The conserved domain database (CDD) is part of NCBI's Entrez database system and serves as a primary resource for the annotation of conserved domain footprints on protein sequences in Entrez. Entrez's global query interface can be accessed at and will search CDD and many other databases. Domain annotation for proteins in Entrez has been pre-computed and is readily available in the form of ‘Conserved Domain’ links. Novel protein sequences can be scanned against CDD using the CD-Search service; this service searches databases of CDD-derived profile models with protein sequence queries using BLAST heuristics, at . Protein query sequences submitted to NCBI's protein BLAST search service are scanned for conserved domain signatures by default. The CDD collection contains models imported from Pfam, SMART and COG, as well as domain models curated at NCBI. NCBI curated models are organized into hierarchies of domains related by common descent. Here we report on the status of the curation effort and present a novel helper application, CDTree, which enables users of the CDD resource to examine curated hierarchies. More importantly, CDD and CDTree used in concert, serve as a powerful tool in protein classification, as they allow users to analyze protein sequences in the context of domain family hierarchies.
The 3D-GENOMICS database (http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/3dgenomics/) provides structural annotations for proteins from sequenced genomes. In August 2003 the database included data for 93 proteomes. The annotations stored in the database include homologous sequences from various sequence databases, domains from SCOP and Pfam, patterns from Prosite and other predicted sequence features such as transmembrane regions and coiled coils. In addition to annotations at the sequence level, several precomputed cross- proteome comparative analyses are available based on SCOP domain superfamily composition. Annotations are available to the user via a web interface to the database. Multiple points of entry are available so that a user is able to: (i) directly access annotations for a single protein sequence via keywords or accession codes, (ii) examine a sequence of interest chosen from a summary of annotations for a particular proteome, or (iii) access precomputed frequency-based cross-proteome comparative analyses.
TIGRFAMs, available online at http://www.jcvi.org/tigrfams is a database of protein family definitions. Each entry features a seed alignment of trusted representative sequences, a hidden Markov model (HMM) built from that alignment, cutoff scores that let automated annotation pipelines decide which proteins are members, and annotations for transfer onto member proteins. Most TIGRFAMs models are designated equivalog, meaning they assign a specific name to proteins conserved in function from a common ancestral sequence. Models describing more functionally heterogeneous families are designated subfamily or domain, and assign less specific but more widely applicable annotations. The Genome Properties database, available at http://www.jcvi.org/genome-properties, specifies how computed evidence, including TIGRFAMs HMM results, should be used to judge whether an enzymatic pathway, a protein complex or another type of molecular subsystem is encoded in a genome. TIGRFAMs and Genome Properties content are developed in concert because subsystems reconstruction for large numbers of genomes guides selection of seed alignment sequences and cutoff values during protein family construction. Both databases specialize heavily in bacterial and archaeal subsystems. At present, 4284 models appear in TIGRFAMs, while 628 systems are described by Genome Properties. Content derives both from subsystem discovery work and from biocuration of the scientific literature.
Summary: The PROSITE resource provides a rich and well annotated source of signatures in the form of generalized profiles that allow protein domain detection and functional annotation. One of the major limiting factors in the application of PROSITE in genome and metagenome annotation pipelines is the time required to search protein sequence databases for putative matches. We describe an improved and optimized implementation of the PROSITE search tool pfsearch that, combined with a newly developed heuristic, addresses this limitation. On a modern x86_64 hyper-threaded quad-core desktop computer, the new pfsearchV3 is two orders of magnitude faster than the original algorithm.
Availability and implementation: Source code and binaries of pfsearchV3 are freely available for download at http://web.expasy.org/pftools/#pfsearchV3, implemented in C and supported on Linux. PROSITE generalized profiles including the heuristic cut-off scores are available at the same address.
InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created in 1999 as a means of amalgamating the major protein signature databases into one comprehensive resource. PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs have been manually integrated and curated and are available in InterPro for text- and sequence-based searching. The results are provided in a single format that rationalises the results that would be obtained by searching the member databases individually. The latest release of InterPro contains 5629 entries describing 4280 families, 1239 domains, 95 repeats and 15 post-translational modifications. Currently, the combined signatures in InterPro cover more than 74% of all proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL, an increase of nearly 15% since the inception of InterPro. New features of the database include improved searching capabilities and enhanced graphical user interfaces for visualisation of the data. The database is available via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro) and anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro).
Domain fusion analysis is a useful method to predict functionally linked proteins that may be involved in direct protein-protein interactions or in the same metabolic or signaling pathway. As separate domain databases like BLOCKS, PROSITE, Pfam, SMART, PRINTS-S, ProDom, TIGRFAMs, and amalgamated domain databases like InterPro continue to grow in size and quality, a computational method to perform domain fusion analysis that leverages on these efforts will become increasingly powerful.
This paper proposes a computational method employing relational algebra to find domain fusions in protein sequence databases. The feasibility of this method was illustrated on the SWISS-PROT+TrEMBL sequence database using domain predictions from the Pfam HMM (hidden Markov model) database. We identified 235 and 189 putative functionally linked protein partners in H. sapiens and S. cerevisiae, respectively. From scientific literature, we were able to confirm many of these functional linkages, while the remainder offer testable experimental hypothesis. Results can be viewed at .
As the analysis can be computed quickly on any relational database that supports standard SQL (structured query language), it can be dynamically updated along with the sequence and domain databases, thereby improving the quality of predictions over time.
The recent explosion in protein data generated from both directed small-scale studies and large-scale proteomics efforts has greatly expanded the quantity of available protein information and has prompted the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; ) to enhance the depth and accessibility of protein annotations. In particular, we have expanded ongoing efforts to improve the integration of experimental information and sequence-based predictions and have redesigned the protein information web pages. A key feature of this redesign is the development of a GBrowse-derived interactive Proteome Browser customized to improve the visualization of sequence-based protein information. This Proteome Browser has enabled SGD to unify the display of hidden Markov model (HMM) domains, protein family HMMs, motifs, transmembrane regions, signal peptides, hydropathy plots and profile hits using several popular prediction algorithms. In addition, a physico-chemical properties page has been introduced to provide easy access to basic protein information. Improvements to the layout of the Protein Information page and integration of the Proteome Browser will facilitate the ongoing expansion of sequence-specific experimental information captured in SGD, including post-translational modifications and other user-defined annotations. Finally, SGD continues to improve upon the availability of genetic and physical interaction data in an ongoing collaboration with BioGRID by providing direct access to more than 82 000 manually-curated interactions.
The family and motif databases, PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom, have been integrated into a powerful resource for protein secondary annotation. As of June 2000, InterPro had processed 384 572 proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL. Because the contributing databases have different clustering principles and scoring sensitivities, the combined assignments compliment each other for grouping protein families and delineating domains. The graphic displays of all matches above the scoring thresholds enables judgements to be made on the concordances or differences between the assignments. The website links can be used to analyse novel sequences and for queries across the proteomes of 32 organisms, including the partial human set, by domain and/or protein family. An analysis of selected HtrA/DegQ proteases demonstrates the utility of this website for detailed comparative genomics. Further information on the project can be found at the European Bioinformatics Institute at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/.
NCBI’s Conserved Domain Database (CDD) is a resource for the annotation of protein sequences with the location of conserved domain footprints, and functional sites inferred from these footprints. CDD includes manually curated domain models that make use of protein 3D structure to refine domain models and provide insights into sequence/structure/function relationships. Manually curated models are organized hierarchically if they describe domain families that are clearly related by common descent. As CDD also imports domain family models from a variety of external sources, it is a partially redundant collection. To simplify protein annotation, redundant models and models describing homologous families are clustered into superfamilies. By default, domain footprints are annotated with the corresponding superfamily designation, on top of which specific annotation may indicate high-confidence assignment of family membership. Pre-computed domain annotation is available for proteins in the Entrez/Protein dataset, and a novel interface, Batch CD-Search, allows the computation and download of annotation for large sets of protein queries. CDD can be accessed via http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/cdd.shtml.
Function prediction by transfer of annotation from the top database hit in a homology search has been shown to be prone to systematic error. Phylogenomic analysis reduces these errors by inferring protein function within the evolutionary context of the entire family. However, accuracy of function prediction for multi-domain proteins depends on all members having the same overall domain structure. By contrast, most common homolog detection methods are optimized for retrieving local homologs, and do not address this requirement.
We present FlowerPower, a novel clustering algorithm designed for the identification of global homologs as a precursor to structural phylogenomic analysis. Similar to methods such as PSIBLAST, FlowerPower employs an iterative approach to clustering sequences. However, rather than using a single HMM or profile to expand the cluster, FlowerPower identifies subfamilies using the SCI-PHY algorithm and then selects and aligns new homologs using subfamily hidden Markov models. FlowerPower is shown to outperform BLAST, PSI-BLAST and the UCSC SAM-Target 2K methods at discrimination between proteins in the same domain architecture class and those having different overall domain structures.
Structural phylogenomic analysis enables biologists to avoid the systematic errors associated with annotation transfer; clustering sequences based on sharing the same domain architecture is a critical first step in this process. FlowerPower is shown to consistently identify homologous sequences having the same domain architecture as the query.
FlowerPower is available as a webserver at .
Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are a powerful tool for protein domain identification. The Pfam database notably provides a large collection of HMMs which are widely used for the annotation of proteins in new sequenced organisms. In Pfam, each domain family is represented by a curated multiple sequence alignment from which a profile HMM is built. In spite of their high specificity, HMMs may lack sensitivity when searching for domains in divergent organisms. This is particularly the case for species with a biased amino-acid composition, such as P. falciparum, the main causal agent of human malaria. In this context, fitting HMMs to the specificities of the target proteome can help identify additional domains.
Using P. falciparum as an example, we compare approaches that have been proposed for this problem, and present two alternative methods. Because previous attempts strongly rely on known domain occurrences in the target species or its close relatives, they mainly improve the detection of domains which belong to already identified families. Our methods learn global correction rules that adjust amino-acid distributions associated with the match states of HMMs. These rules are applied to all match states of the whole HMM library, thus enabling the detection of domains from previously absent families. Additionally, we propose a procedure to estimate the proportion of false positives among the newly discovered domains. Starting with the Pfam standard library, we build several new libraries with the different HMM-fitting approaches. These libraries are first used to detect new domain occurrences with low E-values. Second, by applying the Co-Occurrence Domain Discovery (CODD) procedure we have recently proposed, the libraries are further used to identify likely occurrences among potential domains with higher E-values.
We show that the new approaches allow identification of several domain families previously absent in the P. falciparum proteome and the Apicomplexa phylum, and identify many domains that are not detected by previous approaches. In terms of the number of new discovered domains, the new approaches outperform the previous ones when no close species are available or when they are used to identify likely occurrences among potential domains with high E-values. All predictions on P. falciparum have been integrated into a dedicated website which pools all known/new annotations of protein domains and functions for this organism. A software implementing the two proposed approaches is available at the same address: http://www.lirmm.fr/∼terrapon/HMMﬁt/
InterPro is an integrated resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which integrates the following protein signature databases: PROSITE, PRINTS, ProDom, Pfam, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF, SUPERFAMILY, Gene3D and PANTHER. The latter two new member databases have been integrated since the last publication in this journal. There have been several new developments in InterPro, including an additional reading field, new database links, extensions to the web interface and additional match XML files. InterPro has always provided matches to UniProtKB proteins on the website and in the match XML file on the FTP site. Additional matches to proteins in UniParc (UniProt archive) are now available for download in the new match XML files only. The latest InterPro release (13.0) contains more than 13 000 entries, covering over 78% of all proteins in UniProtKB. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (), and for download by anonymous FTP (). The InterProScan search tool is now also available via a web service at .
The EyeSite is a web-based database of protein families for proteins that function in the eye and their homologous sequences. The resource clusters proteins at different levels of homology in order to faciltate functional annotation of sequences and modelling of proteins from structural homologues. Eye proteins are organized into the tissue types in which they function and are clustered into homologous families using a novel protocol employing the TribeMCL algorithm. Homologous families are further subdivided into sequence clusters for which multiple sequence alignments are generated. Structural annotations from the CATH domain database are provided for nearly 90% of the sequences, and protein family annotations from the Pfam database for ∼86%. Homology models have also been generated where appropriate. The EyeSite is stored in a relational database and is extensively linked to other online bioinformatics resources to help relate allelic variants, annotations and clinical details to the derived data in the database. The EyeSite is available for online search, sequence information and model retrieval at http://eyesite.cryst.bbk.ac.uk/.
The Protein Information Resource (PIR) serves as an integrated public resource of functional annotation of protein data to support genomic/proteomic research and scientific discovery. The PIR, in collaboration with the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS) and the Japan International Protein Information Database (JIPID), produces the PIR-International Protein Sequence Database (PSD), the major annotated protein sequence database in the public domain, containing about 250 000 proteins. To improve protein annotation and the coverage of experimentally validated data, a bibliography submission system is developed for scientists to submit, categorize and retrieve literature information. Comprehensive protein information is available from iProClass, which includes family classification at the superfamily, domain and motif levels, structural and functional features of proteins, as well as cross-references to over 40 biological databases. To provide timely and comprehensive protein data with source attribution, we have introduced a non-redundant reference protein database, PIR-NREF. The database consists of about 800 000 proteins collected from PIR-PSD, SWISS-PROT, TrEMBL, GenPept, RefSeq and PDB, with composite protein names and literature data. To promote database interoperability, we provide XML data distribution and open database schema, and adopt common ontologies. The PIR web site (http://pir.georgetown.edu/) features data mining and sequence analysis tools for information retrieval and functional identification of proteins based on both sequence and annotation information. The PIR databases and other files are also available by FTP (ftp://nbrfa.georgetown.edu/pir_databases).
CDD, the Conserved Domain Database, is part of NCBI’s Entrez query and retrieval system and is also accessible via http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/cdd.shtml. CDD provides annotation of protein sequences with the location of conserved domain footprints and functional sites inferred from these footprints. Pre-computed annotation is available via Entrez, and interactive search services accept single protein or nucleotide queries, as well as batch submissions of protein query sequences, utilizing RPS-BLAST to rapidly identify putative matches. CDD incorporates several protein domain and full-length protein model collections, and maintains an active curation effort that aims at providing fine grained classifications for major and well-characterized protein domain families, as supported by available protein three-dimensional (3D) structure and the published literature. To this date, the majority of protein 3D structures are represented by models tracked by CDD, and CDD curators are characterizing novel families that emerge from protein structure determination efforts.
The Conserved Domain Database (CDD) is now indexed as a separate database within the Entrez system and linked to other Entrez databases such as MEDLINE®. This allows users to search for domain types by name, for example, or to view the domain architecture of any protein in Entrez's sequence database. CDD can be accessed on the WorldWideWeb at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=cdd. Users may also employ the CD-Search service to identify conserved domains in new sequences, at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/wrpsb.cgi. CD-Search results, and pre-computed links from Entrez's protein database, are calculated using the RPS-BLAST algorithm and Position Specific Score Matrices (PSSMs) derived from CDD alignments. CD-Searches are also run by default for protein–protein queries submitted to BLAST® at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST.
CDD mirrors the publicly available domain alignment collections SMART and PFAM, and now also contains alignment models curated at NCBI. Structure information is used to identify the core substructure likely to be present in all family members, and to produce sequence alignments consistent with structure conservation. This alignment model allows NCBI curators to annotate ‘columns’ corresponding to functional sites conserved among family members.
Motivation: Profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) are currently the most popular modeling concept for protein families. They provide sensitive family descriptors, and sequence database searching with pHMMs has become a standard task in today's genome annotation pipelines. On the downside, searching with pHMMs is computationally expensive.
Results: We propose a new method for efficient protein family classification and for speeding up database searches with pHMMs as is necessary for large-scale analysis scenarios. We employ simpler models of protein families called position-specific scoring matrices family models (PSSM-FMs). For fast database search, we combine full-text indexing, efficient exact p-value computation of PSSM match scores and fast fragment chaining. The resulting method is well suited to prefilter the set of sequences to be searched for subsequent database searches with pHMMs. We achieved a classification performance only marginally inferior to hmmsearch, yet, results could be obtained in a fraction of runtime with a speedup of >64-fold. In experiments addressing the method's ability to prefilter the sequence space for subsequent database searches with pHMMs, our method reduces the number of sequences to be searched with hmmsearch to only 0.80% of all sequences. The filter is very fast and leads to a total speedup of factor 43 over the unfiltered search, while retaining >99.5% of the original results. In a lossless filter setup for hmmsearch on UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, we observed a speedup of factor 92.
Availability: The presented algorithms are implemented in the program PoSSuMsearch2, available for download at http://bibiserv.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/possumsearch2/.
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Resampling algorithms provide an empirical, non-parametric approach to determine the statistical significance of annotations in different experimental settings. ResA3 (Resampling Analysis of Arbitrary Annotations, short: ResA) is a novel tool to facilitate the analysis of enrichment and regulation of annotations deposited in various online resources such as KEGG, Gene Ontology and Pfam or any kind of classification. Results are presented in readily accessible navigable table views together with relevant information for statistical inference. The tool is able to analyze multiple types of annotations in a single run and includes a Gene Ontology annotation feature. We successfully tested ResA using a dataset obtained by measuring incorporation rates of stable isotopes into proteins in intact animals. ResA complements existing tools and will help to evaluate the increasing number of large-scale transcriptomics and proteomics datasets (resa.mpi-bn.mpg.de).
Gene3D provides comprehensive structural and functional annotation of most available protein sequences, including the UniProt, RefSeq and Integr8 resources. The main structural annotation is generated through scanning these sequences against the CATH structural domain database profile-HMM library. CATH is a database of manually derived PDB-based structural domains, placed within a hierarchy reflecting topology, homology and conservation and is able to infer more ancient and divergent homology relationships than sequence-based approaches. This data is supplemented with Pfam-A, other non-domain structural predictions (i.e. coiled coils) and experimental data from UniProt. In order to enhance the investigations possible with this data, we have also incorporated a variety of protein annotation resources, including protein–protein interaction data, GO functional assignments, KEGG pathways, FUNCAT functional descriptions and links to microarray expression data. All of this data can be accessed through a newly re-designed website that has a focus on flexibility and clarity, with searches that can be restricted to a single genome or across the entire sequence database. Currently Gene3D contains over 3.5 million domain assignments for nearly 5 million proteins including 527 completed genomes. This is available at: http://gene3d.biochem.ucl.ac.uk/
NCBI's Conserved Domain Database (CDD) is a collection of multiple sequence alignments and derived database search models, which represent protein domains conserved in molecular evolution. The collection can be accessed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/cdd.shtml, and is also part of NCBI's Entrez query and retrieval system, cross-linked to numerous other resources. CDD provides annotation of domain footprints and conserved functional sites on protein sequences. Precalculated domain annotation can be retrieved for protein sequences tracked in NCBI's Entrez system, and CDD's collection of models can be queried with novel protein sequences via the CD-Search service at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/wrpsb.cgi. Starting with the latest version of CDD, v2.14, information from redundant and homologous domain models is summarized at a superfamily level, and domain annotation on proteins is flagged as either ‘specific’ (identifying molecular function with high confidence) or as ‘non-specific’ (identifying superfamily membership only).
The GeneSpeed database () is an online database and resource tool facilitating the detailed study of protein domain homology in the transcriptomes of Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. The population schema for the GeneSpeed database takes advantage of HOWARD™ parallel cluster technology () and performs exhaustive tBLASTn searches covering all pre-assigned PFAM domain classes in all species (currently 7973 domain families) against the respective Unigene EST databases of the selected four transcriptomes. The resulting database provides a complete annotation of presumed protein domain presence for each Unigene cluster. To complement this domain annotation we have also performed a custom transcription factor-family curation of all Pfam domains, incorporated the Gene Ontology classifications for these domains as well as integrated the Novartis SymAtlas2 dataset for both human and mouse which provides rapid and easy access to tissue-based expression analysis. Consequently, the GeneSpeed database provides the user with the capability to browse or search the database by any of these specialized criteria as well as more traditional means (gene identifier, gene symbol, etc.), thereby enabling a supervised analysis of gene families through a top-down hierarchical basis defined by domain content, all directly linked to an optimized gene expression dataset.
PEP is a database of Predictions for Entire Proteomes. The database contains summaries of analyses of protein sequences from a range of organisms representing all three major kingdoms of life: eukaryotes, prokaryotes and archaea. All proteins publicly available for organisms were aligned against SWISS-PROT, TrEMBL and PDB. Additionally, the following annotations are provided: secondary structure, transmembrane helices, coiled coils, regions of low complexity, signal peptides, PROSITE motifs, nuclear localization signals and classes of cellular function. Proteins that contain long regions without regular secondary structure are also identified. We have produced a related database of structural domain-like fragments derived from PEP and clusters based on homology between all fragments. The PEP database, fragments and clusters are distributed freely as a set of flat files and have been integrated into SRS. The PEP group of databases can be accessed from: http://cubic.bioc.columbia.edu/pep.
SMART (Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool, http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de) is a web-based resource used for the annotation of protein domains and the analysis of domain architectures, with particular emphasis on mobile eukaryotic domains. Extensive annotation for each domain family is available, providing information relating to function, subcellular localization, phyletic distribution and tertiary structure. The January 2002 release has added more than 200 hand-curated domain models. This brings the total to over 600 domain families that are widely represented among nuclear, signalling and extracellular proteins. Annotation now includes links to the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database in cases where a human disease is associated with one or more mutations in a particular domain. We have implemented new analysis methods and updated others. New advanced queries provide direct access to the SMART relational database using SQL. This database now contains information on intrinsic sequence features such as transmembrane regions, coiled-coils, signal peptides and internal repeats. SMART output can now be easily included in users’ documents. A SMART mirror has been created at http://smart.ox.ac.uk.
The Localizome server predicts the transmembrane (TM) helix number and TM topology of a user-supplied eukaryotic protein and presents the result as an intuitive graphic representation. It utilizes hmmpfam to detect the presence of Pfam domains and a prediction algorithm, Phobius, to predict the TM helices. The results are combined and checked against the TM topology rules stored in a protein domain database called LocaloDom. LocaloDom is a curated database that contains TM topologies and TM helix numbers of known protein domains. It was constructed from Pfam domains combined with Swiss-Prot annotations and Phobius predictions. The Localizome server corrects the combined results of the user sequence to conform to the rules stored in LocaloDom. Compared with other programs, this server showed the highest accuracy for TM topology prediction: for soluble proteins, the accuracy and coverage were 99 and 75%, respectively, while for TM protein domain regions, they were 96 and 68%, respectively. With a graphical representation of TM topology and TM helix positions with the domain units, the Localizome server is a highly accurate and comprehensive information source for subcellular localization for soluble proteins as well as membrane proteins. The Localizome server can be found at .
There is increasing interest in the development of computational methods to analyze fluorescent microscopy images and enable automated large-scale analysis of the subcellular localization of proteins. Determining the subcellular localization is an integral part of identifying a protein's function, and the application of bioinformatics to this problem provides a valuable tool for the annotation of proteomes. Training and validating algorithms used in image analysis research typically rely on large sets of image data, and would benefit from a large, well-annotated and highly-available database of images and associated metadata.
The Yeast Resource Center Public Image Repository (YRC PIR) is a large database of images depicting the subcellular localization and colocalization of proteins. Designed especially for computational biologists who need large numbers of images, the YRC PIR contains 532,182 TIFF images from nearly 85,000 separate experiments and their associated experimental data. All images and associated data are searchable, and the results browsable, through an intuitive web interface. Search results, experiments, individual images or the entire dataset may be downloaded as standards-compliant OME-TIFF data.
The YRC PIR is a powerful resource for researchers to find, view, and download many images and associated metadata depicting the subcellular localization and colocalization of proteins, or classes of proteins, in a standards-compliant format. The YRC PIR is freely available at http://images.yeastrc.org/.