Pharmacogenetic testing to individualize ACE inhibitor therapy remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effect modification of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene on any outcome in patients treated with ACE inhibitors for cardiovascular and/or renal disease.
Our systematic review involved searching six electronic databases, then contacting the investigators (and pharmaceutical industry representatives) responsible for the creation of these databases. Two reviewers independently selected relevant randomized, placebo-controlled trials and abstracted from each study details on characteristics and quality.
Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Despite repeated efforts to contact authors, only four of the eleven studies provided sufficient data to quantify the effect modification by genotypes. We observed a trend towards better response to ACE inhibitors in Caucasian DD carriers compared to II carriers, in terms of blood pressure, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, ACE activity and progression to end-stage renal failure. Pooling of the results was inappropriate, due to heterogeneity in ethnicity, clinical domains and outcomes.
Lack of sufficient genetic data from the reviewed studies precluded drawing any convincing conclusions. Better reporting of genetic data are needed to confirm our preliminary observations concerning better response to ACE inhibitors among Caucasian DD carriers as compared to II carriers.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme; pharmacogenetics; ACE I/D polymorphism
Objective To examine the safety of using aliskiren combined with agents used to block the renin-angiotensin system.
Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and two trial registries, published up to 7 May 2011.
Study selection Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials that compared combined treatment using aliskiren and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers with monotherapy using these agents for at least four weeks and that provided numerical data on the adverse event outcomes of hyperkalaemia and acute kidney injury. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals for these outcomes.
Results 10 randomised controlled studies (4814 participants) were included in the analysis. Combination therapy with aliskiren and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers significantly increased the risk of hyperkalaemia compared with monotherapy using angiotensin converting enzymes or angiotensin receptor blockers (relative risk 1.58, 95% confidence interval 1.24 to 2.02) or aliskiren alone (1.67, 1.01 to 2.79). The risk of acute kidney injury did not differ significantly between the combined therapy and monotherapy groups (1.14, 0.68 to 1.89).
Conclusion Use of aliskerin in combination with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers is associated with an increased risk for hyperkalaemia. The combined use of these agents warrants careful monitoring of serum potassium levels.
Emerging perioperative genomics may influence the direction of risk assessment and surgical strategies in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) affect the clinical presentation and predispose to increased risk for postoperative adverse events in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG).
A total of 220 patients undergoing first-time CABG between January 2005 and May 2008 were screened for factor V gene G1691A (FVL), prothrombin/factor II G20210A (PT G20210A), angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE-ins/del) polymorphisms by PCR and Real Time PCR. End points were defined as death, myocardial infarction, stroke, postoperative bleeding, respiratory and renal insufficiency and event-free survival. Patients were compared to assess for any independent association between genotypes for thrombosis and postoperative phenotypes.
Among 220 patients, the prevalence of the heterozygous FVL mutation was 10.9% (n = 24), and 3.6% (n = 8) were heterozygous carriers of the PT G20210A mutation. Genotype distribution of ACE-ins/del was 16.6%, 51.9%, and 31.5% in genotypes I/I, I/D, and D/D, respectively. FVL and PT G20210A mutations were associated with higher prevalence of totally occluded coronary arteries (p < 0.001). Furthermore the risk of left ventricular aneurysm formation was significantly higher in FVL heterozygote group compared to FVL G1691G (p = 0.002). ACE D/D genotype was associated with hypertension (p = 0.004), peripheral vascular disease (p = 0.006), and previous myocardial infarction (p = 0.007).
FVL and PT G20210A genotypes had a higher prevalence of totally occluded vessels potentially as a result of atherothrombotic events. However, none of the genotypes investigated were independently associated with mortality.
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the occurrence of asthma and dyspnoea precipitated or worsened by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. DESIGN--Summary of reports of adverse respiratory reaction in relation to treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors that were submitted to Swedish Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee and to World Health Organisation's international drug information system until 1992. Sales of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in Sweden were also summarised. SUBJECTS--Patients receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors who reported adverse respiratory reactions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Clinical characteristics of adverse reactions of asthma, bronchospasm, and dyspnoea. RESULTS--In Sweden 424 adverse respiratory reactions were reported, of which most (374) were coughing. However, 36 patients had adverse drug reactions diagnosed as asthma, bronchospasm, or dyspnoea. In 33 of these cases the indication for treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors was hypertension, in only three heart failure. The respiratory symptoms occurred in about half of the patients within the first two weeks of treatment, and about one third needed hospitalisation or drug treatment. Dyspnoea symptoms occurred in conjunction with other symptoms from the airways or skin in 23 out of the 36 cases. In the WHO database there were 318 reports of asthma or bronchospasm, 516 reports of dyspnoea, and 7260 reports of cough in relation to 11 different angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. CONCLUSION--Symptoms of airway obstruction in relation to treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors seem to be a rare but potentially serious reaction generally occurring within the first few weeks of treatment.
Objective: To evaluate prospectively the influence of an angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism on long term clinical outcome of patients with established coronary artery disease treated by percutaneous coronary intervention.
Design and setting: Prospective observational study in a university hospital.
Patients: Consecutive series of 1010 patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease who underwent successful coronary stent placement from November 1996 to April 1998.
Main outcome measures: Long term clinical outcome was obtained and the rates of major adverse cardiac events (death, non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and revascularisation) were compared according to the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene.
Results: Of the 1010 patients 29% had the DD genotype, 51% had the ID genotype, and 20% had the II genotype. All baseline clinical angiographic and procedural characteristics were identical in the three groups of patients. Event-free survival during the follow up period (median two years) was identical in patients with the II genotype compared to those with one or two D alleles. The predictors of long term survival were age, diabetes, ejection fraction, and extension of coronary artery disease. ACE genotype had no influence on the long term survival. Additional analyses assuming dominant and recessive effects of the D allele also failed to find any association; nor did the examination of low risk subgroups.
Conclusions: The ACE I/D polymorphism does not influence the long term prognosis of patients with coronary disease treated by percutaneous coronary intervention, and screening patients for this gene polymorphism is not useful for secondary prevention strategies.
ACE genotype; polymorphism; stent; angioplasty; long term outcome; coronary artery disease
The main objective of this study was to investigate the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genotype as a possible risk factor for migraine (both with and without aura) compared to controls. We also wanted to examine whether a clinical response to an ACE inhibitor, lisinopril, or an angiotensin II receptor blocker, candesartan, in migraine prophylaxis was related to ACE genotype.
347 migraine patients aged 18–68 (155 migraine without aura (MoA), 187 migraine with aura (MwA) and 5 missing aura subgroup data) and 403 healthy non-migrainous controls > 40 years of age were included in the study. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on the genomic DNA samples to obtain the ACE insertion (I)/deletion(D) polymorphisms.
No significant differences between migraine patients and controls were found with regard to ACE genotype and allele distributions. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the controls and the MwA or MoA subgroups.
In our sample there is no association between ACE genotype or allele frequency and migraine. In addition, ACE genotype in our experience did not predict the clinical response to lisinopril or candesartan used as migraine prophylactics.
We investigated the impact of polymorphisms in key renin angiotensin system genes on the association between angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEINH) exposure and global and executive cognitive function in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study.
3,075 participants: mean age: 73.6 years, 58% Caucasian, 52% women, 15% on ACEINH, 8 years of follow-up.
The phenotypes were longitudinal change in Executive Clock Draw test-1 (CLOX1), the Digit Symbol Substitution test, and the Modified Mini Mental Status Examination. The genetic polymorphisms included the angiotensin converting enzyme insertion deletion (ACEID) in the angiotensin converting enzyme gene and the M235T and 6AG polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene (AGT).
The 6AG and M235T polymorphisms in AGT had significant interaction with ACEINH exposure on the longitudinal change in CLOX1 scores in Caucasian participants (p=0.01 for both polymorphisms) independent of blood pressure levels. Specifically, ACEINH exposure was protective against CLOX1 score decline in carriers of the AA genotype of the 6AG and the CC genotype of the M235T (p-value for the ACEINH vs non-ACEINH groups =0.01 for 6AG and 0.005 for M235T) but not the other genotypes. These associations were not significant with other cognitive tests, with ACEID, or in African Americans.
ACEINH may provide a protective effect on executive function in Caucasians with AGT polymorphisms known to be associated with increased renin angiotensin system activity. If confirmed in a pharmacogenetic trial, ACEINH may have additional cognitive protection in a select group of elderly individuals.
hypertension; cognitive function; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; angiotensinogen gene
Immunosuppressive drugs have a narrow therapeutic range and a large inter-individual response variability, which has prompted pharmacogenetic studies, mostly with regard to their dose-concentration relationships, but also about proteins involved in their pharmacodynamics. Some polymorphisms in genes involved in their disposition pathways were shown to affect their dose-concentration relationships. The impact of pharmacogenetics on their tissue distribution and the resulting clinical effects have less often been studied. More importantly, a few single nucleotide polymorphisms seem to have a significant impact on the incidence of acute rejection or the adverse effects of immunosuppressants. Environmental factors often interact with such genotype-phenotype relationships.
Current knowledge about the impact of genetic polymorphisms of the metabolic enzymes, membrane transporters and target proteins of mycophenolic acid, calcineurin inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors on clinical outcomes in kidney transplantation.
The current level of evidence is not yet high enough to recommend pharmacogenetic personalization of immunosuppressive regimens in transplant recipients. The prevention of cellular toxicity associated with local metabolism or transport, which cannot be addressed by routine monitoring, is worth investigating further.
Calcineurin; antagonists & inhibitors; Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A; genetics; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Enzyme Inhibitors; pharmacokinetics; toxicity; Genotype; Glucuronosyltransferase; genetics; Humans; IMP Dehydrogenase; genetics; Immunosuppressive Agents; pharmacokinetics; Kidney Transplantation; Mycophenolic Acid; pharmacokinetics; therapeutic use; P-Glycoprotein; genetics; Pharmacogenetics; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; drug effects; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; antagonists & inhibitors; Treatment Outcome; Immunosuppressants; pharmacogenetics; kidney transplantation
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate and describe the clinical course of angio-oedema reactions induced by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. DESIGN AND METHODS--All reports of angio-oedema reactions associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors submitted to Swedish Adverse Reactions Advisory Committee were reviewed and the clinical courses summarised. Numbers of cases judged to be induced by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were related to their annual usage, estimated from total sales of defined daily doses, as well as to the estimated number of new patients. All cases of angio-oedema associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors reported to the World Health Organisation's international drug information system were also summarised. RESULTS--36 of the 38 reported cases in Sweden between 1981 and 1990 were judged to be related to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. During 1981 through 1990, altogether 1309 cases of angio-oedema associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were registered with the international drug information system. The incidence of reported cases of angio-oedema increased largely in parallel with the increased sales (usage) of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Of the 36 Swedish patients, 77% experienced the reaction within the first three weeks after starting treatment. 10 patients needed hospitalisation, two of whom had life threatening laryngeal obstruction. With one exception all 36 patients were free of symptoms within one week after discontinuing the drug. CONCLUSIONS--Angio-oedema induced by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors is a rare but potentially life threatening reaction, which in most instances occurs shortly after the start of treatment. Any patient in whom the reaction is suspected should have the treatment interrupted and, if necessary, be admitted for observation.
Recent literature suggests a genetic component for non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). We examined the association of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene, of the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene, and of the A1166C polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene with NAION.
Forty-seven patients with NAION and 76 controls, age- and gender-matched, were recruited and genotyped for renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) genes. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis. NAION and control groups were compared in regard to the prevalence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system polymorphisms, and further stratified by age and gender.
NAION occurrence was not associated with the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene and the A1166C polymorphism of the angiotensin II, type 1 receptor gene. Regarding the angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism, our findings suggest that the II genotype could be a risk factor for NAION in younger male patients when compared to all cases and controls (p=0.033, odds ratio=5.71, confidence interval=1.152¨C28.35 and p=0.03, odds ratio=5.33, confidence interval=1.17¨C24.31 respectively). Furthermore I allele was present in all male patients younger than 55 years, making this allele a likely predisposing factor for NAION in young males.
Since NAION may occur when compromised watershed microcirculation is combined with insufficient autoregulation of systematic circulation, polymorphisms of genes involved in systematic circulation, such as the RAAS genes, may be associated with NAION occurrence. Large-scale, multicentered, controlled prospective studies are needed to further explore the effects of RAAS polymorphisms or other genetic factors on NAION susceptibility.
Objective To evaluate the effect of angiotensin receptor blockers on the risk of myocardial infarction in patients at risk for cardiovascular events.
Design Systematic review of controlled trials of angiotensin receptor blockers.
Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, hand search, and contact with investigators.
Selection of studies Predefined criteria were used to select controlled clinical trials comparing use of angiotensin receptor blockers with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or placebo in patients at risk for cardiovascular events. Data were extracted for patients' characteristics, interventions, quality of trials, and rates of myocardial infarction.
Results 19 studies with 31 569 patients were included in the analysis. Two studies investigated the use of angiotensin receptor blockers in hypertensive patients, four studies in patients with diabetes and nephropathy, 10 studies in patients with heart failure, and three in patients with recent myocardial infarction or ischaemic syndrome. 11 studies of 21 062 patients allowed for comparison between angiotensin receptor blockers and placebo; nine studies of 10 625 patients allowed for comparison between angiotensin receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors. Use of angiotensin receptor blockers was not associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction compared with placebo (odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.75 to 1.16) nor with increased risk of myocardial infarction compared with ACE inhibitors (1.01, 0.87 to 1.16).
Conclusions Treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers was not associated with a significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction. The 95% confidence intervals do, however, not exclude an increase of up to 16% in the risk of myocardial infarction or a reduction in risk of up to 25%. Until further information specifically dealing with this issue is available from large prospective trials, our findings may alleviate recent concerns over the safety of this class of medications.
Studies conducted over the last decade demonstrated variable therapeutic efficacy of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor on the progression of glomerular diseases, including IgA nephropathy. In this study, among patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy, 53 patients in whom creatinine clearance had been monitored over 5 yr were recruited for study. These patients were classified into two groups according to whether or not renal function had declined as determined by the slope of creatinine clearance against time: group 1 had stable renal function; group 2 had declining renal function (average: -6.7 +/- 1.3 ml/min/yr). 21 of 53 patients were treated with ACE inhibitor and followed for 48 wk. Gene polymorphism consisting of insertion (I) or deletion (D) of a 287-bp DNA fragment (presumed to be a silencer element) of the ACE gene was determined by PCR. 46 age-matched individuals without history of proteinuria were analyzed as controls. The DD genotype was significantly more frequent in group 2 (43%) than in controls (7%) or group 1 patients with stable renal function (16%). 48 wk after ACE inhibitor administration, proteinuria significantly decreased in patients with DD genotype but not in those with ID or II genotypes. The results indicate that deletion polymorphism in the ACE gene, particularly the homozygote DD, is a risk factor for progression to chronic renal failure in IgA nephropathy. Moreover, this deletion polymorphism predicts the therapeutic efficacy of ACE inhibition on proteinuria and, potentially, on progressive deterioration of renal function.
Many studies have investigated the association between the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and risk of ischemic stroke. However, the evidence is inadequate to draw robust conclusions because most studies were generally small and conducted in heterogeneous populations. To shed light on these inconclusive findings, we conducted a large meta-analysis of studies relating the ACE I/D polymorphism to the risk of ischemic stroke.
Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase through February 2012 and by reviewing the references of retrieved articles. We included studies that reported odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between this polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk.
Fifty independent publications, with 10 070 stroke cases and 22 103 controls, were included. The results indicated that the DD homozygote carriers had a 37% higher risk of ischemic stroke when compared with the homozygotes II and heterozygote ID [odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22–1.53]. Subgroup analyses indicated that this higher risk was more pronounced among Asians, hospital-based studies, and small vessel disease (SVD). Potential publication bias may exist, but correction for this bias using a formal statistical method did not materially alter the combined risk estimate.
The results of our meta-analysis indicate that the D allele of ACE I/D polymorphism is a low-penetrance susceptibility marker of ischemic stroke.
Angioedema is a potentially life-threatening adverse effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Bradykinin and substance P, substrates of angiotensin-converting enzyme, increase vascular permeability and cause tissue edema in animals. Studies indicate that amino-terminal degradation of these peptides, by aminopeptidase P and dipeptidyl peptidase IV, may be impaired in individuals with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor–associated angioedema. This case-control study tested the hypothesis that dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity and antigen are decreased in sera of patients with a history of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor–associated angioedema. Fifty subjects with a history of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor–associated angioedema and 176 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor–exposed control subjects were ascertained. Sera were assayed for angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, aminopeptidase P activity, aminopeptidase N activity, dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity, and antigen and the ex vivo degradation half-lives of bradykinin, des-Arg9-bradykinin, and substance P in a subset. The prevalence of smoking was increased and of diabetes decreased in case versus control subjects. Overall, dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity (26.6±7.8 versus 29.6±7.3 nmol/mL per minute; P=0.026) and antigen (465.8±260.8 versus 563.1±208.6 ng/mL; P=0.017) were decreased in sera from individuals with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor–associated angioedema compared with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor–exposed control subjects without angioedema. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity (21.5±4.9 versus 29.8±6.7 nmol/mL per minute; P=0.001) and antigen (354.4±124.7 versus 559.8±163.2 ng/mL; P=0.003) were decreased in sera from cases collected during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition but not in the absence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. The degradation half-life of substance P correlated inversely with dipeptidyl peptidase IV antigen during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. Environmental or genetic factors that reduce dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity may predispose individuals to angioedema.
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; angioneurotic edema; antigens; CD26; substance P; neuropeptides; bradykinin
Genetic polymorphism is suggested to be associated with human physical performance. The angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) polymorphism and the α-actinin-3 gene (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism have been most widely studied for such association analysis. However, the findings are frequently heterogeneous. We aim to summarize the associations of ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X with sport performance by means of meta-analysis.
We systematically reviewed and quantitatively summarized published studies, until October 31, 2012, on relationship between ACE/ACTN3 genetic polymorphisms and sports performance, respectively.
A total of 366 articles on ACE and 88 articles on ACTN3 were achieved by literature search. A significant association was found for ACE II genotype compared to D allele carriage (DD+ID) with increased possibility of physical performance (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05–1.45). With respect to sport discipline, the II genotype was found to be associated with performance in endurance athletes (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.17–1.55). On the other hand, no significant association was observed for ACTN3 RR genotype as compared to X allele carriage (XX+RX) (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.92–1.15). However, when restricted the analyses to power events, a significant association was observed (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.03–1.42).
Our results provide more solid evidence for the associations between ACE II genotype and endurance events and between ACTN3 R allele and power events. The findings suggest that the genetic profiles might influence human physical performance.
Placental, immune and genetic factors are thought to play an important role in preeclampia (PE)'s pathophysiology. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) plays a vital role in the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) which regulates blood pressure by converting angiotensin I into a powerfull vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. A deletion polymorphism (D allele) has been reported to be associated with elevated ACE activity. The aim of the this study was to investigate whether there is an association between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and PE. In this study, 120 preeclamptic and 116 normotensive Turkish pregnant women were genotyped for ACE I/D polymorphism and the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of this polymorphism in preeclampsia and controls were evaluated. Codominant, dominant and recessive models were appplied in ACE gene I/D polymorphism. In the codominant model, DD genotype was found significantly more frequent in preeclampsia than controls (P = 0.016). Moreover, in dominant model (DD frequency versus DI+II frequency) there was a significant relation between DD genotype and preeclampsia (P = 0.006). D allele frequency was 64.6% in preeclampsia while it was 56.1% in controls (P = 0.062). In conclusion, there was significant difference in genotype distribution between preeclampsia and controls.
Heart failure (HF) is a modern epidemic and a heterogeneous disorder with many therapeutic options. While the average response to each individual treatment is favorable, significant interindividual variation exists in the response to HF therapeutics. As a result, the optimal regimen for an individual patient or subgroup of patients is elusive, with current treatment being mainly empirical. Pharmacogenetic customization of HF therapy may provide an important opportunity to improve the treatment of HF. Common genetic variations exist in genes related to most classes of HF drugs, many of which have known functional consequences for or established relationships with drug response. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pharmacogenetics of HF therapeutics, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and β-blockers, and focuses on recent advances and medium-term expectations for the field.
Aldosterone antagonist; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; angiotensin receptor blocker; β-blocker; heart failure; personalized medicine; pharmacogenetics
Renin-angiotensin system is considered important in the genesis of hypertension and development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism has been associated with susceptibility to the development of some renal diseases. We investigated the association of ACE gene polymorphism with the progression to hypertension and ESRD in 108 patients with ADPKD. The ACE I/D polymorphism was amplified with the flanking primers by polymerase chain reaction. In patients genotyped for ACE gene polymorphism, the frequencies of DD (15%), ID (51%) and II (34%) genotypes were similar to those of the general population. Of the 108 patients, 64 (59%) developed hypertension and 24 (22%) reached ESRD at the time of study. The prevalence of hypertension was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The mean renal survival time was 53-6 yr in II genotype, 55+/-10 yr in ID genotype and 52+/-9 yr in DD genotype which was not significantly different among them. Cumulative renal survival was not significantly different either. There was no association of ACE gene polymorphism with the prevalence of hypertension and renal survival in ADPKD. We suggest that ACE I/D polymorphism is not an important modifying gene in the progression of ADPKD.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concept that an insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene predicts the therapeutic efficacy of inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme on progression of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Observational follow up study of patients with insulin dependent diabetes and nephropathy who had been treated with captopril for a median of 7 years (range 3-9 years). SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic in a tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS: 35 patients with insulin dependent diabetes and nephropathy were investigated during captopril treatment (median 75 mg/day (range 12.5 to 150 mg/day)) that was in many cases combined with a loop diuretic, 11 patients were homozygous for the deletion allele and 24 were heterozygous or homozygous for the insertion allele of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Albuminuria, arterial blood pressure, and glomerular filtration rate according to insertion/deletion polymorphism. RESULTS: The two groups had comparable glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, blood pressure, and haemoglobin A1c concentration at baseline. Captopril induced nearly the same reduction in mean blood pressure in the two groups-to 103 (SD 5) mm Hg in the group with the deletion and 102 (8) mm Hg in the group with the insertion-and in geometric mean albumin excretion-573 (antilog SE 1.3) micrograms/min and 470 (1.2) micrograms/min, respectively. The rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate (linear regression of all glomerular filtration rate measurements during antihypertensive treatment) was significantly steeper in the group homozygous for the double deletion allele than in the other group (mean 5.7 (3.7) ml/min/year and 2.6 (2.8) ml/min/year, respectively; P = 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that haemoglobin A1c concentration, albuminuria, and the double deletion genotype independently influenced the sustained rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate (R1 (adjusted) = 0.51). CONCLUSION: The deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme gene reduces the long term beneficial effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on the progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with insulin dependent diabetes.
An insertion/deletion (I/D) variant in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene was associated with ACE inhibitor (ACEI)–related cough in previous studies. However, the results were inconsistent. Our objective was to assess the relationship between the ACE I/D polymorphism and ACEI-related cough by meta-analysis and to summarize all studies that are related to ACE I/D polymorphism and ACEI-cough and make a summary conclusion to provide reference for the researchers who attempt to conduct such a study.
Databases including PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, were searched for genetic association studies. Data were extracted by two independent authors and pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Metaregression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity.
Eleven trials, including 906 cases (ACEI-related cough) and 1,175 controls, were reviewed in the present meta-analysis. The random effects pooled OR was 1.16 (95%CI: 0.78–1.74, p = 0.46) in the dominant model and 1.61 (95%CI: 1.18–2.20, p = 0.003) in the recessive model. Heterogeneity was found among and within studies. Metaregression indicated that the effect size was positively associated with age and negatively associated with follow-up duration of ACEI treatment. Subgroup analysis revealed a significant association between ACE I/D polymorphism and ACEI-related cough in studies with mean age >60 y, but not in studies with mean age ≤60 y. No heterogeneity was found within each mean age subgroup. We also found no association between ACE I/D polymorphism and ACEI-related cough in studies with follow-up>2 mo or in studies in Caucasians. No heterogeneity was detected in these two subgroups.
Synthesis of the available evidence supports ACE I/D polymorphism as an age-dependent predictor for risk of ACEI-related cough.
The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), an important regulator of blood pressure and mediator of hypertension-related complications, is a prime target for cardiovascular drug therapy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were the first drugs to be used to block the RAAS. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have also been shown to be equally effective for treatment. Although these drugs are highly effective and are widely used in the management of hypertension, current treatment regimens with ACEIs and ARBs are unable to completely suppress the RAAS. Combinations of ACEIs and ARBs have been shown to be superior than to either agent alone for some, but certainly not all, composite cardiovascular and kidney outcomes, but dual RAAS blockade with the combination of an ACEI and an ARB is sometimes associated with an increase in the risk for adverse events, primarily hyperkalemia and worsening renal function. The recent introduction of the direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, has made available new combination strategies to obtain a more complete blockade of the RAAS with fewer adverse events. Renin system blockade with aliskiren and another RAAS agent has been, and still is, the subject of many large-scale clinical trials and furthermore, is already available in some countries as a fixed combination.
angiotensin II receptor blockers; renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system; hypertension; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are two major emerging trends in medical sciences, which influence the success of drug development and therapeutics. In current times, though pharmacogenetic studies are being done extensively for research, its application for drug development needs to get started on a large scale. The major determinants of success of a new drug compound, viz safety and efficacy, have become more predictable, with the advent of pharmacogenetic studies. There is a need felt for pharmacogenomic studies, where the effects of multiple genes are assessed with the study of entire genome.
Pharmacogenetic studies can be used at various stages of drug development. The effect of drug target polymorphisms on drug response can be assessed and identified. In clinical studies, pharmacogenetic tests can be used for stratification of patients based on their genotype, which corresponds to their metabolizing capacity. This prevents the occurrence of severe adverse drug reactions and helps in better outcome of clinical trials. This can also reduce attrition of drug compounds. Further, the variations in drug response can be better studied with the wider application of pharmacogenomic methods like genome wide scans, haplotype analysis and candidate gene approaches. The cost of pharmacogenetic testing has become very low, with the advent of newer high throughput genotyping systems. However, the cost of pharmacogenomic methods continues to be very high. As the treatment with several drugs is being more and more pharmacogeneticaly guided (e.g. warfarin and irinotecan), the FDA has laid down guidelines for pharmaceutical firms regarding submission of pharmacogenetic data for their drug products in labelling.
Drug; genotype; pharmaceuticals; pharmacogenetics; pharmacogenomics
Genetic variability in the renin-angiotensin system may modify renal responses to injury and disease progression. We examined whether the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene, the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, and the A1166--> C polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene may be associated with disease progression in 168 Caucasian patients with IgA nephropathy. All patients had serial measurements of their creatinine clearance, proteinuria, and blood pressure (mean+/-SD) with a follow-up of 6.1+/-4.7 yr. The genotype frequencies for each gene were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and were similar to those of 100 Caucasian control subjects. We examined two primary outcomes: (a) the rate of deterioration of Ccr, and (b) the maximal level of proteinuria. We found that patients with the AGT MT (n = 79) and TT (n = 29) genotypes had a faster rate of deterioration of Ccr than those with the MM (n = 60) genotype (i.e., median values, -6.6 and -6.2 vs. -3. 0 ml/min/yr, respectively; P = 0.01 by Kruskal-Wallis test). Similarly, patients with AGT MT and TT genotypes had higher maximal values of proteinuria than those with the MM genotype (i.e., median values, 2.5 and 3.5 vs. 2.0 g/d, respectively; P < 0.02 by Kruskal-Wallis test). Neither the ACE insertion/deletion nor angiotensin II type I A1166--> C gene polymorphism was associated with disease progression or proteinuria in univariate analysis. Multivariant analysis, however, detected an interaction between the AGT and ACE gene polymorphisms with the presence of ACE/DD polymorphism adversely affecting disease progression only in patients with the AGT/MM genotype (P = 0.008). Neither of these gene polymorphisms was associated with systemic hypertension. Our results suggest that polymorphisms at the AGT and ACE gene loci are important markers for predicting progression to chronic renal failure in Caucasian patients with IgA nephropathy.
Despite effective therapies for smoking cessation, most smokers find quitting difficult and most successful quitters relapse. Considerable evidence supports a genetic risk for nicotine dependence; however, less is known about the pharmacogenetics of smoking cessation. In the first pharmacogenetic investigation of the efficacy of varenicline and bupropion, we examined whether genes important in the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of these drugs and nicotine predict medication efficacy and adverse events. Subjects participated in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled smoking cessation clinical trials, comparing varenicline, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist, with bupropion, a norepinephrine/dopamine reuptake inhibitor, and placebo. Primary analysis included 1175 smokers of European ancestry, and 785 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 24 genes, representing 254 linkage disequilibrium (LD) bins (genes included nAChR subunits, additional varenicline-specific genes, and genes involved in nicotine or bupropion metabolism). For varenicline, continuous abstinence (weeks 9–12) was associated with multiple nAChR subunit genes (including CHRNB2, CHRNA5, and CHRNA4) (OR=1.76; 95% CI: 1.23–2.52) (p<0.005); for bupropion, abstinence was associated with CYP2B6 (OR=1.78; 95% CI: 1.27–2.50) (p<0.001). Incidence of nausea was associated with several nAChR subunit genes (OR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.36–0.70) (p<0.0001) and time to relapse after quitting was associated with HTR3B (HR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.45–2.68) (p<0.0001). These data provide evidence for multiple genetic loci contributing to smoking cessation and therapeutic response. Different loci are associated with varenicline vs bupropion response, suggesting that additional research may identify clinically useful markers to guide treatment decisions.
varenicline; bupropion; pharmacogenetics; nicotine; nicotinic receptor; CYP2B6; pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics; addiction and substance abuse; clinical pharmacology/clinical trials; neuropharmacology; varenicline; bupropion; nicotine; smoking cessation; nicotinic receptors
The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in modifying the response to treatment modalities in coronary artery disease is controversial.
PubMed was searched and a database of 58 studies with detailed information regarding ACE I/D polymorphism and response to treatment in coronary artery disease was created. Eligible studies were synthesized using meta-analysis methods, including cumulative meta-analysis. Heterogeneity and study quality issues were explored.
Forty studies involved invasive treatments (coronary angioplasty or coronary artery by-pass grafting) and 18 used conservative treatment options (including anti-hypertensive drugs, lipid lowering therapy and cardiac rehabilitation procedures). Clinical outcomes were investigated by 11 studies, while 47 studies focused on surrogate endpoints. The most studied outcome was the restenosis following coronary angioplasty (34 studies). Heterogeneity among studies (p < 0.01) was revealed and the risk of restenosis following balloon angioplasty was significant under an additive model: the random effects odds ratio was 1.42 (95% confidence interval:1.07–1.91). Cumulative meta-analysis showed a trend of association as information accumulates. The results were affected by population origin and study quality criteria. The meta-analyses for the risk of restenosis following stent angioplasty or after angioplasty and treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors produced non-significant results. The allele contrast random effects odds ratios with the 95% confidence intervals were 1.04(0.92–1.16) and 1.10(0.81–1.48), respectively. Regarding the effect of ACE I/D polymorphism on the response to treatment for the rest outcomes (coronary events, endothelial dysfunction, left ventricular remodeling, progression/regression of atherosclerosis), individual studies showed significance; however, results were discrepant and inconsistent.
In view of available evidence, genetic testing of ACE I/D polymorphism prior to clinical decision making is not currently justified. The relation between ACE genetic variation and response to treatment in CAD remains an unresolved issue. The results of long-term and properly designed prospective studies hold the promise for pharmacogenetically tailored therapy in CAD.