent variables, with nested models tested for change in R-squared values.
Results
PA and NA exhibited a negative correlation of -0.49 (P < 0.01). NA accounted for a larger percentage of variance in OHIP-14 scores (3.0% to 7.3%) than PA (1.4% to 4.6%). In models that included both PA and NA, PA accounted for 0.2% to 1.1% of variance in OHIP-14 scores compared to 1.8% to 3.9% for NA.
Conclusion
PA and NA both accounted for additional variance in quality of life scores, but did not substantially diminish the effect of established explanatory variables such as oral health status, socio-economic status and dental visit patterns.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-4-83
PMCID: PMC1626449  PMID: 17052358
24.  Comparison of perceptions of oral health-related quality of life in adolescents affected with ectodermal dysplasias relative to caregivers 
The objective of this study was to assess the perceived oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) of adolescents affected with one of the ectodermal dysplasias (EDs).
Data were collected from 2003 to 2007 in a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of individuals affected by ED (n=35) using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire(CPQ11–14)for children and the Parent-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ) for their caregivers. The main findings of this study were that individuals who were affected with ED in the older age group (15–19 years old) perceived more functional problems than younger individuals (11–14 years old) (p=0.04). Females with ED (n= 13) perceived more emotional problems than males (n=22; p=0.01). Although caregivers tended to report slightly higher OHQoL scores (indicating worse OHQoL), no significant differences were observed between children’s and parents’ total OHQoL and individual domains’ median scores (p>0.05). Thus, the perceptions of oral health and well-being may vary by age and gender for children who have ED. Caution is warranted concerning using parents as proxies for their children when assessing the child’s OHQoL.
doi:10.1111/j.1754-4505.2011.00189.x
PMCID: PMC3105356  PMID: 21592162
ectodermal dysplasias; oral health-related quality of life; children; teenagers; parents; perceptions
25.  Impact of oral disease on quality of life in the US and Australian populations 
The US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2004) evaluated oral health quality of life for the first time using a previously untested subset of seven Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) questions, i.e. the NHANES-OHIP.
Objectives
(i) To describe the impact of dental conditions on quality of life in the US adult population; (ii) to evaluate construct validity and adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP in NHANES 2003–2004 and a comparable Australian survey.
Methods
In the cross-sectional NHANES 2003–2004 survey of a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 4907), prevalence was quantified as the proportion of adults who reported experiencing one or more impacts fairly often or very often within the past year. Construct validity was tested by comparing prevalence estimates across categories of sociodemographic, dental health and utilization characteristics known to vary in oral health. In 2002, Australian cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of adults (n = 2644), adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP questions were tested with reference to a slightly modified version of the OHIP-14 questions.
Results
NHANES-OHIP prevalence estimates were markedly similar in the United States (15.3%) and Australia (15.7%). In the US construct, validity was evidenced by higher NHANES-OHIP scores among groups with greater levels of tooth loss, perceived treatment need and problem-oriented visiting and with lack of private dental insurance and low income. In Australia, prevalence for the NHANES-OHIP closely resembled prevalence estimates of the modified OHIP-14. Both varied to a similar degree across levels of tooth loss, perceived treatment need, problem-oriented visiting, and private dental insurance and income, demonstrating adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP as a brief independent instrument.
Conclusions
There was acceptable construct validity and adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP questionnaire. In the United States, the impact of oral disease disproportionately affected disadvantaged groups, a finding that supports application of the US Healthy People 2010 major goals of improved quality of life and reduced health disparities.
doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2008.00457.x
PMCID: PMC3760707  PMID: 19175659
adults; health policy; health surveys; NHANES; population groups

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