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1.  Glutathione S-transferase omega genes in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease risk, age-at-diagnosis and brain gene expression: an association study with mechanistic implications 
Background
Glutathione S-transferase omega-1 and 2 genes (GSTO1, GSTO2), residing within an Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (AD and PD) linkage region, have diverse functions including mitigation of oxidative stress and may underlie the pathophysiology of both diseases. GSTO polymorphisms were previously reported to associate with risk and age-at-onset of these diseases, although inconsistent follow-up study designs make interpretation of results difficult. We assessed two previously reported SNPs, GSTO1 rs4925 and GSTO2 rs156697, in AD (3,493 ADs vs. 4,617 controls) and PD (678 PDs vs. 712 controls) for association with disease risk (case-controls), age-at-diagnosis (cases) and brain gene expression levels (autopsied subjects).
Results
We found that rs156697 minor allele associates with significantly increased risk (odds ratio = 1.14, p = 0.038) in the older ADs with age-at-diagnosis > 80 years. The minor allele of GSTO1 rs4925 associates with decreased risk in familial PD (odds ratio = 0.78, p = 0.034). There was no other association with disease risk or age-at-diagnosis. The minor alleles of both GSTO SNPs associate with lower brain levels of GSTO2 (p = 4.7 × 10-11-1.9 × 10-27), but not GSTO1. Pathway analysis of significant genes in our brain expression GWAS, identified significant enrichment for glutathione metabolism genes (p = 0.003).
Conclusion
These results suggest that GSTO locus variants may lower brain GSTO2 levels and consequently confer AD risk in older age. Other glutathione metabolism genes should be assessed for their effects on AD and other chronic, neurologic diseases.
doi:10.1186/1750-1326-7-13
PMCID: PMC3393625  PMID: 22494505
GSTO genes; Disease risk; Gene expression; Association
2.  Glutathione S-Transferase T1, O1 and O2 Polymorphisms Are Associated with Survival in Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Patients 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74724.
Objective
To examine the association of six glutathione transferase (GST) gene polymorphisms (GSTT1, GSTP1/rs1695, GSTO1/rs4925, GSTO2/rs156697, GSTM1, GSTA1/rs3957357) with the survival of patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer and the genotype modifying effect on chemotherapy.
Patients and Methods
A total of 105 patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer were included in the study. The follow-up lasted 5 years. The effect of GSTs polymorphisms on predicting mortality was analyzed by the Cox proportional hazard models, while Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to assess differences in survival.
Results
GSTT1 active, GSTO1 Asp140Asp or GSTO2 Asp142Asp genotypes were independent predictors of a higher risk of death among bladder cancer patients (HR = 2.5, P = 0.028; HR = 2.9, P = 0.022; HR = 3.9, P = 0.001; respectively) and significantly influenced the overall survival. There was no association between GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTA1 gene variants with overall mortality. Only GSTO2 polymorphism showed a significant effect on the survival in the subgroup of patients who received chemotherapy (P = 0.006).
Conclusion
GSTT1 active genotype and GSTO1 Asp140Asp and GSTO2 Asp142Asp genotypes may have a prognostic/pharmacogenomic role in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074724
PMCID: PMC3770566  PMID: 24040330
3.  Revealing the role of Glutathione S-Transferase Omega in age at onset of Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases 
Neurobiology of aging  2005;27(8):1087-1093.
We previously reported a linkage region on chromosome 10q for age-at-onset (AAO) of Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson (PD) diseases. Glutathione S-transferase, Omega-1 (GSTO1) and the adjacent gene GSTO2, located in this linkage region, were then reported to associate with AAO of AD and PD. To examine whether GSTO1 and GSTO2 (hereafter referred to as GSTO1h) are responsible for the linkage evidence, we identified 39 families in AD that lead to our previous linkage and association findings. The evidence of linkage and association was markedly diminished after removing these 39 families from the analyses, thus providing support that GSTO1h drives the original linkage results. The maximum average AAO delayed by GSTO1h SNP 7-1 (rs4825, A nucleotide) was 6.8 (± 4.41) years for AD and 8.6(± 5.71) for PD, respectively. This is comparable to the magnitude of AAO difference by APOE-4 in these same AD and PD families. These findings suggest the presence of genetic heterogeneity for GSTO1h’s effect on AAO, and support GSTO1h’s role in modifying AAO in these two disorders.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.05.013
PMCID: PMC1482739  PMID: 15985314
Alzheimer disease; GSTO1; Age at onset; Association; Linkage
4.  Genetic Variants Associated with Arsenic Susceptibility: Study of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase, Arsenic (+3) Methyltransferase, and Glutathione S-Transferase Omega Genes 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2008;116(4):501-505.
Background
Individual variability in arsenic metabolism may underlie individual susceptibility toward arsenic-induced skin lesions and skin cancer. Metabolism of arsenic proceeds through sequential reduction and oxidative methylation being mediated by the following genes: purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1), and omega 2 (GSTO2). PNP functions as arsenate reductase; As3MT methylates inorganic arsenic and its metabolites; and both GSTO1 and GSTO2 reduce the metabolites. Alteration in functions of these gene products may lead to arsenic-specific disease manifestations.
Objectives
To find any probable association between arsenicism and the exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the above-mentioned arsenic-metabolizing genes, we screened all the exons in those genes in an arsenic-exposed population.
Methods
Using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we screened the exons in 25 cases (individuals with arsenic-induced skin lesions) and 25 controls (individuals without arsenic-induced skin lesions), both groups drinking similar arsenic-contaminated water. The exonic SNPs identified were further genotyped in a total of 428 genetically unrelated individuals (229 cases and 199 controls) for association study.
Results
Among four candidate genes, PNP, As3MT, GSTO1, and GSTO2, we found that distribution of three exonic polymorphisms, His20His, Gly51Ser, and Pro57Pro of PNP, was associated with arsenicism. Genotypes having the minor alleles were significantly overrepresented in the case group: odds ratio (OR) = 1.69 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08–2.66] for His20His; OR = 1.66 [95% CI, 1.04–2.64] for Gly51Ser; and OR = 1.67 [95% CI, 1.05–2.66] for Pro57Pro.
Conclusions
The results indicate that the three PNP variants render individuals susceptible toward developing arsenic-induced skin lesions.
doi:10.1289/ehp.10581
PMCID: PMC2291000  PMID: 18414634
arsenic; As3MT; GSTO1; GSTO2; PNP; skin lesion; susceptibility
5.  Association between cataract and genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTO2 with respect of work place 
Molecular Vision  2012;18:1996-2000.
Purpose
To investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTO2) in relation to the work place contribute to the development of cataract.
Methods
The present case-control study consisted of 186 patients (108 females, 78 males) with cataract and 195 gender-matched healthy controls (111 females, 84 males) were randomly selected from unrelated volunteers in the same clinic. The GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTO2 genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods.
Results
The null genotype of GSTM1 increased the risk of cataract (OR=1.51, 95%CI: 1.01–2.26, p=0.045). The prevalence of GSTT1 and GSTO2 genotypes was similar between cases and controls. There was significant difference between cases and controls for work place (χ2=4.16, df=1, p=0.041). Genetic polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTO2) and work place that were significant by p<0.3 in the univariate analysis were included in the analysis for investigating the additive effects of the genotypes and work place on risk of cataract. Statistical analysis showed that the risk of cataract increased as a function of number of putative high risk factors (χ2=8.001, p=0.005).
Conclusions
This finding suggests that the polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTO2 and also work place may act additively for developing cataract.
PMCID: PMC3413443  PMID: 22876127
6.  Polymorphisms of Glutathione S-transferases Omega-1 among ethnic populations in China 
BMC Genetics  2008;9:29.
Background
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is a genetic factor for many diseases and exhibits great diversities among various populations. We assessed association of the genotypes of Glutathione S-transferases Omega-1 (GSTO1) A140D with ethnicity in China.
Results
Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 1314 individuals from 14 ethnic groups. Polymorphisms of GSTO1 A140D were measured using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Logistic regression was employed to adjustment for regional factor. The frequency of GSTO1 140A allele was 15.49% in the total 14 ethnic populations. Compared to Han ethnic group, two ethnic populations were more likely to have AA or CA genotype [odds ratio (OR): 1.77, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.05–2.98 for Uygur and OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.18–2.69 for Hui]. However, there were no statistically significant differences across 14 ethnic groups when region factor was adjusted. In Han ethnicity, region was significantly associated with AA or CA genotype. Han individuals who resided in North-west of China were more likely to have these genotypes than those in South of China (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21–2.20).
Conclusion
The prevalence of the GSTO1 140A varied significantly among different regional populations in China, which showed that geography played a more important role in the population differentiation for this allele than the ethnicity/race.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-9-29
PMCID: PMC2323397  PMID: 18400112
7.  Glutathione S-Transferase Omega 1 Activity Is Sufficient to Suppress Neurodegeneration in a Drosophila Model of Parkinson Disease* 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2012;287(9):6628-6641.
Background: Glutathione S-transferase Omega has been shown to be associated with Parkinson disease.
Results: Drosophila GSTO1 regulates mitochondrial ATP synthase activity in parkin mutants.
Conclusion: Drosophila GSTO1 plays a protective role in a Drosophila model of Parkinson disease.
Significance: These findings may lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of neuroprotection due to GSTO in Parkinson disease.
A loss-of-function mutation in the gene parkin causes a common neurodegenerative disease that may be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Glutathione S-transferase Omega (GSTO) is involved in cell defense mechanisms, but little is known about the role of GSTO in the progression of Parkinson disease. Here, we report that restoration of Drosophila GSTO1 (DmGSTO1), which is down-regulated in parkin mutants, alleviates some of the parkin pathogenic phenotypes and that the loss of DmGSTO1 function enhances parkin mutant phenotypes. We further identified the ATP synthase β subunit as a novel in vivo target of DmGSTO1. We found that glutathionylation of the ATP synthase β subunit is rescued by DmGSTO1 and that the expression of DmGSTO1 partially restores the activity and assembly of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase in parkin mutants. Our results suggest a novel mechanism for the protective role of DmGSTO1 in parkin mutants, through the regulation of ATP synthase activity, and provide insight into potential therapies for Parkinson disease neurodegeneration.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.291179
PMCID: PMC3307323  PMID: 22219196
ATP Synthase; Drosophila Genetics; Enzymes; Mitochondria; Parkinson Disease; Glutathione S-Transferase
8.  GST-omega genes interact with environmental tobacco smoke on adult level of lung function 
Respiratory Research  2013;14(1):83.
Background
Lung growth in utero and lung function loss during adulthood can be affected by exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Both ETS exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Omega genes have been associated with the level of lung function. This study aimed to assess if GSTO SNPs interact with ETS exposure in utero and during adulthood on the level of lung function during adulthood.
Methods
We used cross-sectional data of 8,128 genotyped participants from the LifeLines cohort study. Linear regression models (adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, current smoking, ex-smoking and packyears smoked) were used to analyze the associations between in utero, daily and workplace ETS exposure, GSTO SNPs, the interaction between ETS and GSTOs, and level of lung function (FEV1, FEV1/FVC). Since the interactions between ETS and GSTOs may be modified by active tobacco smoking we additionally assessed associations in never and ever smokers separately. A second sample of 5,308 genotyped LifeLines participants was used to verify our initial findings.
Results
Daily and workplace ETS exposure was associated with significantly lower FEV1 levels. GSTO SNPs (recessive model) interacted with in utero ETS and were associated with higher levels of FEV1, whereas the interactions with daily and workplace ETS exposure were associated with lower levels of FEV1, effects being more pronounced in never smokers. The interaction of GSTO2 SNP rs156697 with in utero ETS associated with a higher level of FEV1 was significantly replicated in the second sample. Overall, the directions of the interactions of in utero and workplace ETS exposure with the SNPs found in the second (verification) sample were in line with the first sample.
Conclusions
GSTO genotypes interact with in utero and adulthood ETS exposure on adult lung function level, but in opposite directions.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-14-83
PMCID: PMC3751364  PMID: 23937118
Genes; Environmental tobacco smoke; Lung function
9.  Glutathione S-transferase omega in the lung and sputum supernatants of COPD patients 
Respiratory Research  2007;8(1):48.
Background
The major contribution to oxidant related lung damage in COPD is from the oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and possibly impaired antioxidant defence. Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most important antioxidants in human lung and lung secretions, but the mechanisms participating in its homeostasis are partly unclear. Glutathione-S-transferase omega (GSTO) is a recently characterized cysteine containing enzyme with the capability to bind and release GSH in vitro. GSTO has not been investigated in human lung or lung diseases.
Methods
GSTO1-1 was investigated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis in 72 lung tissue specimens and 40 sputum specimens from non-smokers, smokers and COPD, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma from healthy non-smokers and smokers. It was also examined in human monocytes and bronchial epithelial cells and their culture mediums in vitro.
Results
GSTO1-1 was mainly expressed in alveolar macrophages, but it was also found in airway and alveolar epithelium and in extracellular fluids including sputum supernatants, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, plasma and cell culture mediums. The levels of GSTO1-1 were significantly lower in the sputum supernatants (p = 0.023) and lung homogenates (p = 0.003) of COPD patients than in non-smokers.
Conclusion
GSTO1-1 is abundant in the alveolar macrophages, but it is also present in extracellular fluids and in airway secretions, the levels being decreased in COPD. The clinical significance of GSTO1-1 and its role in regulating GSH homeostasis in airway secretions, however, needs further investigations.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-8-48
PMCID: PMC1939846  PMID: 17617905
10.  Genetic variation in genes associated with arsenic metabolism: glutathione S-transferase omega 1-1 and purine nucleoside phosphorylase polymorphisms in European and indigenous Americans. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2003;111(11):1421-1427.
Individual variability in human arsenic metabolism has been reported frequently in the literature. This variability could be an underlying determinant of individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced disease in humans. Recent analysis revealing familial aggregation of arsenic metabolic profiles suggests that genetic factors could underlie interindividual variation in arsenic metabolism. We screened two genes responsible for arsenic metabolism, human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (hNP), which functions as an arsenate reductase converting arsenate to arsenite, and human glutathione S-transferase omega 1-1 (hGSTO1-1), which functions as a monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) reductase, converting MMA(V) to MMA(III), to develop a comprehensive catalog of commonly occurring genetic polymorphisms in these genes. This catalog was generated by DNA sequencing of 22 individuals of European ancestry (EA) and 24 individuals of indigenous American (IA) ancestry. In (Italic)hNP(/Italic), 48 polymorphic sites were observed, including 6 that occurred in exons, of which 1 was nonsynonymous (G51S). One intronic polymorphism occurred in a known enhancer region. In hGSTO1-1, 33 polymorphisms were observed. Six polymorphisms occurred in exons, of which 4 were nonsynonymous. In contrast to hNP, in which the IA group was more polymorphic than the EA group, in hGSTO1-1 the EA group was more polymorphic than the IA group, which had only 1 polymorphism with a frequency > 10%. Populations representing genetic admixture between the EA and IA groups, such as Mexican Hispanics, could vary in the extent of polymorphism in these genes based upon the extent of admixture. These data provide a framework in which to conduct genetic association studies of these two genes in relevant populations, thereby allowing hNP and hGSTO1-1 to be evaluated as potential susceptibility genes in human arsenicism.
PMCID: PMC1241635  PMID: 12928150
11.  An analysis of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and Glutathione S-transferase omega-1 genes as modifiers of the cerebral response to ischemia 
BMC Neurology  2009;9:37.
Background
Cerebral ischemia involves a series of reactions which ultimately influence the final volume of a brain infarction. We hypothesize that polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in these reactions could act as modifiers of the cerebral response to ischemia and impact the resultant stroke volume. The final volume of a cerebral infarct is important as it correlates with the morbidity and mortality associated with non-lacunar ischemic strokes.
Methods
The proteins encoded by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and glutathione S-transferase omega-1 (GSTO-1) genes are, through oxidative mechanisms, key participants in the cerebral response to ischemia. On the basis of these biological activities, they were selected as candidate genes for further investigation. We analyzed the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene and the C419A polymorphism in the GSTO-1 gene in 128 patients with non-lacunar ischemic strokes.
Results
We found no significant association of either the MTHFR (p = 0.72) or GSTO-1 (p = 0.58) polymorphisms with cerebral infarct volume.
Conclusion
Our study shows no major gene effect of either the MTHFR or GSTO-1 genes as a modifier of ischemic stroke volume. However, given the relatively small sample size, a minor gene effect is not excluded by this investigation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-9-37
PMCID: PMC2722572  PMID: 19624857
12.  GSTO and AS3MT genetic polymorphisms and differences in urinary arsenic concentrations among residents in Bangladesh 
Biomarkers  2012;17(3):240-247.
We determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glutathione S-transferase omega (GSTO) and arsenic(III)methyltransferase (AS3MT) genes were associated with concentrations of urinary arsenic metabolites among 900 individualswithout skin lesions in Bangladesh. Four SNPs were assessed in these genes. A pathway analysis evaluated the association between urinary arsenic metabolites and SNPs. GSTO1 rs4925 homozygous wild type was significantly associated with higher monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) urinary concentrations, whereas wild type AS3MT rs11191439 had significantly lower levels of AsIII and MMA. Genetic polymorphisms GSTO and As3MT modify arsenic metabolism as evidenced by altered urinary arsenic excretion.
doi:10.3109/1354750X.2012.658863
PMCID: PMC3340466  PMID: 22339537
pathway analysis; arsenic metabolism; drinking water
13.  Genetic polymorphisms in Glutathione S-transferase Omega (GSTO) and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 20 studies 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6578.
Glutathione S-transferase Omega (GSTO) plays an important role in the development of cancer. Recently, a number of studies have investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms on GSTO and susceptibility to cancer; however, the results remain inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of 20 studies, involving 4770 cases and 5701 controls to identify the strength of association by pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the pooled results revealed a significantly increased risk of susceptibility for GSTO2 polymorphism (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.20, 95%CI: 1.02–1.41, Pheterogeneity = 0.116), but no significant association was found for GSTO1 polymorphism. Subgroup analysis showed that GSTO2 polymorphism significantly increased cancer risk in Caucasian population (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.06–1.64, Pheterogeneity = 0.616) and GSTO2 polymorphism was significantly associated with elevated risk of breast cancer (GG vs. AA OR = 1.37, 95%CI: 1.06–1.77; Pheterogeneity = 0.281). This meta-analysis demonstrates that GSTO2 polymorphism may significantly increase cancer risk in Caucasian population and is associated with elevated risk of breast cancer; while GSTO1 polymorphism is not associated with cancer risk.
doi:10.1038/srep06578
PMCID: PMC4192632  PMID: 25300926
14.  Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and risk of arsenic-induced urothelial carcinoma in residents of southwestern Taiwan 
Background
Arsenic exposure is an important public health issue worldwide. Dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC) is consistently observed. Inorganic arsenic is methylated to form the metabolites monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid while ingested. Variations in capacity of xenobiotic detoxification and arsenic methylation might explain individual variation in susceptibility to arsenic-induced cancers.
Methods
To estimate individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced UC, 764 DNA specimens from our long-term follow-up cohort in Southwestern Taiwan were used and the genetic polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and arsenic methylation enzymes including GSTO1 and GSTO2 were genotyped.
Results
The GSTT1 null was marginally associated with increased urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk (HR, 1.91, 95% CI, 1.00-3.65), while the association was not observed for other GSTs. Among the subjects with cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) ≥ 20 mg/L*year, the GSTT1 null genotype conferred a significantly increased cancer risk (RR, 3.25, 95% CI, 1.20-8.80). The gene-environment interaction between the GSTT1 and high arsenic exposure with respect to cancer risk was statistically significant (multiplicative model, p = 0.0151) and etiologic fraction was as high as 0.86 (95% CI, 0.51-1.22). The genetic effects of GSTO1/GSTO2 were largely confined to high arsenic level (CAE ≥ 20). Diplotype analysis showed that among subjects exposed to high levels of arsenic, the AGG/AGG variant of GSTO1 Ala140Asp, GSTO2 5'UTR (-183)A/G, and GSTO2 Asn142Asp was associated with an increased cancer risk (HRs, 4.91, 95% CI, 1.02-23.74) when compared to the all-wildtype reference, respectively.
Conclusions
The GSTs do not play a critical role in arsenic-induced urothelial carcinogenesis. The genetic effects of GSTT1 and GSTO1 on arsenic-induced urothelial carcinogenesis are largely confined to very high exposure level.
doi:10.1186/1423-0127-18-51
PMCID: PMC3199751  PMID: 21798077
15.  Human GST Loci as Markers of Evolutionary Forces: GSTO1*E155del and GSTO1*E208K Polymorphisms May Be Under Natural Selection Induced by Environmental Arsenic 
Disease markers  2011;31(4):231-239.
Over the last two decades, significant data has been accumulated linking Glutatione S-Transferases (GSTs) with the development of several diseases. Contemporary studies have demonstrated the impact of ethnicity on GST allele frequencies. The aim is to verify if the variability of GST genes reflects population demographic history or rather selective pressures.
GST genes (GSTM1, GSTO1 GSTO2, GSTT1) were analysed in three Ecuadorian populations (Cayapas, n = 114; Colorados, n = 104; African-Ecuadorian, n = 77) and compared with HapMap data. GST SNPs were determined using the PCR-RFLP method while GST null phenotype was determined using a Multiplex PCR.
The population relationship achieved using GSTM1 positive/null, GSTO1*A140D, GSTO2*N142D and GSTT1 positive/null are in agreement with the data obtained using neutral polymorphisms: Amerindians are close to Asian populations and African-Ecuadorians to African populations. To what concerns GSTO1*del155 and GSTO1*K208 variants, allele frequencies never exceeded 10%, showing no significant differences in the Ecuadorian groups and in worldwide populations.
The features of GSTO1*del155 and GSTO1*K208 variants and their association with arsenic biotransformation deficiency suggest the presence of a selection mechanism towards these loci. In particular, this hypothesis is strengthened by a possible linkage between these alleles and the susceptibility of arsenic-induced male infertility.
doi:10.3233/DMA-2011-0821
PMCID: PMC3826775  PMID: 22045430
Detoxification enzyme; Ecuador ethnic groups; natural selection; arsenic-induced male infertility
16.  Glutathione S-transferase Omega 2 Genetic Polymorphism and Risk of Hepatic Failure that Lead to Liver Transplantation in Iranian Population 
Background: Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for both acute and chronic hepatic failure. GSTs family is one of the most important genes in phase II detoxification interfering with the xenobiotics and free radical metabolism. GSTO2 (N142D) is a member of this family the polymorphism of which may influence the metabolism of active components and free radicals and may contribute to hepatic failure.
Objective: To investigate the association between GSTO2 genetic polymorphism and the susceptibility of hepatic failure that would lead to liver transplantation.
Methods: This case-control study included 330 healthy people and 302 patients with liver transplantation as a result of hepatic failure. To determine the variants of GSTO2, we used polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method.
Results: There was a significant association between D allele and hepatic failure, thus, people with DD genotype are more susceptible to develop heaptic failure leading to liver transplantation (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.10–2.95, p=0.02). We also observed that male sex increases the chance of hepatic failure (OR=2.69, 95% CI: 1.95–3.71, p=0.001).
Conclusion: D allele may reduce the detoxification ability of liver so people with mutant D allele are more prone to develop hepatic failure.
PMCID: PMC4089303  PMID: 25013648
Hepatic failure; Liver transplantation; Glutathione S-transferase
17.  Interaction of Omega, Sigma, and Theta Glutathione Transferases with p38b Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase from the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster 
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a diverse family of phase II detoxification enzymes found in almost all organisms. Besides playing a major role in the detoxification of xenobiotic and toxic compounds, GSTs are also involved in the regulation of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction by interaction with proteins in the pathway. An in vitro study was performed for Theta, Omega, Sigma GSTs and their interaction with MAP kinase p38b protein from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The study included the effects of all five Omega class GSTs (DmGSTO1, DmGSTO2a, DmGSTO2b, DmGSTO3, DmGSTO4), all five Theta class GSTs (DmGSTT1, DmGSTT2, DmGSTT3a, DmGSTT3b, DmGSTT4), and one Sigma class glutathione transferase on the activity of Drosophila p38b, including the reciprocal effect of this kinase protein on glutathione transferase activity. It was found that DmGSTT2, DmGSTT3b, DmGSTO1, and DmGSTO3 activated p38b significantly. Substrate specificities of GSTs were also altered after co-incubation with p38b. Although p38b activated DmGSTO1, DmGSTO2a, and DmGSTT2, it inhibited DmGSTT3b and DmGSTO3 activity toward xenobiotic and physiological substrates tested. These results suggest a novel link between Omega and Theta GSTs with the p38b MAP kinase pathway.
doi:10.1673/031.014.60
PMCID: PMC4207522  PMID: 25373207
18.  Association of Genetic Variation in Cystathionine-β-Synthase and Arsenic Metabolism 
Environmental research  2010;110(6):580-587.
Variation in individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced disease may be partially explained by genetic differences in arsenic metabolism. Mounting epidemiological evidence and in vitro studies suggest that methylated arsenic metabolites, particularly monomethylarsonic (MMA3), are more acutely toxic than inorganic arsenic; thus, MMA3 may be the primary toxic arsenic species. To test the role of genetic variation in arsenic metabolism, polymorphisms in genes involved in one-carbon metabolism [methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), thymidylate synthase (TYMS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1] and glutathione biosynthesis [glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1)] were examined in an arsenic exposed population to determine their influence in urinary arsenic metabolite patterns. In 142 subjects in Cordoba Province, Argentina, variant genotypes for CBS rs234709 and rs4920037 SNPs compared with wild-type homozygotes were associated with 24% and 26% increases, respectively, in the mean proportion of arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%MMA). This difference is within the range of differences in %MMA seen between people with arsenic-related disease and those without such disease in other studies. Small inverse associations with CBS rs234709 and rs4920037 variants were also found for the mean levels of the proportion of arsenic excreted as dimethylarsinous acid (%DMA). No other genetic associations were found. These findings are the first to suggest that CBS polymorphisms may influence arsenic metabolism in humans and susceptibility to arsenic-related disease.
doi:10.1016/j.envres.2010.05.001
PMCID: PMC2913479  PMID: 20670920
arsenic; polymorphism; cystathionine-β-synthase; CBS; SNP
19.  A novel Omega-class glutathione S-transferase gene in Apis cerana cerana: molecular characterisation of GSTO2 and its protective effects in oxidative stress 
Cell Stress & Chaperones  2013;18(4):503-516.
Oxidative stress may be the most significant threat to the survival of living organisms. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) serve as the primary defences against xenobiotic and peroxidative-induced oxidative damage. In contrast to other well-defined GST classes, the Omega-class members are poorly understood, particularly in insects. Here, we isolated and characterised the GSTO2 gene from Apis cerana cerana (AccGSTO2). The predicted transcription factor binding sites in the AccGSTO2 promoter suggested possible functions in early development and antioxidant defence. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot analyses indicated that AccGSTO2 was highly expressed in larvae and was predominantly localised to the brain tissue in adults. Moreover, AccGSTO2 transcription was induced by various abiotic stresses. The purified recombinant AccGSTO2 exhibited glutathione-dependent dehydroascorbate reductase and peroxidase activities. Furthermore, it could prevent DNA damage. In addition, Escherichia coli overexpressing AccGSTO2 displayed resistance to long-term oxidative stress exposure in disc diffusion assays. Taken together, these results suggest that AccGSTO2 plays a protective role in counteracting oxidative stress.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-013-0406-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12192-013-0406-2
PMCID: PMC3682018  PMID: 23382010
Apis cerana cerana; GSTO2; Gene expression pattern; Oxidative stress; Biochemical properties
20.  Genetic Polymorphisms Influencing Arsenic Metabolism: Evidence from Argentina 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2007;115(4):599-605.
The susceptibility to arsenic-induced diseases differs greatly between individuals, possibly due to interindividual variations in As metabolism that affect retention and distribution of toxic metabolites. To elucidate the role of genetic factors in As metabolism, we studied how polymorphisms in six genes affected the urinary metabolite pattern in a group of indigenous women (n = 147) in northern Argentina who were exposed to approximately 200 μg/L As in drinking water. These women had low urinary percentages of monomethylated As (MMA) and high percentages of dimethylated As (DMA). MMA has been associated with adverse health effects, and DMA has the lowest body retention of the metabolites. The genes studied were arsenic(+III)methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and glutathione S-transferases mu 1 (GSTM1) and theta 1 (GSTT1). We found three intronic polymorphisms in AS3MT (G12390C, C14215T, and G35991A) associated with a lower percentage of MMA (%MMA) and a higher percentage of DMA (%DMA) in urine. The variant homozygotes showed approximately half the %MMA compared with wild-type homozygotes. These polymorphisms were in strong linkage, with high allelic frequencies (72–76%) compared with other populations. We also saw minor effects of other polymorphisms in the multivariate regression analysis with effect modification for the deletion genotypes for GSTM1 (affecting %MMA) and GSTT1 (affecting %MMA and %DMA). For pregnant women, effect modification was seen for the folate-metabolizing genes MTR and MTHFR. In conclusion, these findings indicate that polymorphisms in AS3MT—and possibly GSTM1, GSTT1, MTR, and MTHFR—are responsible for a large part of the interindividual variation in As metabolism and susceptibility.
doi:10.1289/ehp.9734
PMCID: PMC1852682  PMID: 17450230
arsenic; AS3MT; GSTM1; GSTO1; GSTT1; metabolism; methylation; MTHFR; MTR; polymorphisms
21.  Metabolism of Low-Dose Inorganic Arsenic in a Central European Population: Influence of Sex and Genetic Polymorphisms 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2007;115(7):1081-1086.
Background
There is a wide variation in susceptibility to health effects of arsenic, which, in part, may be due to differences in arsenic metabolism. Arsenic is metabolized by reduction and methylation reactions, catalyzed by reductases and methyltransferases.
Objectives
Our goal in this study was to elucidate the influence of various demographic and genetic factors on the metabolism of arsenic.
Methods
We studied 415 individuals from Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia by measuring arsenic metabolites in urine using liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICPMS). We performed genotyping of arsenic (+III) methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1), and methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR).
Results
The results show that the M287T (T→C) polymorphism in the AS3MT gene, the A222V (C→T) polymorphism in the MTHFR gene, body mass index, and sex are major factors that influence arsenic metabolism in this population, with a median of 8.0 μg/L arsenic in urine. Females < 60 years of age had, in general, higher methylation efficiency than males, indicating an influence of sex steroids. That might also explain the observed better methylation in overweight or obese women, compared with normal weight men. The influence of the M287T (T→C) polymorphism in the AS3MT gene on the methylation capacity was much more pronounced in men than in women.
Conclusions
The factors investigated explained almost 20% of the variation seen in the metabolism of arsenic among men and only around 4% of the variation among women. The rest of the variation is probably explained by other methyltransferases backing up the methylation of arsenic.
doi:10.1289/ehp.10026
PMCID: PMC1913583  PMID: 17637926
arsenic; AS3MT; blood; GSTO1; methylation; MTHFR; polymorphisms; sex; urine
22.  Glutathione Transferase Omega 1 Catalyzes the Reduction of S-(Phenacyl)glutathiones to Acetophenones 
Chemical research in toxicology  2007;20(1):149-154.
S-(Phenacyl)glutathione reductase (SPG-R) plays a significant role in the biotransformation of reactive α-haloketones to non-toxic acetophenones. Comparison of the apparent subunit size, amino-acid composition, and catalysis of the reduction of S-(phenacyl)glutathiones indicated that a previously described rat SPG-R (Kitada et al. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260,11749-11754) is homologous to the omega-class glutathione transferase GSTO1-1. The available data show that the SPG-R reaction is catalyzed by GSTO1-1 and not by other GSTs, including the closely related GSTO2-2 isoenzyme. In the proposed reaction mechanism, the active-site cysteine residue of GSTO1-1 reacts with the S-(phenacyl)glutathione substrate to give an acetophenone and a mixed disulfide with the active-site cysteine; a second thiol substrate (e.g., glutathione or 2-mercaptoethanol) reacts with the active-site disulfide to regenerate the catalytically active enzyme and to form a mixed disulfide. A new spectrophotometric assay was developed that allows the rapid determination of SPG-R activity and specific measurement of GSTO1-1 in the presence of other GSTs. This is the first specific reaction attributed to GSTO1-1, and these results demonstrate the catalytic diversity of GSTO1-1, which, in addition to SPG-R activity, catalyzes the reduction of dehydroascorbate and monomethylarsonate (V) and also possesses thioltransferase and GST activity.
doi:10.1021/tx600305y
PMCID: PMC2562259  PMID: 17226937
23.  Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Glutathione S-transferase Omega 1 that Impair Cancer Drug Resistance 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2011;133(41):16605-16616.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a superfamily of enzymes that conjugate glutathione to a wide variety of both exogenous and endogenous compounds for biotransformation and/or removal. Glutathione S-tranferase omega 1 (GSTO1) is highly expressed in human cancer cells, where it has been suggested to play a role in detoxification of chemotherapeutic agents. Selective inhibitors of GSTO1 are, however, required to test the role that this enzyme plays in cancer and other (patho)physiological processes. With this goal in mind, we performed a fluorescence polarization activity-based protein profiling (fluopol-ABPP) high-throughput screen (HTS) with GSTO1 and the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR) 300K+ compound library. This screen identified a class of selective and irreversible α-chloroacetamide inhibitors of GSTO1, which were optimized to generate an agent KT53 that inactivates GSTO1 with excellent in vitro (IC50 = 21 nM) and in situ (IC50 = 35 nM) potency. Cancer cells treated with KT53 show heightened sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin, supporting a role for GSTO1 in the detoxification of chemo-therapeutic agents
doi:10.1021/ja2066972
PMCID: PMC3226709  PMID: 21899313
24.  Framingham Heart Study genome-wide association: results for pulmonary function measures 
BMC Medical Genetics  2007;8(Suppl 1):S8.
Background
Pulmonary function measures obtained by spirometry are used to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are highly heritable. We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses (Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip) for measures of lung function in the Framingham Heart Study.
Methods
Ten spirometry phenotypes including percent of predicted measures, mean spirometry measures over two examinations, and rates of change based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow from the 25th to 75th percentile (FEF25–75), the FEV1/FVC ratio, and the FEF25–75/FVC ratio were examined. Percent predicted phenotypes were created using each participant's latest exam with spirometry. Predicted lung function was estimated using models defined in the set of healthy never-smokers, and standardized residuals of percent predicted measures were created adjusting for smoking status, pack-years, and body mass index (BMI). All modeling was performed stratified by sex and cohort. Mean spirometry phenotypes were created using data from two examinations and adjusting for age, BMI, height, smoking and pack-years. Change in pulmonary function over time was studied using two to four examinations with spirometry to calculate slopes, which were then adjusted for age, height, smoking and pack-years.
Results
Analyses were restricted to 70,987 autosomal SNPs with minor allele frequency ≥ 10%, genotype call rate ≥ 80%, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium p-value ≥ 0.001. A SNP in the interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) on chromosome 1 was among the best results for percent predicted FEF25–75. A non-synonymous coding SNP in glutathione S-transferase omega 2 (GSTO2) on chromosome 10 had top-ranked results studying the mean FEV1 and FVC measurements from two examinations. SNPs nearby the SOD3 and vitamin D binding protein genes, candidate genes for COPD, exhibited association to percent predicted phenotypes.
Conclusion
GSTO2 and IL6R are credible candidate genes for association to pulmonary function identified by GWA. These and other observed associations warrant replication studies. This resource of GWA results for pulmonary function measures is publicly available at .
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-8-S1-S8
PMCID: PMC1995616  PMID: 17903307
25.  Genetic Variants Associated with the Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with and without Lung Cancer 
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a strong risk factor for lung cancer. Published studies regarding variations of genes encoding glutathione metabolism, DNA repair, and inflammatory response pathways in susceptibility to COPD were inconclusive.
We evaluated 470 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 56 genes of these 3 pathways in 620 cases and 893 controls to identify susceptibility markers for COPD risk, using existing resources. We assessed SNP- and gene-level effects adjusting for sex, age, and smoking status. Differential genetic effects on disease risk with and without lung cancer were also assessed; cumulative risk models were established.
Twenty-one SNPs were found to be significantly associated with risk of COPD (P<0.01); gene-based analyses confirmed 2 genes (GCLC and GSS) and identified 3 additional (GSTO2, ERCC1, and RRM1). Carrying 12 high-risk alleles may increase risk by 2.7-fold; 8 SNPs altered COPD risk with lung cancer 3.1-fold, and 4 SNPs altered the risk without lung cancer 2.3-fold.
Our findings indicate that multiple genetic variations in the 3 selected pathways contribute to COPD risk through GCLC, GSS, GSTO2, ERCC1, and RRM1 genes. Functional studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of these genes in the development of COPD, lung cancer, or both.
doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0243
PMCID: PMC3414259  PMID: 22044695
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Glutathione Metabolism Pathway; DNA Repair Pathway; Inflammatory Response Pathway

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