Together with biliary drainage, which is an appropriate procedure for unresectable biliary cancer, biliary stent placement is used to improve symptoms associated with jaundice. Owing to investigations comparing percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), surgical drainage, and endoscopic drainage, many types of stents are now available that can be placed endoscopically. The stents used are classified roughly as plastic stents and metal stents. Compared with plastic stents, metal stents are of large diameter, and have long-term patency (although they are expensive). For this reason, the use of metal stents is preferred for patients who are expected to survive for more than 6 months, whereas for patients who are likely to survive for less than 6 months, the use of plastic stents is not considered to be improper. Obstruction in a metal stent is caused by a tumor that grows within the stent through the mesh interstices. To overcome such problems, a covered metal stent was developed, and these stents are now used in patients with malignant distal biliary obstruction. However, this type of stent has been reported to have several shortcomings, such as being associated with the development of acute cholecystitis and stent migration. In spite of these shortcomings, evidence is expected to demonstrate its superiority over other types of stent.
Biliary stenting; Biliary tract cancer; Obstructive jaundice; Guidelines
This review summarizes possible spinal reflexes involved in micturition control as well as current treatments for lower urinary tract dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI) in an effort to further promote the development of new treatments for people with SCI.
A systematic literature search was conducted on the Medline database, and on the Web of Science.
After SCI normal functions of the lower urinary tract are lost. The detrusor contracts frequently even at a small bladder volume, which results in urinary incontinence. In addition, the hyperactive bladder can not empty well because the urethral sphincter contracts simultaneously with the bladder (detrusor sphincter dyssynergia), which results in a large residual volume of urine. The malfunction of the lower urinary tract after SCI is caused by remaining and newly emerged bladder and urethral sphincter spinal reflexes. Current treatments have either limited success or troublesome side effects, and many new treatments are under development.
In order to restore the functions of the lower urinary tract after SCI, efforts should be directed at re-establishing the coordination between the spinal reflex control of bladder and urethral sphincter using either pharmacological or neurophysiological approaches.
Bladder; urethra; urethral sphincter; spinal cord injury; spinal reflex; electrical stimulation; lower urinary tract
Suprapubic cystostomy is performed in spinal cord injury patients in order to prevent complications associated with long-term urethral catheter drainage. We report a patient in whom suprapubic catheter did not drain urine satisfactorily and imaging studies revealed hourglass bladder.
A female patient sustained paraplegia in a traffic accident in 1994 at the age of seventeen years. When she was discharged from spinal unit, she was performing self- catheterisations. In 1995, indwelling urethral catheter drainage was instituted, as she was not able to cope up with self-catheterisations. Intravenous urography, performed in 1994, 1997, 2000 and 2003 showed urinary bladder of normal shape. In 2004, this patient developed frequent blockages and bypassing of catheter; therefore, suprapubic cystostomy was performed. In 2005, she was leaking urine per urethra; therefore, an indwelling catheter was inserted; both suprapubic and urethral catheters drained urine. In 2008, suprapubic catheter failed to drain any urine. Cystogram revealed hourglass bladder. The balloon of suprapubic Foley catheter was located in the upper compartment of hourglass bladder whereas the urethral catheter was placed in the inferior compartment. Ultrasound examination of urinary bladder showed two compartments of hourglass bladder separated by a narrow waist. Computed tomography cystogram delineated smaller superior and larger inferior compartment of the hourglass bladder. At present this patient is happy to manage her bladder with suprapubic and urethral catheters.
When prompt replacement of a mal-functioning suprapubic catheter fails to rectify the problem, computer tomography cystography should be performed to check precise location of suprapubic catheter and structural abnormalities of urinary bladder. In this patient, cystogram revealed hourglass bladder. Possible reasons for development of hourglass bladder in spinal cord injury patients are: traction applied to dome of urinary bladder by Foley balloon when suprapubic catheter is taped tightly to anterior abdominal wall for several months; uncoordinated contractions of detrusor muscle; chronic cystitis leading to hypertrophy of bladder wall.
Ureteric injury is a recognized complication of hysterectomy and may present with obstruction or fistula. Between 1987 and 1989 in Oxford nine patients with 10 injured ureters underwent attempted retrograde placement of double J stents. Three patients had successful outcomes and one patient with bilateral ureteric obstruction required reimplantation of the right ureter after successful stenting of the left ureter. One patient required removal of a stent due to irritation but her fistula eventually closed. In three patients placement was unsuccessful and in one patient injury to the bladder base prevented the ureteric orifices from being seen and hence stenting was not possible. Thus five of these 10 injured ureters were managed successfully with double J stents. We advocate the initial use of double J stents in gynaecological ureteric injury. This approach is simple and may cure the fistula. If it is unsuccessful, subsequent reimplantation is not hindered.
Eleven kidneys in 10 patients (mean age 80 years) presenting over a period of 1 year with obstruction of the lower ureter secondary to malignant obstruction (8 patients), stone disease (1 patient), and bladder wall hypertrophy (1 patient) underwent nephrostomy with subsequent immediate or delayed antegrade stenting. An antegrade placement of the stent was achieved in 10 of the 11 kidneys (90% success). In three cases a combined procedure was performed with cystoscopic assistance. In most cases there was rapid improvement of renal function following stenting. Insertion of ureteric stents in patients admitted to hospital with malignant ureteric obstruction allowed treatment of their renal failure and subsequent discharge without use of permanent external urinary diversion appliances. No significant complications of the procedure were encountered. Medium term follow-up of patients stented for malignant ureteric obstruction suggests that the stents can be left in place without replacement for up to 20 months.
A Song's nasolacrimal duct stent was placed in a patient with epiphora due to primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction and the stent was kept for 32 months. Mitomycin C 0.02% eye drops four times a day were prescribed for four weeks following polyurethane stent placement procedure. No epiphora-related complaints occurred for thirty months after then the epiphora started. Nasolacrimal stent was removed from nasal cavity endoscopially and the tissues within the extruded stent were examined histopathologically. The patient's complaints were relieved following stent removal. Dacryocystogram revealed normal passage and a filling defect within the lacrimal sac. Macroscopic evaluation of the stent revealed a firm mass in the stent mushroom, causing complete obstruction. Pathological examination of the mass revealed chronic inflammation, increased connective tissue and vascular proliferation.
Nasolacrimal polyurethane stents can be removed easily by nasal approach. Nasolacrimal passage may be left open temporarily after stent removal. The use of Mitomycin C drop is a novel approach in nasolacrimal stent placement cases. However, when the long-term results of endoscopic and external dacryocystorhinostomy are considered, further research is needed on the biocompatibility of stent material.
polyurethane nasolacrimal stent, nasolacrimal duct obstruction
The development of stent has been a major advance in the treatment of obstructive coronary artery disease since the introduction of balloon angioplasty. Subsequently, neointimal hyperplasia within the stent leading to in-stent restenosis emerged as a major obstacle in long-term success of percutaneous coronary intervention. Recent introduction of drug-eluting stents is a major breakthrough to tackle this problem. This review article summarizes stent technology, reviews progress of drug-eluting stents and discusses quality of life, patient satisfaction, and acceptability of percutaneous coronary intervention.
drug-eluting stent; coronary intervention; patient outcomes
The favoured treatment of common bile duct stones is endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction. The management of those cases where duct clearance is not possible is controversial. At our institution it has been policy to insert an endoluminal stent. We report a retrospective review of the outcome of patients stented for common bile duct stones. The study population was 14 men and 22 women, with a median age of 73 years (range 23-89 years). Treatment-related morbidity was seen in nine patients (25%), comprising cholangitis (5), pancreatitis (3), and cholecystitis (1). Three of these patients died; all were over the age of 75 years and had been stented on a long-term basis. These data suggest that endobiliary stents can be employed with an acceptable complication rate. We suggest that patients under the age of 75 years be stented only as a temporising measure, but that patients over 75 years or those unfit on physiological grounds can be stented on a long-term basis as definitive treatment.
Materials currently used for bladder applications often suffer from incomplete coverage by urothelial cells (cells that line the interior of the bladder and ureter) which leads to the continuous exposure of the underlying materials aggravating an immune response. In particular, a ureteral (or sometimes called an ureteric or bladder) stent is a thin tube inserted into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney. The main complications with ureteral stents are infection and blockage by encrustation, which can be avoided by promoting the formation of a monolayer of urothelial cells on the surface of the stent. Nanotechnology (or the use of nanomaterials) may aid in urothelialization of bladder stents since nanomaterials have been shown to have unique surface energetics to promote the adsorption of proteins important for urothelial cell adhesion and proliferation. Since many bladder stents are composed of titanium, this study investigated the attachment and spreading of human urothelial cells on different nanotextured titanium surfaces. An inexpensive and effective scaled up anodization process was used to create equally distributed nanotubular surfaces of different diameter sizes from 20–80 nm on titanium with lengths approximately 500 nm. Results showed that compared to untreated titanium stents and 80 nm diameter nanotubular titanium, 20 nm diameter nanotubular titanium stents enhanced human urothelial cell adhesion and growth up to 3 days in culture. In this manner, this study suggests that titanium anodized to possess nanotubular surface features should be further explored for bladder stent applications.
anodization; nanotube; urothelial cells; bladder applications; titanium
Open stent grafting is an alternative treatment for extensive thoracic aortic replacement. However, this procedure is associated with a high incidence of spinal cord injury, which has limited its application. Multiple factors have been suggested to explain the risk of spinal cord injury, including deep delivery of the stent graft, history of operation of the downstream aorta, and postoperative low blood pressure. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage or a hybrid operation in combination with trans-femoral thoracic stent grafting is useful for preventing spinal cord injury. Open stent grafting remains an alternative treatment for atherosclerotic aneurysms with dilatation of the ascending aorta. Open stent grafting for acute aortic dissection is effective for remodeling of the false lumen. The graft diameter for aortic dissection should be 90 % of the total diameter of the aorta, and the distal landing zone should be limited to the T7 vertebral level to prevent new intimal tears or spinal cord injury. Open stent grafting seems a feasible bailout strategy for the treatment of retrograde aortic dissection after TEVAR for type B aortic dissection. Newly designed devices for open stent grafts include the Matsui-Kitamura stent graft or branched open stent graft, which is produced in Japan. The effectiveness of open stent grafting in the treatment of Marfan syndrome remains unclear. A commercially available device for open stent grafting would be desired in Japan. In conclusion, an open stent graft remains an alternative treatment for complex thoracic aortic pathologies.
Open stent grafting; Elephant trunk; Thoracic aneurysm; Aortic dissection; Spinal cord injury
Venous stenting has been shown to effectively treat iliofemoral venous obstruction with good short- and mid-term results. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term clinical outcome and stent patency. Twenty patients were treated with venous stenting for benign disease at our institution between 1987 and 2005. Fifteen of 20 patients (15 female, mean age at time of stent implantation 38 years [range 18–66]) returned for a clinical visit, a plain X-ray of the stent, and a Duplex ultrasound. Four patients were lost to follow-up, and one patient died 277 months after stent placement although a good clinical result was documented 267 months after stent placement. Mean follow-up after stent placement was 167.8 months (13.9 years) (range 71 (6 years) to 267 months [22 years]). No patient needed an additional venous intervention after stent implantation. No significant difference between the circumference of the thigh on the stented side (mean 55.1 cm [range 47.0–70.0]) compared with the contralateral thigh (mean 54.9 cm [range 47.0–70.0]) (p = 0.684) was seen. There was a nonsignificant trend toward higher flow velocities within the stent (mean 30.8 cm/s [range 10.0–48.0]) and the corresponding vein segment on the contralateral side (mean 25.2 cm/s [range 12.0–47.0]) (p = 0.065). Stent integrity was confirmed in 14 of 15 cases. Only one stent showed a fracture, as documented on x-ray, without any impairment of flow. Venous stenting using Wallstents showed excellent long-term clinical outcome and primary patency rate.
Iliofemoral venous stent; Benign venous stenosis; Long-term result
Obstruction of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) has been considered one of the major causes for pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP). In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of MPD stenting in painful CP, and tried to determine a guideline for stent removal.
Sixteen patients with painful CP who underwent MPD stenting were included. Follow up ERCP was performed 3 months after stenting in all patients. Stents were removed in patients who achieved pain relief, complete stone clearance, and decreased MPD diameter after 3 months.
Before stenting, ERCP showed MPD stricture in 11 cases, MPD dilatation by stone in 1 case, concomitant stricture and stone in 4 cases. After stenting, complete pain relief was achieved in 13 patients (81.3%) and partial pain relief was achieved in 3 patient (18.7%). There was no patient whose pain was not relieved. Stents were removed in 7 patients who achieved pain relief, complete stone clearance, and decreased MPD diameter after 3 months. Decrease of MPD diameter was significantly greater in patient who could remove stent than those who could not (72.9% vs. 127.9% of initial MPD diameter, p=0.008).
If partial or full pain relief is achieved after MPD stenting and follow up ERCP after 3 months shows decreased MPD diameter compared to the initial one, stent removal might be considered.
Chronic pancreatitis; Pancreatic duct; Stricture; Stent
We report a case of a young patient in whom a sirolimus-eluting stent was implanted on the culprit left anterior descending coronary artery at primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction. Nine months later she suffered from a reinfarction due to the late stent thrombosis despite a continuous antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. A cluster of factors that might have contributed to the development of the stent thrombosis were identified: suboptimal PCI technique, complete stent fracture, and clopidogrel resistance. The obstructed stent was successfully reopened by repeat PCI, while the clopidogrel maintenance dosage was doubled to 150 mg daily for the following year. The further long-term clinical course was uneventful.
When urethral catheterisation is difficult or impossible in spinal cord injury patients, flexible cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire can be performed on the bedside, thus obviating the need for emergency suprapubic cystostomy. Spinal cord injury patients, who undergo flexible cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire, may develop potentially serious complications. (1) Persons with lesion above T-6 are susceptible to develop autonomic dysreflexia during cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire; nifedipine 5–10 milligrams may be administered sublingually just prior to the procedure to prevent autonomic dysreflexia. (2) Spinal cord injury patients are at increased risk for getting urine infections as compared to able-bodied individuals. Therefore, antibiotics should be given to patients who get haematuria or urethral bleeding following urethral catheterisation over a guide wire. (3) Some spinal cord injury patients may have a small capacity bladder; in these patients, the guide wire, which is introduced into the urinary bladder, may fold upon itself with the tip of guide wire entering the urethra. If this complication is not recognised and a catheter is inserted over the guide wire, the Foley catheter will then be misplaced in urethra despite using cystoscopy and guide wire.
Background and aim
Obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract due to cancer can be treated with stenting. The aim was to review the local experience with endoscopic stenting. All patients treated with stenting in a ten years period from 2001-2010 were studied.
Fifty one patients received 57 stents because of oesophageal cancer. Mean survival after stent placement was 141 days. No case of perforation occurred. In nine cases (17%) clogging with food occurred. Tumour overgrowth was noted in four cases. Twenty four patients received 28 stents in their colon or rectum. The stents were placed in the rectum (n=6), the sigmoid (n=14), the descending colon (n=1), and the transverse colon (n=3). Mean survival was 276 days. Perforation did not occur. Tumour ingrowth was seen in two patients. One patient received a second stent. Dislocation occurred in two cases. There were two cases of clogging (8%) by stool.
Fourteen patients received a total of 18 stents because of obstructing stomach cancer. Mean survival after placement was 121 days. There was no perforation, one case of clogging, and four cases of tumour ingrowth. Eight patients had stent placement in their duodenum. Mean survival after stent placement was 84 days. No perforation or clogging occurred. But three cases of tumour ingrowth were seen.
The present series shows that placement of expandable stents in the digestive tract in normal daily practice is feasible, safe, with a low number of complications, and provides good palliation for their remaining life.
Endoscopic stent placement; wall stent; obstructing tumours; palliation; endoscopy
Although endoscopic biliary stents have been accepted as part of palliative therapy for cases of malignant hilar obstruction, the optimal endoscopic management regime remains controversial. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of placing a threaded stent above the sphincter of Oddi (threaded inside plastic stents, threaded PS) and compared the results with those of other stent types.
Patients with malignant hilar obstruction, including those requiring biliary drainage for stent occlusion, were selected. Patients received either one of the following endoscopic indwelling stents: threaded PS, conventional plastic stents (conventional PS), or metallic stents (MS). Duration of stent patency and the incident of complication were compared in these patients.
Forty-two patients underwent placement of endoscopic indwelling stents (threaded PS = 12, conventional PS = 17, MS = 13). The median duration of threaded PS patency was significantly longer than that of conventional PS patency (142 vs. 32 days; P = 0.04, logrank test). The median duration of threaded PS and MS patency was not significantly different (142 vs. 150 days, P = 0.83). Stent migration did not occur in any group. Among patients who underwent threaded PS placement as a salvage therapy after MS obstruction due to tumor ingrowth, the median duration of MS patency was significantly shorter than that of threaded PS patency (123 vs. 240 days).
Threaded PS are safe and effective in cases of malignant hilar obstruction; moreover, it is a suitable therapeutic option not only for initial drainage but also for salvage therapy.
Background: Bacterial community structures in human pancreatic and biliary tracts were evaluated.
Methods: Gall bladder stones from 153 patients, 20 gall bladder walls, six common duct stones, 52 biliary stents, 21 duodenal biopsies, nine pancreatic duct biopsies, and five bile ducts were investigated using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with ribosomal RNA targeted Cy3/Cy5 (carbocyanine) labelled oligonucleotide probes.
Result: Duodenal, gall bladder, and bile duct walls were free of bacteria. A dense multispecies bacterial biofilm was present within the pancreatic duct of patients with calcific pancreatitis and within biliary stents, irrespective of diagnosis. The concentration, density, and amenability of the biofilm to FISH and DNA staining declined progressively with the grade of stent occlusion. The lowest detectable bacterial concentrations were found by FISH in completely occluded stents and brown/mixed gall stones. Bacteria were not detectable with FISH in cholesterol gall stones.
Conclusions: A wide range of different branches and groups of bacteria participate in the development of biofilms on the surfaces of foreign bodies, such as biliary stents, mixed gall stones, or calcific pancreatic ducts, but not on the surface of pure cholesterol gall stones. Occlusion of stents leads to progressive extinction of the biofilm and mummification of its components. Deposition of cholesterol or other substances within the biofilm matrix may be a novel mechanism of host defence against bacteria present in these biofilms.
bacterial biofilms; cholesterol; pancreas; biliary tract; gall stone pathogenesis; stent occlusion
Leakage of urine around a catheter is not uncommon in spinal cord injury patients, who have indwelling urethral catheter. Aetiological factors for leakage of urine around a catheter are bladder spasms, partial blockage of catheter, constipation, and urine infection. Usually, leakage of urine subsides when the underlying cause is treated. Leakage of urine around a suprapubic catheter is very rare and occurs in patients, in whom the urethra is closed due to severe stricture or previous surgery.
We describe a 35-year-old female patient with spina bifida and paraplegia, who had undergone suprapubic cystotomy followed by urethral closure for leakage of urine per urethra. She developed leakage of urine around suprapubic Foley catheter, which did not subside even after changing the catheter, ruling out vesical calculus, and ensuring that there was no kink in catheter or drainage tube. As a desperate measure, we punched a large hole at the tip of a Foley catheter and used this catheter for suprapubic drainage. Leakage of urine around suprapubic catheter stopped and the patient was greatly relieved.
Leakage of urine around a catheter requires prompt attention in spinal cord injury patients; otherwise patients can develop maceration of neuropathic skin and pressure sore. Management of spinal cord injury patients with leakage of urine around a suprapubic catheter should include (i) changing the catheter, (ii) prescribing anticholinergic drugs to control bladder spasm, (iii) treating constipation and urine infection when present, (iv) imaging studies or flexible cystoscopy to look for vesical calculus. If leakage of urine persists despite all these measures, use of a modified Foley catheter in which, a large hole has been made at the tip, is worth trying.
A 90-year-old male with prostatic hyperplasia with a history of ischemic heart disease and right-sided hemiplegia had undergone a Urolume stent placement because of acute urinary retention 9 months earliar. The stent had migrated into the bladder causing dysuria and a poor stream of urine. We fragmented the prostatic stent by Holmium (HO: YAG) laser followed by a laser prostatectomy. After the procedure, the patient voided satisfactorily.
Holmium laser; prostatic stent
Urethral stents were initially developed for the management of urethral strictures and obstructive voiding disorders in select patients. Urethral stent complications are common and may require stent explantation, which is often quite challenging. We present our experience with endoscopic removal of an encrusted UroLume proximal urethral stent in a 72-year-old male using a holmium laser. The literature on various management options and outcomes for urethral stent removal is reviewed. Endoscopic removal of proximal urethral stents is feasible and safe and should be considered as the primary treatment option in patients requiring stent extraction.
Holmium laser; urethral stent; UroLume®
To investigate the effect of reducing stent length on the rate of target lesion restenosis.
In a prospective investigation, acute and long term results of a short stenting procedure were analysed by quantitative angiography and compared with results of a conventional stenting procedure selected according to a matched pairs analysis.
Short stents were implanted in 400 consecutive patients with 464 lesions and conventional stents in 430 patients. Demographic and lesion characteristics were comparable between groups.
In short stenting, the shortest stent length to cover only segments with > 30% reduction in vessel diameter was used. In conventional stenting, full coverage of a stenotic vessel segment was intended.
Main outcome measures
The mean stent lengths of the short stent group (9.8 (4) mm) and the conventional stent group (16.3 (7) mm) differed significantly (p < 0.0001); all other procedural and angiographic parameters were the same. Procedural success was similar for both groups. Control angiography after six months was conducted in 92% of patients.
Short stenting resulted in both less restenosis (68 of 431 (15.8%)) than conventional stenting (93 of 381 (24.4%), p = 0.007) and less late lumen loss (0.6 (0.6) mm v 0.75 (0.5) mm, p = 0.0001). Residual stenosis (< 45%) in adjacent vessel segments after short stenting did not affect the restenosis rate. Only the implantation of a ⩽ 9 mm stent predicted the absence of restenosis in a multivariate analysis.
Shortening the length of bare metal stents reduces the restenosis rate as compared with conventional stenting.
stent; balloon dilatation; restenosis
We assessed the efficacy and safety of insertion of a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane-covered self-expandable metallic stent (UVENTA stent) for palliation of malignant ureteral obstruction on the basis of our early results.
Materials and Methods
Eighteen patients underwent UVENTA stent insertion for extrinsic malignant ureteral obstructions of 20 ureters. The UVENTA stents were deployed retrogradely under cystoscopy and fluoroscopy. Candidates for the procedure had preexisting double-J stents that were nonfunctional or caused excessive bladder irritation. We recorded the success and patency rate in addition to any complications associated with the procedure.
The mean length of obstruction was 10.6 cm (range, 2 to 20 cm). Two ureters were obstructed in the upper ureter, 9 in the lower ureter, and 9 in multiple levels of ureter. Simultaneous balloon dilation was performed in 12 ureters. UVENTA stents were successfully inserted in all patients. No obstruction of the UVENTA stents occurred during the mean follow-up period of 7.3 months (patency rate 100%), but de novo ureteral obstruction developed in 4 ureters. There were no instances of stone formation, hyperplastic reaction, encrustation, or migration. Abnormally elevated serum creatinine decreased to normal levels and hydronephrosis gradually resolved during the 4 weeks after UVENTA insertion. No significant complications developed except for transient and self-limiting hematuria and mild lower abdominal pain.
UVENTA stents may relieve malignant ureteral obstruction safely and easily. Long-term follow-up is necessary to assess the role of this stent in the treatment of malignant ureteral obstruction.
Palliative care; Stents; Ureteral obstruction
Background and Aims
Palliation therapy is the only available therapeutic method for most patients with tumor-induced obstructive jaundice. Metallic stents are now performed percutaneously as an alternative route to the endoscopic approach. It is widely accepted because of its safety, good patency rate, and minimal invasiveness. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term results of metallic self-expandable stent insertion in patients with malignant stenosis of the biliary tree.
It is a longitudinal study of patients with percutaneously biliary stenting from September 2005 to March 2009. The patients had unresectable malignant biliary obstruction with unsuccessful endoscopic stenting and access. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram performed after adequate local anesthesia, under sonographic or fluoroscopic guidance. Stenting or balloon dilation was performed through the hydrophilic guide wire. Among 50 patients, 45 stents were placed in biliary tree stenosis sites. Patients’ follow-up was during the first, second, third, and then the sixth month after insertion of biliary stents. Stent patency was considered successful in our patients, when there were no lab results or sonographic appearance of biliary tree obstruction.
10(20%) patients’ stent placement treatment failed because of unsuccessful technical procedure. The stenosis of biliary tract was complete and passage of guide wire was not possible through the tumor growth. 6 (15 %) patients with successful stent placements died within one month (mean, 22 days). Total serum bilirubin resolved to below 1.5 mg/dl within 30 days for 36 (90%) patients with successful stent placements. Early complications not leading to death occurred in 28% of cases. The mean survival time for all patients who underwent stent placement was 140 days (16-420days). The mean patency rate for all stents was 147 days.
Percutaneous biliary stenting is a safe procedure with few technical complications and a high success rate of palliation for patients with malignant biliary jaundice. Early complications are mostly managed conservatively and death is mainly due to systemic effects of the malignant disease.
Malignant Jaundice; Biliary Metal Stents; Percutaneous Biliary Stenting
The insertion of indwelling ureteric stents is a routine procedure in urology practice. Complications secondary to the insertion of these stents have also increased, such as stent encrustation, stent fragmentation, stone formation, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Knot formation within the renal pelvis or in the coiled portion of the ureteral stent is an extremely rare condition, with less than 15 cases reported in literature. The authors report a rare case of knotted stent, complicated by an obstructive acute renal failure and urosepsis, in a patient with a solitary functioning kidney.
Knot; renal failure; solitary kidney; ureteral stent; urosepsis
To analyse the short and long term outcome of endoscopic stent treatment after bile duct injury (BDI), and to determine the effect of multiple stent treatment.
Design, setting and patients
A retrospective cohort study was performed in a tertiary referral centre to analyse the outcome of endoscopic stenting in 67 patients with cystic duct leakage, 26 patients with common bile duct leakage and 110 patients with a bile duct stricture.
Main outcome measures
Long term outcome and independent predictors for successful stent treatment.
Overall success in patients with cystic duct leakage was 97%. In patients with common bile duct leakage, stent related complications occurred in 3.8% (n = 1). The overall success rate was 89% (n = 23). In patients with a bile duct stricture, stent related complications occurred in 33% (n = 36) and the overall success rate was 74% (n = 81). After a mean follow up of 4.5 years, liver function tests did not identify “occult” bile duct strictures. Independent predictors for outcome were the number of stents inserted during the first procedure (OR 3.2 per stent; 95% CI 1.3 to 8.4), injuries classified as Bismuth III (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.91) and IV (OR 0.04; CI 0.003 to 0.52) and endoscopic stenting before referral (OR 0.24; CI 0.06 to 0.88). Introduction of sequential insertion of multiple stents did not improve outcome (before 77% vs after 66%, p = 0.25), but more patients reported stent related pain (before 11% vs after 28%, p = 0.02).
In patients with a postoperative bile duct leakage and/or strictures, endoscopic stent treatment should be regarded as the choice of primary treatment because of safety and favourable long term outcome. Apart from the early insertion of more than one stent, the benefit from sequential insertion of multiple stents did not become readily apparent from this series.