PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (152410)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  Interaction of standardized mistletoe (Viscum album) extracts with chemotherapeutic drugs regarding cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in vitro 
Background
Given the importance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to cancer patients, there is an increasing need to learn more about possible interactions between CAM and anticancer drugs. Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) belongs to the medicinal herbs that are used as supportive care during chemotherapy. In the in vitro study presented here the effect of standardized mistletoe preparations on the cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of several common conventional chemotherapeutic drugs was investigated using different cancer cell lines.
Methods
Human breast carcinoma cell lines HCC1937 and HCC1143 were treated with doxorubicin hydrochloride, pancreas adenocarcinoma cell line PA-TU-8902 with gemcitabine hydrochloride, prostate carcinoma cell line DU145 with docetaxel and mitoxantrone hydrochloride and lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H460 was treated with docetaxel and cisplatin. Each dose of the respective chemotherapeutic drug was combined with Viscum album extract (VAE) in clinically relevant concentrations and proliferation and apoptosis were measured.
Results
VAE did not inhibit chemotherapy induced cytostasis and cytotoxicity in any of our experimental settings. At higher concentrations VAE showed an additive inhibitory effect.
Conclusions
Our in vitro results suggest that no risk of safety by herb drug interactions has to be expected from the exposition of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and VAE simultaneously.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-6
PMCID: PMC3893555  PMID: 24397864
Mistletoe (Viscum album L.); Iscador; Chemotherapy; Drug interactions; Cytostasis; Cytotoxicity
2.  Difficulties and Perspectives of Immunomodulatory Therapy with Mistletoe Lectins and Standardized Mistletoe Extracts in Evidence-Based Medicine 
Viscum album preparations are aqueous mistletoe plant extracts used in complementary and alternative medicine as immunomodulators in cancer therapy. However, evidence of immunological efficacy of mistletoe extracts (MEs) used in clinical trials is often lacking. Mechanisms involved in anti-tumor properties of ME and mistletoe lectins (MLs) modify both innate and adaptive immune systems, according to animal model experiments. In the background of these effects, a selective binding of ML on CD75 ganglioside receptors of interleukin 12 (IL-12)-producing macrophages or dendritic cells can play an important role. Immunological effects of ME correlate with their lectin activity, showing a bell-shaped dose-response curve of efficacy. Therefore, a correct determination of MLs for the standardization of commercial ME is essential. However, plant MLs exhibit heterogeneity, which most likely results from post-translational processing. In addition, amino acid analysis of ML has revealed numerous conservative substitutions along their amino acid sequence. Consequently, ML research needs new perspectives, and the advantages and disadvantages of purified and biologically better defined ML preparations are also discussed in this article.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nep191
PMCID: PMC3135167  PMID: 19939951
3.  Induction of apoptosis of endothelial cells by Viscum album: a role for anti-tumoral properties of mistletoe lectins. 
Molecular Medicine  2002;8(10):600-606.
BACKGROUND: Viscum album (VA) preparations consist of aqueous extracts of different types of lectins of VA. Mistletoe lectins have both cytotoxic and immunomodulatory properties that support their study for the development for cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms of the anti- tumoral properties in vivo of mistletoe lectins are not fully understood. Because endothelial cells (EC) play a pivotal role in tumor angiogenesis, we tested the hypothesis that VA extracts induce endothelial cell death and apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the effect of various VA preparations on both human venous endothelial cell (HUVEC) and immortalized human venous endothelial cell line (IVEC) using morphologic assessment of EC, FACScan analysis after propidium iodine and annexin V labeling, and detection of cleavage of poly(A)DP-ribose polymerase (PARP). RESULTS: All tested VA preparations, except Iscador P, were cytotoxic in IVEC. Apoptosis, assessed by morphologic examination, annexin V labeling, and Western blot analysis for PARP cleavage, was involved in HUVEC cell death induced by VA preparations derived from plants that grow on oak trees (VA Qu FrF). CONCLUSIONS: Results from the present study suggest that VA extract-induced endothelial apoptosis may explain the tumor regression associated with the therapeutic use of VA preparations and support further investigations to develop novel anti-angiogenic compounds based on mistletoe compounds.
PMCID: PMC2039938  PMID: 12477970
4.  Fermented Mistletoe Extract as a Multimodal Antitumoral Agent in Gliomas 
In Europe, commercially available extracts from the white-berry mistletoe (Viscum album L.) are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. Mistletoe lectins have been identified as main active components and exhibit cytotoxic effects as well as immunomodulatory activity. Since it is still not elucidated in detail how mistle toe extracts such as ISCADOR communicate their effects, we analyzed the mechanisms that might be responsible for their antitumoral function on a molecular and functional level. ISCADOR-treated glioblastoma (GBM) cells down-regulate central genes involved in glioblastoma progression and malignancy such as the cytokine TGF-β and matrix-metalloproteinases. Using in vitro glioblastoma/immune cell co-cultivation assays as well as measurement of cell migration and invasion, we could demonstrate that in glioblastoma cells, lectin-rich ISCADOR M and ISCADOR Q significantly enforce NK-cell-mediated GBM cell lysis. Beside its immune stimulatory effect, ISCADOR reduces the migratory and invasive potential of glioblastoma cells. In a syngeneic as well as in a xenograft glioblastoma mouse model, both pretreatment of tumor cells and intratumoral therapy of subcutaneously growing glioblastoma cells with ISCADOR Q showed delayed tumor growth. In conclusion, ISCADOR Q, showing multiple positive effects in the treatment of glioblastoma, may be a candidate for concomitant treatment of this cancer.
doi:10.1155/2012/501796
PMCID: PMC3485514  PMID: 23133496
5.  A Randomized Study on Postrelapse Disease-Free Survival with Adjuvant Mistletoe versus Oral Etoposide in Osteosarcoma Patients 
Background. Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumour. After the second relapse, the 12-month postrelapse disease-free survival (PRDFS) rate decreases below 20%. Oral Etoposide is often used in clinical practice after surgery as an “adjuvant” outside any protocol and with only limited evidence of improved survival. Viscum album fermentatum Pini (Viscum) is an extract of mistletoe plants grown on pine trees for subcutaneous (sc) injection with immunomodulatory activity. Methods. Encouraged by preliminary findings, we conducted a study where osteosarcoma patients free from disease after second metastatic relapse were randomly assigned to Viscum sc or Oral Etoposide. Our goal was to compare 12-month PRDFS rates with an equivalent historical control group. Results. Twenty patients have been enrolled, with a median age of 34 years (range 11–65) and a median follow-up time of 38.5 months (3–73). The median PRDSF is currently 4 months (1–47) in the Etoposide and 39 months (2–73) in the Viscum group. Patients getting Viscum reported a higher quality of life due to lower toxicity. Conclusion. Viscum shows promise as adjuvant treatment in prolonging PRDFS after second relapse in osteosarcoma patients. A larger study is required to conclusively determine efficacy and immunomodulatory mechanisms of Viscum therapy in osteosarcoma patients.
doi:10.1155/2014/210198
PMCID: PMC3988743  PMID: 24803944
6.  Quality of life, immunomodulation and safety of adjuvant mistletoe treatment in patients with gastric carcinoma – a randomized, controlled pilot study 
Background
Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts are widely used in complementary cancer therapy. Aim of this study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of a standardized mistletoe extract (abnobaVISCUM® Quercus, aVQ) in patients with gastric cancer.
Patients and Methods
32 operated gastric cancer patients (stage Ib or II) who were waiting for oral chemotherapy with the 5-FU prodrug doxifluridine were randomized 1:1 to receive additional therapy with aVQ or no additional therapy. aVQ was injected subcutaneously three times per week from postoperative day 7 to week 24 in increasing doses. EORTC QLQ-C30 and -STO22 Quality of Life questionnaire, differential blood count, liver function tests, various cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-2), CD 16+/CD56+ and CD 19+ lymphocytes were analyzed at baseline and 8, 16 and 24 weeks later.
Results
Global health status (p <0.01), leukocyte- and eosinophil counts (p ≤0.01) increased significantly in the treatment group compared to the control group. Diarrhea was less frequently reported (7% vs. 50%, p=0.014) in the intervention group. There was no significant treatment effect on levels of TNF-alpha, IL-2, CD16+/CD56+ and CD 19+ lymphocytes and liver function tests measured by ANOVA.
Conclusion
Additional treatment with aVQ is safe and was associated with improved QoL of gastric cancer patients. ClinicalTrials.Gov Registration number NCT01401075.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-172
PMCID: PMC3488325  PMID: 23033982
Qol; EORTC QLQ-C30; QLQ-STO22; 5-FU; Viscum album
7.  Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study 
Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended.
doi:10.1155/2014/236310
PMCID: PMC4052504  PMID: 24955100
8.  Mistletoe lectin I in complex with galactose and lactose reveals distinct sugar-binding properties 
The structures of mistletoe lectin I in complex with lactose and galactose reveal differences in binding by the two known sites in subdomains α1 and γ2 and suggest the presence of a third low-affinity site in subdomain β1.
The structures of mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) from Viscum album complexed with lactose and galactose have been determined at 2.3 Å resolution and refined to R factors of 20.9% (R free = 23.6%) and 20.9 (R free = 24.6%), respectively. ML-I is a heterodimer and belongs to the class of ribosome-inactivating proteins of type II, which consist of two chains. The A-chain has rRNA N-glycosidase activity and irreversibly inhibits eukaryotic ribosomes. The B-chain is a lectin and preferentially binds to galactose-terminated glycolipids and glycoproteins on cell membranes. Saccharide binding is performed by two binding sites in subdomains α1 and γ2 of the ML-I B-chain separated by ∼62 Å from each other. The favoured binding of galactose in subdomain α1 is achieved via hydrogen bonds connecting the 4-hydroxyl and 3-hydroxyl groups of the sugar moiety with the side chains of Asp23B, Gln36B and Lys41B and the main chain of 26B. The aromatic ring of Trp38B on top of the preferred binding pocket supports van der Waals packing of the apolar face of galactose and stabilizes the sugar–lectin complex. In the galactose-binding site II of subdomain γ2, Tyr249B provides the hydrophobic stacking and the side chains of Asp235B, Gln238B and Asn256B are hydrogen-bonding partners for galactose. In the case of the galactose-binding site I, the 2-hydroxyl group also stabilizes the sugar–protein complex, an interaction thus far rarely detected in galactose-specific lectins. Finally, a potential third low-affinity galactose-binding site in subunit β1 was identified in the present ML-I structures, in which a glycerol molecule from the cryoprotectant buffer has bound, mimicking the sugar compound.
doi:10.1107/S1744309104031501
PMCID: PMC1952410  PMID: 16508080
ribosome-inactivation proteins; mistletoe lectin I; sugar-binding sites
9.  NCCAM/NCI Phase 1 Study of Mistletoe Extract and Gemcitabine in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors 
Purpose. European Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts (mistletoe) are commonly used for cancer treatment in Europe. This phase I study of gemcitabine (GEM) and mistletoe in advanced solid cancers (ASC) evaluated: (1) safety, toxicity, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD), (2) absolute neutrophil count (ANC) recovery, (3) formation of mistletoe lectin antibodies (ML ab), (4) cytokine plasma concentrations, (5) clinical response, and (6) pharmacokinetics of GEM. Methods. Design: increasing mistletoe and fixed GEM dose in stage I and increasing doses of GEM with a fixed dose of mistletoe in stage II. Dose limiting toxicities (DLT) were grade (G) 3 nonhematologic and G4 hematologic events; MTD was reached with 2 DLTs in one dosage level. Response in stage IV ASC was assessed with descriptive statistics. Statistical analyses examined clinical response/survival and ANC recovery. Results. DLTs were G4 neutropenia, G4 thrombocytopenia, G4 acute renal failure, and G3 cellulitis, attributed to mistletoe. GEM 1380 mg/m2 and mistletoe 250 mg combined were the MTD. Of 44 patients, 24 developed nonneutropenic fever and flu-like syndrome. GEM pharmacokinetics were unaffected by mistletoe. All patients developed ML3 IgG antibodies. ANC showed a trend to increase between baseline and cycle 2 in stage I dose escalation. 6% of patients showed partial response, 42% stable disease. Median survival was 200 days. Compliance with mistletoe injections was high. Conclusion. GEM plus mistletoe is well tolerated. No botanical/drug interactions were observed. Clinical response is similar to GEM alone.
doi:10.1155/2013/964592
PMCID: PMC3826324  PMID: 24285980
10.  Protein Fractions from Korean Mistletoe (Viscum Album coloratum) Extract Induce Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic Beta Cells 
Mistletoe (Viscum Album coloratum) has been known as a medicinal plant in European and Asian countries. Recent data show that biological activity of mistletoe alleviates hypertension, heart disease, renal failure, and cancer development. In this study, we report the antidiabetic effect of Korean mistletoe extract (KME). KME treatments enhanced the insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cell without any effects of cytotoxicity. PDX-1 and beta2/neuroD known as transcription factors that regulate the expression of insulin gene were upregulated by treatment of the KME protein fractions isolated by ion-exchange chromatography after ammonium sulfate precipitation. Furthermore, these KME protein fractions significantly lowered the blood glucose level and the volume of drinking water in alloxan induced hyperglycemic mice. Taken together with the findings, it provides new insight that KME might be served as a useful source for the development of medicinal reagent to reduce blood glucose level of type I diabetic patients.
doi:10.1155/2014/703624
PMCID: PMC4053293  PMID: 24959189
11.  Survival of cancer patients treated with mistletoe extract (Iscador): a systematic literature review 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:451.
Background
In Europe, extracts from Viscum album (VA-E), the European white-berry mistletoe, are widely used to treat patients with cancer.
Methods
We searched several databases such as Cochrane, EMBASE, NCCAM, NLM, DIMDI, CAMbase, and Medline. Inclusion criteria were controlled clinical studies on parameters associated with survival in cancer patients treated with Iscador. Outcome data were extracted as they were given in the publication, and expressed as hazard ratios (HR), their logarithm, and the respective standard errors using standard formulas.
Results
We found 49 publications on the clinical effects of Iscador usage on survival of cancer patients which met our criteria. Among them, 41 studies and strata provided enough data to extract hazard ratios (HR) and their standard errors (Iscador versus no extra treatment). The majority of studies reported positive effects in favour of the Iscador application. Heterogeneity of study results was moderate (I2 = 38.3%, p < 0.0001). The funnel plots were considerably skewed, indicating a publication bias, a notion which is corroborated by statistical means (AC = -1.3, CI: -1.9 to -0.6, p <= 0.0001). A random effect meta-analysis estimated the overall hazard ratio at HR = 0.59 (CI: 0.53 to 0.66, p < 0.0001). Randomized studies showed less effects than non-randomized studies (ratio of HRs: 1.24, CI: 0.79 to 1.92, p = 0.35), and matched-pair studies gave significantly better results than others (ratio of HRs: 0.33; CI: 0.17 to 0.65, p = 0.0012).
Conclusions
Pooled analysis of clinical studies suggests that adjuvant treatment of cancer patients with the mistletoe extract Iscador is associated with a better survival. Despite obvious limitations, and strong hints for a publication bias which limits the evidence found in this meta-analysis, one can not ignore the fact that studies with positive effects of VA-E on survival of cancer patients are accumulating. Future studies evaluating the effects of Iscador should focus on a transparent design and description of endpoints in order to provide greater insight into a treatment often being depreciated as ineffective, but highly valued by cancer patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-451
PMCID: PMC2804713  PMID: 20021637
12.  Safety and effects of two mistletoe preparations on production of Interleukin-6 and other immune parameters - a placebo controlled clinical trial in healthy subjects 
Background
In Germany, Iscucin® Populi (IP), a preparation from mistletoe growing on the poplar tree, is used in cancer therapy while Viscum Mali e planta tota (VM), a preparation from mistletoe growing on the apple tree, is used in patients with osteoarthritis. Since mistletoe preparations are suspected to induce production of potentially tumor promoting cytokines like interleukin (IL)-6, further studies on the immunological effects are of interest.
Methods
In this 3-armed randomized, double blind clinical trial healthy volunteers received increasing doses of either IP (strength F, 0.0125%, G, 0.25% and H, 5%, each for 4 weeks), or VM (1:1000 [D3], 1:100 [D2] and 2% each for 4 weeks) or placebo (isotonic solution) subcutaneously twice per week over a period of 12 weeks. Physical examination was performed weekly. Routine laboratory parameters and immunological parameters (C-reactive protein (CRP), differential blood count, lymphocyte subsets, immunoglobulins, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α) were analysed every 4 weeks.
Results
71 subjects were included in the study (IP = 30, VM = 21, placebo = 20) of whom 69 concluded it according to protocol. Application of IP strengths G and H caused strong local reactions at the site of injection. In parallel, a distinct eosinophilia (p < 0.001 compared to placebo) occurred. Furthermore, application of all IP concentrations resulted in an increase of CD4 cell counts (p < 0.05) compared to placebo. Stimulation of IL-6 production, CRP or relevant deviations in other laboratory parameters were not observed. Because of local reactions, IP strengths G and H were considered less tolerable than placebo. VM 2% was slightly less tolerable than placebo, caused only mild local reactions and an only small increase in eosinophile counts.
Conclusion
Treatment with IP results in eosinophilia and an increase of CD4 cells but not in an increase of IL-6 or CRP. No safety concerns regarding the two mistletoe preparations have been raised by this study. EudraCT-Number 2007-002166-35.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01378702
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-116
PMCID: PMC3257204  PMID: 22114899
13.  Mistletoe preparation (Viscum Fraxini-2) as palliative treatment for malignant pleural effusion: a feasibility study with comparison to bleomycin 
ecancermedicalscience  2014;8:424.
Background
Malignant pleural effusion is a common problem in patients with solid tumours. It has a significant impact on quality of life, and, hence, there is a substantial need to investigate new agents to treat it.
Patients and methods
This is a prospective randomised controlled study, including patients with symptomatic recurrent malignant pleural effusion of different primaries. Patients were randomised into two groups: the first group received five ampoules of mistletoe preparation with defined lectin content (Viscum Fraxini-2, ATOS Pharma) diluted in 10 cc glucose 5% solution. Re-instillation was repeated every week until complete dryness of the pleural fluid was achieved (the maximum duration of the therapy was eight weeks). The second group received 60 units of bleomycin once intrapleurally.
Aims
The primary aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of mistletoe preparation as a palliative treatment for malignant pleural effusions in comparison with bleomycin. The secondary aim was to evaluate the tolerability of the mistletoe preparation.
Results
A total of 23 patients were included and followed up during the study from December 2007 to January 2012: 13 patients received mistletoe preparation, and ten patients received bleomycin. Overall clinical response was reported in 61.5% of the mistletoe preparation arm versus 30% in bleomycin arm (p = 0.2138), 95% CI = (–0.1203, 0.6325). The toxicity of both arms was mild and manageable; the mistletoe preparation arm included fever, chills, headache, malaise, and, in two cases, allergic reaction, which was controlled by discontinuation of the drug and steroid injection.
Conclusion
Mistletoe preparation is an efficient and well tolerated sclerosant agent which needs further investigation.
doi:10.3332/ecancer.2014.424
PMCID: PMC4004388  PMID: 24834119
mistletoe preparation; pleural effusion
14.  Evaluation of Preclinical Assays to Investigate an Anthroposophic Pharmaceutical Process Applied to Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Extracts 
Extracts from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) developed in anthroposophic medicine are based on specific pharmaceutical procedures to enhance remedy efficacy. One such anthroposophic pharmaceutical process was evaluated regarding effects on cancer cell toxicity in vitro and on colchicine tumor formation in Lepidium sativum. Anthroposophically processed Viscum album extract (APVAE) was produced by mixing winter and summer mistletoe extracts in the edge of a high-speed rotating disk and was compared with manually mixed Viscum album extract (VAE). The antiproliferative effect of VAE/APVAE was determined in five cell lines (NCI-H460, DU-145, HCC1143, MV3, and PA-TU-8902) by WST-1 assay in vitro; no difference was found between VAE and APVAE in any cell line tested (P > 0.14). Incidence of colchicine tumor formation was assessed by measurement of the root/shoot-ratio of seedlings of Lepidium sativum treated with colchicine as well as VAE, APVAE, or water. Colchicine tumor formation decreased after application of VAE (−5.4% compared to water, P < 0.001) and was even stronger by APVAE (−8.8% compared to water, P < 0.001). The high-speed mistletoe extract mixing process investigated thus did not influence toxicity against cancer cells but seemed to sustain morphostasis and to enhance resistance against external noxious influences leading to phenomenological malformations.
doi:10.1155/2014/620974
PMCID: PMC4024402  PMID: 24876872
15.  Assessment of Shape Changes of Mistletoe Berries: A New Software Approach to Automatize the Parameterization of Path Curve Shaped Contours 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60522.
Photographs of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) berries taken by a permanently fixed camera during their development in autumn were subjected to an outline shape analysis by fitting path curves using a mathematical algorithm from projective geometry. During growth and maturation processes the shape of mistletoe berries can be described by a set of such path curves, making it possible to extract changes of shape using one parameter called Lambda. Lambda describes the outline shape of a path curve. Here we present methods and software to capture and measure these changes of form over time. The present paper describes the software used to automatize a number of tasks including contour recognition, optimization of fitting the contour via hill-climbing, derivation of the path curves, computation of Lambda and blinding the pictures for the operator. The validity of the program is demonstrated by results from three independent measurements showing circadian rhythm in mistletoe berries. The program is available as open source and will be applied in a project to analyze the chronobiology of shape in mistletoe berries and the buds of their host trees.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060522
PMCID: PMC3614953  PMID: 23565255
16.  Emerging roles of mistletoes in malignancy management 
3 Biotech  2013;4(1):13-20.
Mistletoes are a group of obligate plant semi-parasites in the order Santalales. These clumps of plants growing on a wide range of host plants have been traditionally regarded as medicinal repositories. However, current scientific discoveries have validated their health potentials like never before. Their extracts containing alkaloids, viscotoxins, lectins, and polysaccharides have been evidenced to possess a myriad biological potentials including cancer inhibition. Mistletoes have emerged as promising alternative therapy against colon, oral, lung, and pancreas cancers. The plant extracts bolster immunity, delay tumour initiation and progression, kill malignant tumours, stabilize DNA, alleviate side effects of chemotherapeutics, improve the lifespan, and coping ability of cancer patients and survivors. A range of proprietary formulations viz. Iscador, Eurixor, Helixor, Lektinol, Isorel, Iscucin, Abnoba-viscum and recombinant lectin ML-1 are already being commercialized. This review presents an informative account on the recent developments in mistletoe-mediated cancer management. The underlying mechanisms, possibilities and limitations in cancer therapeutic development are outlined for kindling both researcher and public interest.
doi:10.1007/s13205-013-0124-6
PMCID: PMC3909578
Mistletoe; Anticancer; Lectin; Polysaccharide; Immune modifier
17.  Effect of gamma irradiation on mistletoe (Viscum album) lectin-mediated toxicity and immunomodulatory activity☆ 
FEBS Open Bio  2013;3:106-111.
This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on the reduction of the toxicity of mistletoe lectin using both in vitro and in vivo models. To extract the lectin from mistletoe, an (NH4)2SO4 precipitation method was employed and the precipitant purified using a Sepharose 4B column to obtain the pure lectin fraction. Purified lectin was then gamma-irradiated at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 kGy, or heated at 100 °C for 30 min. Toxic effects of non-irradiated, irradiated, and heat-treated lectins were tested using hemagglutination assays, cytotoxicity assays, hepatotoxicity, and a mouse survival test and immunological response was tested using cytokine production activity. Hemagglutination of lectin was remarkably decreased (P < 0.05) by irradiation at doses exceeding 10 kGy and with heat treatment. However, lectin irradiated with 5 kGy maintained its hemagglutination activity. The cytotoxicity of lectin was decreased by irradiation at doses over 5 kGy and with heat treatment. In experiments using mouse model, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels were decreased in the group treated with the 5 kGy irradiated and heat-treated lectins as compared to the intact lectin, and it was also shown that 5 kGy irradiated and heat-treated lectins did not cause damage in liver tissue or mortality. In the result of immunological response, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-6) levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the 5 kGy gamma-irradiated lectin treated group. These results indicate that 5 kGy irradiated lectin still maintained the immunological response with reduction of toxicity. Therefore, gamma-irradiation may be an effective method for reducing the toxicity of lectin maintaining the immune response.
Highlights
▸ Cytotoxicity of lectin against immune cells was decreased by gamma-irradiation at doses above 5 kGy. ▸ The liver toxicity of gamma-irradiated lectin (5 kGy) was decreased, as shown by levels of GOT and GPT. ▸ Gamma-irradiated lectin (5 kGy) was not lethal for mice. ▸ Gamma-irradiated lectin (5 kGy) still maintained immunological responses.
doi:10.1016/j.fob.2013.01.003
PMCID: PMC3668527  PMID: 23847758
Mistletoe lectin; Toxicity; Gamma irradiation; Immune response; Cytotoxicity; Cytokine
18.  Preparation of Herbal Tea as Infusion or by Maceration at Room Temperature Using Mistletoe Tea as an Example 
Scientia Pharmaceutica  2010;79(1):145-155.
Herbal tea can be prepared by infusion or maceration at room temperature resulting in different compositions of extractable constituents, which possibly influences the mode of action or safety profile. Knowledge on this topic is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the substantial differences between infusion and maceration as recommended preparation methods for the preparation of herbal mistletoe tea, a traditional remedy against cardiovascular diseases. No active substances are known but analytical marker substances such as proteins, triterpenoids, phenylpropane derivatives and flavonoids can be quantified within the herb and the different herbal tea preparations. Whereas phenylpropane derivatives were completely extracted by infusion and maceration, neither method dissolved viscotoxins. 43% of mistletoe lectins were extracted by maceration, whereas by infusion they are inactivated by thermal degradation. By contrast, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid are present in higher concentrations in infusates compared with macerates, but even infusion extracted less than 2%. Infusion extracted 43% of flavonoid-like substances and maceration only 31%. In conclusion this study determines some differences between both extraction methods on the profile of solved substances. The relevance of it should be determined in studies dealing with the efficacy of herbal mistletoe tea.
doi:10.3797/scipharm.1006-06
PMCID: PMC3097500  PMID: 21617779
Herbal tea; Mistletoe; Viscum album L; Infusion; Maceration; Extraction Chromatographic profile; HPLC; GC; ELISA
19.  Quality of Life and Neutropenia in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer: A Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Additional Treatment with Mistletoe Extract to Chemotherapy Alone 
Background:
Chemotherapy for breast cancer often deteriorates quality of life, augments fatigue, and induces neutropenia. Mistletoe preparations are frequently used by cancer patients in Central Europe. Physicians have reported better quality of life in breast cancer patients additionally treated with mistletoe preparations during chemotherapy. Mistletoe preparations also have immunostimulant properties and might therefore have protective effects against chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.
Patients and Methods:
We conducted a prospective randomized open label pilot study with 95 patients randomized into three groups. Two groups received Iscador® M special (IMS) or a different mistletoe preparation, respectively, additionally to chemotherapy with six cycles of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, and 5-fluoro-uracil (CAF). A control group received CAF with no additional therapy. Here we report the comparison IMS (n = 30) vs. control (n = 31). Quality of life including fatigue was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30). Neutropenia was defined as neutrophil counts <1,000/μl and assessed at baseline and one day before each CAF cycle.
Results:
In the descriptive analysis all 15 scores of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 showed better quality of life in the IMS group compared to the control group. In 12 scores the differences were significant (p < 0.02) and nine scores showed a clinically relevant and significant difference of at least 5 points. Neutropenia occurred in 3/30 IMS patients and in 8/31 control patients (p = 0.182).
Conclusions:
This pilot study showed an improvement of quality of life by treating breast cancer patients with IMS additionally to CAF. CAF-induced neutropenia showed a trend to lower frequency in the IMS group.
PMCID: PMC3086310  PMID: 21556248
mistletoe thereapy; breast cancer; randomized clinical trial; quality of life; neutropenia
20.  Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis of Survival and Psychosomatic Self-regulation from Published Prospective Controlled Cohort Studies for Long-term Therapy of Breast Cancer Patients with a Mistletoe Preparation (Iscador) 
Mistletoe preparations such as Iscador are in common use as complementary/anthroposophic medications for many cancer indications, particularly for solid cancers. The efficacy is still discussed controversially. This paper presents an individual patient data meta-analysis of all published prospective matched-pair studies with breast cancer patients concerned with long-term application of a complementary/anthroposophic therapy with the mistletoe preparation Iscador. Six sets of data were available for individual patient meta-analysis of breast cancer patients, matched according to prognostic factors into pairs with and without mistletoe (Iscador) therapy. The main outcome measures were overall survival and psychosomatic self-regulation. Overall survival was almost significant in favor of the Iscador group in the combined data set of the randomized studies: estimate of the hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval 0.59 (0.34, 1.02). Overall survival was highly significant in the combined data set of the non-randomized studies: 0.43 (0.34, 0.56). In the combined analysis of the randomized studies, improvement of psychosomatic self-regulation, as a measure of autonomous coping with the disease, was highly significant in favor of the Iscador group: estimate of the median difference 0.45 (0.15, 0.80), P = 0.0051. The analyzed studies show that therapy with Iscador might prolong overall survival and improve psychosomatic self-regulation of breast cancer patients.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nen025
PMCID: PMC2862937  PMID: 18955332
breast cancer; Iscador; meta-analysis; mistletoe; quality of life; survival
21.  Consistency of defoliation data of the national training courses for the forest condition survey in Germany from 1992 to 2012 
The consistency of visual assessment of tree defoliation, which represents the most widely used indicator for tree condition, has frequently been in the focus of scientific criticism. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine the consistency of the defoliation data from the annual national training courses for the forest condition survey in Germany from 1992 to 2012. Defoliation assessments were carried out in stands of beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur and Quercus petraea), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and pine (Pinus sylvestris). Among the observer teams, the absolute deviation from the observer mean of all years was ±4.4 % defoliation and the standard deviation of defoliation was ±5.5 %. On average, 94 % of the assessments were located within the ±10 % interval of deviation from the mean. Tree species-specific differences did not occur when all years were considered. A trend towards increasing consistency was observed from 1992 to 2012, in particular for oak and spruce. The deviation of defoliation assessments depended non-linearly on the level of defoliation with highest deviations at intermediate defoliations. In spite of high correlations and agreements among observers, systematic errors were determined in nearly every year. However, within-observer variances were higher than between-observer variances. The present study applied a three-way evaluation approach for the assessment of consistency and demonstrated that the visual defoliation assessment at the national training courses in general produced consistent data within Germany from 1992 to 2012.
doi:10.1007/s10661-013-3372-3
PMCID: PMC3857523  PMID: 23955498
Forest condition survey; Defoliation; Observer error; Harmonisation; Systematic error; Quality assurance
22.  Safety of higher dosages of Viscum album L. in animals and humans - systematic review of immune changes and safety parameters 
Background
Viscum album L extracts (VAE, mistletoe) and isolated mistletoe lectins (ML) have immunostimulating properties and a strong dose-dependent cytotoxic activity. They are frequently used in complementary cancer treatment, mainly to improve quality of life, but partly also to influence tumour growth, especially by injecting VAE locally and in high dosage. The question is raised whether these higher dosages can induce any harm or immunosuppressive effects.
Methods
Systematic review of all experiments and clinical studies investigating higher dosages of VAE in animals and humans (Viscum album > 1 mg in humans corresponding to > 0.02 mg/kg in animals or ML > 1 ng/kg) and assessing immune parameters or infections or adverse drug reactions.
Results
69 clinical studies and 48 animal experiments reported application of higher doses of VAE or ML and had assessed immune changes and/or harm. In these studies, Viscum album was applied in dosages up to 1500 mg in humans and 1400 mg/kg in animals, ML was applied up to 6.4 μg/kg in humans and in animals up to 14 μg/kg subcutaneously, 50 μg/kg nasally and 500 μg/kg orally. A variety of immune parameters showed fluctuating or rising outcomes, but no immunosuppressive effect. Side effects consisted mainly of dose-dependent flu-like symptoms (FLS), fever, local reactions at the injection site and various mild unspecific effects. Occasionally, allergic reactions were reported. After application of high doses of recombinant ML, reversible hepatotoxicity was observed in some cases.
Conclusions
Application of higher dosages of VAE or ML is not accompanied by immunosuppression; altogether VAE seems to exhibit low risk but should be monitored by clinicians when applied in high dosages.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-72
PMCID: PMC3180269  PMID: 21871125
23.  Diuretic and natriuretic activity of two mistletoe species in rats 
Pharmacognosy Research  2010;2(1):50-57.
In different cultural groups, the hemiparasitic plants of the families Loranthaceae and Viscaceae (mistletoes) are frequently used in the treatment of hypertension and/or as diuretic agents. However, it remains unclear as to what commonality makes them diuretic agents or a remedy for hypertension. In this article, the diuretic activity of methanol extracts of Viscum articulatum (VA) Burm. f. and Helicanthus elastica (HE) (Ders.) Dans. in rats is reported. The extracts were administered orally at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg to rats that had been fasted and deprived of water for 18 hours. Investigations were carried out for diuretic, saluretic and natriuretic effects. The polyphenolic and triterpenoid contents were determined quantitatively using chemical assays and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, respectively. The extracts of VA and HE demonstrated significant and dose-dependent diuretic activity in rats. It was found that while VA mimics the furosemide pattern, HE demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in diuresis, along with an increase in potassium-sparing effects. Phytochemical analysis revealed that polyphenolics and triterpenoids, such as oleanolic acid and lupeol, are the major phytochemicals involved. It was also found that in different combinations, these phytochemicals differed in the way they influenced the electrolyte excretion. A higher content of polyphenolics in association with lower triterpenoid content was found to favor potassium-sparing effects.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.60576
PMCID: PMC3140130  PMID: 21808540
Diuretic; Helicanthus elastic; polyphenolics; potassium sparing; triterpenoids; Viscum articulatum
24.  Determination of Screw and Nail Withdrawal Resistance of Some Important Wood Species 
In this study, screw and nail withdrawal resistance of fir (Abies nordmanniana), oak (Quercus robur L.) black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) wood were determined and compared. The data represent the testing of withdrawal resistance of three types of screws as smart, serrated and conventional and common nails. The specimens were prepared according to TS 6094 standards. The dimensions of the specimens were 5×5×15cm and for all of the directions. Moreover, the specimens were conditioned at ambient room temperature and 65±2% relative humidity. The screws and nails were installed according to ASTM-D 1761 standards. Nail dimensions were 2.5mm diameter and 50 mm length, conventional screws were 4×50mm, serrated screws were 4×45mm and smart screws were 4×50mm. Results show that the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value was found in Stone pine for the serrated screw. There were no significant differences between Stone pine and oak regarding screw withdrawal resistance values. Conventional screw yielded the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value in oak, followed by Stone pine, black pine and fir. Oak wood showed the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value for the smart screw, followed by Stone pine, black pine, and fir. Oak wood showed higher nail withdrawal resistances than softwood species. It was also determined that oak shows the maximum nail withdrawal resistance in all types. The nail withdrawal resistances at the longitudinal direction are lower with respect to radial and tangential directions.
PMCID: PMC2635684  PMID: 19325775
Screw; nail; withdrawal resistance; oak; Stone pine; black pine; and fir
25.  Active chinese mistletoe lectin-55 enhances colon cancer surveillance through regulating innate and adaptive immune responses 
AIM: To investigate the potential role of Active Chinese mistletoe lectin-55 (ACML-55) in tumor immune surveillance.
METHODS: In this study, an experimental model was established by hypodermic inoculating the colon cancer cell line CT26 (5 × 105 cells) into BALB/c mice. The experimental treatment was orally administered with ACML-55 or PBS, followed by the inoculation of colon cancer cell line CT26. Intracellular cytokine staining was used to detect IFN-γ production by tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cells. FACS analysis was employed to profile composition and activation of CD4+, CD8+, γδ T and NK cells.
RESULTS: Our results showed, compared to PBS treated mice, ACML-55 treatment significantly delayed colon cancer development in colon cancer -bearing Balb/c mice in vivo. Treatment with ACML-55 enhanced both Ag specific activation and proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and increased the number of tumor Ag specific CD8+ T cells. It was more important to increase the frequency of tumor Ag specific IFN-γ producing-CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, ACML-55 treatment also showed increased cell number of NK, and γδT cells, indicating the role of ACML-55 in activation of innate lymphocytes.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that ACML-55 therapy can enhance function in immune surveillance in colon cancer-bearing mice through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.5274
PMCID: PMC2744057  PMID: 18785279
Active chinese mistletoe lectin-55; Colon cancer; Immune surveillance; Tumor therapy; Agspecific-CD8+ T cell

Results 1-25 (152410)