Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH) is a recessively inherited disorder of iron overload occurring commonly in subjects homozygous for the C282Y mutation in HFE gene localized on chromosome 6p21.3 in linkage disequilibrium with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A locus. Although its genetic homogeneity, the phenotypic expression is variable suggesting the presence of modifying factors. One such genetic factor, a SNP microhaplotype named A-A-T, was recently found to be associated with a more severe phenotype and also with low CD8+T-lymphocyte numbers. The present study aimed to test whether the predictive value of the A-A-T microhaplotype remained in other population settings. In this study of 304 HH patients from 3 geographically distant populations (Porto, Portugal 65; Alabama, USA 57; Nord-Trøndelag, Norway 182), the extended haplotypes involving A-A-T were studied in 608 chromosomes and the CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers were determined in all subjects. Patients from Porto had a more severe phenotype than those from other settings. Patients with A-A-T seemed on average to have greater iron stores (p = 0.021), but significant differences were not confirmed in the 3 separate populations. Low CD8+ T-lymphocytes were associated with HLA-A*03-A-A-T in Porto and Alabama patients but not in the greater series from Nord-Trøndelag. Although A-A-T may signal a more severe iron phenotype, this study was unable to prove such an association in all population settings, precluding its use as a universal predictive marker of iron overload in HH. Interestingly, the association between A-A-T and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, which was confirmed in Porto and Alabama patients, was not observed in Nord-Trøndelag patients, showing that common HLA haplotypes like A*01–B*08 or A*03–B*07 segregating with HFE/C282Y in the three populations may carry different messages. These findings further strengthen the relevance of HH as a good disease model to search for novel candidate loci associated with the genetic transmission of CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers.
We wanted to quantify HLA-A and -B allele and haplotype frequencies in Alabama hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity and controls, and to compare results to those in other populations.
Alleles were detected using DNA-based typing (probands) and microlymphocytotoxicity (controls).
Alleles were determined in 139 probands (1,321 controls) and haplotypes in 118 probands (605 controls). In probands, A*03 positivity was 0.7482 (0.2739 controls; p =< 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) 7.9); positivity for B*07, B*14, and B*56 was also increased. In probands, haplotypes A*03-B*07 and A*03-B*14 were more frequent (p < 0.0001, respectively; OR = 12.3 and 11.1, respectively). The haplotypes A*01-B*60, A*02-B*39, A*02-B*62, A*03-B*13, A*03-B*15, A*03-B*27, A*03-B*35, A*03-B*44, A*03-B*47, and A*03-B*57 were also significantly more frequent in probands. 37.3% of probands were HLA-haploidentical with other proband(s).
A*03 and A*03-B*07 frequencies are increased in Alabama probands, as in other hemochromatosis cohorts. Increased absolute frequencies of A*03-B*35 have been reported only in the present Alabama probands and in hemochromatosis patients in Italy. Increased absolute frequencies of A*01-B*60, A*02-B*39, A*02-B*62, A*03-B*13, A*03-B*15, A*03-B*27, A*03-B*44, A*03-B*47, and A*03-B*57 in hemochromatosis cohorts have not been reported previously.
allele; ancestral haplotype; haplotype; HFE; HLA; hemochromatosis; iron; iron overload; population genetics
Different human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes (i.e., the specific combinations of HLA-A, -B, -DR alleles inherited together from one parent) are observed in different frequencies in human populations. Some haplotypes, like HLA-A1-B8, are very frequent, reaching up to 10% in the Caucasian population, while others are very rare. Numerous studies have identified associations between HLA haplotypes and diseases, and differences in haplotype frequencies can in part be explained by these associations: the stronger the association with a severe (autoimmune) disease, the lower the expected HLA haplotype frequency. The peptide repertoires of the HLA molecules composing a haplotype can also influence the frequency of a haplotype. For example, it would seem advantageous to have HLA molecules with non-overlapping binding specificities within a haplotype, as individuals expressing such an haplotype would present a diverse set of peptides from viruses and pathogenic bacteria on the cell surface. To test this hypothesis, we collect the proteome data from a set of common viruses, and estimate the total ligand repertoire of HLA class I haplotypes (HLA-A-B) using in silico predictions. We compare the size of these repertoires to the HLA haplotype frequencies reported in the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP). We find that in most HLA-A and HLA-B pairs have fairly distinct binding motifs, and that the observed haplotypes do not contain HLA-A and -B molecules with more distinct binding motifs than random HLA-A and HLA-B pairs. In addition, the population frequency of a haplotype is not correlated to the distinctness of its HLA-A and HLA-B peptide binding motifs. These results suggest that there is a not a strong selection pressure on the haplotype level favoring haplotypes having HLA molecules with distinct binding motifs, which would result the largest possible presented peptide repertoires in the context of infectious diseases.
haplotypes; HLA antigens; selection; genetic; peptide binding; bioinformatics; computational biology
Objective: To investigate the distributions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A and -B alleles and HLA-A-B haplotypes in the Yi ethnic minority of the Yunnan Province, situated in southwestern China. Methods: DNA typing for HLA-A and -B loci was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method on 114 randomly selected healthy individuals of the Yi population. The allelic frequencies of HLA-A and -B loci were calculated by direct counting and HLA-A-B haplotypes were estimated using the expectation maximization algorithm. Results: A total of 17 HLA-A and 38 HLA-B alleles were found in the Yi population. The most frequent alleles were A*2402 (32.46%), A*1101 (26.32%), and A*0203 (10.09%) at the HLA-A locus and B*4601 (12.28%), B*1525 (10.09%), B*4001 (8.77%), and B*3802 (7.89%) at the HLA-B locus. The predominant HLA-A-B haplotypes were A*2402-B*1525 (7.86%) and A*0203-B*3802 (5.64%), followed by A*1101-B*4001 (4.69%). Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Yi population in the Honghe, Yunnan Province of China basically belongs to groups of southeastern Asian origin, but shares some characteristics with northeastern Asian groups. Conclusion: The present study may add to the understanding of HLA polymorphism in the Yi ethnic group that was poorly defined previously, and provide useful information for bone marrow transplantation, anthropological research, and forensic sciences as well as for disease-association studies.
Yi ethnic minority; Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A; HLA-B; Allele; Haplotype; Polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT)
We demonstrated earlier that individuals homozygous for conserved major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-extended haplotypes have low natural killer (NK) activity as measured by cytolysis of the K562 tumor cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the segregation and MHC linkage of NK activity in families in which MHC haplotypes of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA)-A, -C, and -B, complotype, and DR specificities are known. In two informative families, low activity was inherited as a recessive trait linked to the MHC. By using individuals homozygous for specific fragments of extended haplotypes or for HLA-B alleles, we found that the HLA-C and -B and not the complotype or HLA-DR region contains genes controlling NK activity. The majority of the unrelated individuals with low NK activity were homozygous or doubly heterozygous for HLA-B7 (Cw7), B8 (Cw7), B44 (Cw5), B18, or B57 (Cw6). Thus, these alleles form one complementation group designated NKB1. Another less frequent group, NKB2, was also identified, and consisted of individuals homozygous for B35 (Cw4). NK activity was correlated with the number of circulating NK (CD16+ CD56+) cells. Individuals homozygous for the NKB complementation groups have fewer circulating NK cells than individuals heterozygous for these alleles and alleles of other complementation groups, possibly explaining the low activity of cells in these subjects. These findings suggest that during the maturation of NK cells there is NK cellular deletion in donors homozygous for NKB genes resulting in low NK cell numbers and activity.
Haemochromatosis is a genetic disease associated with progressive iron overload, and is common among populations of northern European origin. HLA-H is a recently reported candidate gene for this condition. Two mutations have been identified, a substitution of cysteine for tyrosine at amino acid 282 (C282Y, nucleotide 845) and of histidine for aspartate at amino acid 63 (H63D, nucleotide 187). Over 90% of UK haemochromatosis patients are homozygous for the C282Y mutation. We have examined 5956 chromosomes (2978 people) for the presence of HLA-H C282Y and H63D by PCR followed by restriction enzyme analysis. We have found world wide allele frequencies of 1.9% for C282Y and 8.1% for H63D. The highest frequencies were 10% for C282Y in 90 Irish chromosomes and 30.4% for H63D in 56 Basque chromosomes. C282Y was most frequent in northern European populations and absent from 1042 African chromosomes, 484 Asian chromosomes, and 644 Australasian chromosomes. The distribution of the C282Y mutation coincides with that of populations in which haemochromatosis has been reported and is consistent with the theory of a north European origin for the mutation. The H63D polymorphism is more widely distributed and its connection with haemochromatosis remains unclear.
The distribution of HLA alleles and haplotypes varies widely between different ethnic populations and geographic areas. Before any genetic marker can be used in a disease-associated study it is therefore essential to investigate allelic frequencies and establish a genetic database.
This is the first report of HLA typing in the Tujia group using the Luminex HLA-SSO method HLA–A, –B and -DRB1 allelic distributions were determined in 124 unrelated healthy Tujia individuals, and haplotypic frequencies and linkage disequilibrium parameters were estimated using the maximum-likelihood method. In total 10 alleles were detected at the HLA–A locus, 21 alleles at the HLA–B locus and 14 alleles at the HLA-DRB1 locus. The most frequently observed alleles in the HLA-I group were HLA–A*02 (35.48%), A*11 (28.23%), A*24 (15.73%); HLA–B*40 (25.00%), B*46 (16.13%), and B*15 (15.73%). Among HLA-DRB1 alleles, high frequencies of HLA-DRB1*09 (25.81%) were observed, followed by HLA-DRB1*15 (12.9%), and DRB1*12 (10.89%). The two-locus haplotypes at the highest frequency were A*02–B*46A (8.47%), followed by A*11–B*40 (7.66%), A*02–B*40 (8.87%), A*11–B*15 (6.45%), A*02–B*15 (6.05%), B*40–DRB1*09 (9.27%) and B*46–DRB1*09 (6.45%). The most common three-locus haplotypes found in the Tujia population were A*02–B*46–DRB1*09 (4.84%) and A*02–B*40–DRB1*09 (4.03%). Fourteen two-loci haplotypes had significant linkage disequilibrium. Construction of a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree and principal component analysis using the allelic frequencies at HLA-A was performed to compare the Tujia group and twelve other previously reported populations. The Tujia population in the Wufeng of Hubei Province had the closest genetic relationship with the central Han population, and then to the Shui, the Miao, the southern Han and the northern Han ethnic groups.
These results will become a valuable source of data for tracing population migration, planning clinical organ transplantation, carrying out HLA-linked disease-associated studies and forensic identification.
To determine genetic polymorphisms at human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, and -DRB1 loci in Han population of Xi’an city in China.
Polymerase chain reaction-based reverse line-strip sequence specific oligonucleotide hybridization was used to determine the alleles of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 in 516 unrelated, healthy individuals of Han population in Xi’an. Allele frequencies at HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 loci were estimated by direct counting method. Haplotype frequencies were calculated from genotype data by expectation maximization.
A total of 14 alleles of HLA-A, 33 alleles of HLA-B, and 13 alleles of HLA-DRB1 were found. The most common alleles were HLA-A*02 (28.39%), A*11 (19.19%), and A*24 (16.28%); HLA-B*13 (11.05%), B*15 (B62: 9.30%), and B*51 (8.53%); and HLA-DRB1*15 (17.15%), DRB1*09 (13.18%), and DRB1*04 (10.85%). The most common haplotypes of HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotype were HLA-A*30-B*13-DRB1*07 (3.93%), HLA-A*02-B*46-DRB1*09 (3.20%), and HLA-A*33-B*58-DRB1*17 (1.63%).
The finding that the HLA loci are highly polymorphic in Han population of Xi’an City may be useful for population genetics, HLA-related studies, human identification, and paternity tests in forensic sciences.
Background—HFE mutations are
associated with hereditary haemochromatosis. However, a simple method
capable of demonstrating the cis/trans
arrangement of alleles is lacking, and linkage disequilibrium between
HFE alleles and classic HLA loci is unknown. These are important issues as the pathogenic role of the mutations is not known.
Aims—To develop a simple method of genotyping
HFE mutations suitable for clinical use in addition to
large disease studies.
Patients—A total of 330 Caucasoid cadaveric organ
donor controls were examined. Ten individuals previously
HLA-H genotyped by polymerase chain reaction using
restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) were also examined
to validate the method.
Methods—A simple polymerase chain reaction using
sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) capable of haplotyping the
mutations was developed. HFE allele and haplotype
frequencies and linkage disequilibrium with eight HLA class I and II
loci were examined in the control population.
Results—27% and 19.7% of patients were positive
for the 63D and 282Y alleles, respectively. No chromosome carried both
63D and 282Y. Linkage disequilibrium between 282Y and HLA-A*03 was confirmed, but was not straightforward: some A*03-associated alleles (DRB1*15, DQB1*06), but not all (B*07, Cw*0702), were associated with 282Y.
Conclusions—Linkage disequilibrium data suggest
that an HLA-B*07 containing haplotype contains an element affording
protection from haemochromatosis and may suggest the timing of the
founder 282Y mutation.
HFE; haemochromatosis; PCR-SSP; linkage
BACKGROUND: The 845A(C282Y) mutation in the HLA-H gene accounts for most cases of hereditary hemochromatosis in patients who are of European origin. Some lack this mutation, however, and it is not present in Asian patients. Thus, other mutations either in HLA-H or associated proteins may be present in such patients. HLA-H associates with beta-2-microglobulin. Calreticulin associates with class 1 HLA proteins and appears to be identical with mobilferrin, a putative iron transport protein. These two proteins are therefore candidates for mutations in patients with hemochromatosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have sequenced the coding region and parts of introns of the HLA-H gene, the beta-2-microglobulin gene, and the calreticulin (mobilferrin) gene of 10, 7, and 5 hemochromatosis patients, respectively, selecting those who were not homozygous for the 845A(C282Y) mutation. The number of chromosomes at risk studied were 18 for HLA-H, 14 for beta-2-microglobulin and 10 for calreticulin. RESULTS: We detected 3 new intronic polymorphisms in the HLA-H gene, each a point mutation. Some differences from published sequences of beta-2-microglobulin and calreticulin were documented, but these were uniformly present in all samples. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of additional mutations in the HLA-H gene is remarkable, and we speculate that the C282Y mutation may be a gain-of-function change.
Previous studies indicate that the frequency distributions of HLA alleles and haplotypes vary from one ethnic group to another or between the members of the same ethnic group living in different geographic areas. It is necessary and meaningful to study the high-resolution allelic and haplotypic distributions of HLA loci in different groups.
High-resolution HLA typing for the Uyghur ethnic minority group using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based-typing method was first reported. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 allelic distributions were determined in 104 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals and haplotypic frequencies and linkage disequilibrium parameters for HLA loci were estimated using the maximum-likelihood method. A total of 35 HLA-A, 51 HLA-B and 33 HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified at the four-digit level in the population. High frequency alleles were HLA-A*1101 (13.46%), A*0201 (12.50%), A*0301 (10.10%); HLA-B*5101(8.17%), B*3501(6.73%), B*5001 (6.25%); HLA-DRB1*0701 (16.35%), DRB1*1501 (8.65%) and DRB1*0301 (7.69%). The two-locus haplotypes at the highest frequency were HLA-A*3001-B*1302 (2.88%), A*2402-B*5101 (2.86%); HLA-B*5001-DRB1*0701 (4.14%) and B*0702-DRB1*1501 (3.37%). The three-locus haplotype at the highest frequency was HLA-A*3001-B*1302-DRB1*0701(2.40%). Significantly high linkage disequilibrium was observed in six two-locus haplotypes, with their corresponding relative linkage disequilibrium parameters equal to 1. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree between the Uyghur group and other previously reported populations was constructed on the basis of standard genetic distances among the populations calculated using the four-digit sequence-level allelic frequencies at HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 loci. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Uyghur group belongs to the northwestern Chinese populations and is most closely related to the Xibe group, and then to Kirgiz, Hui, Mongolian and Northern Han.
The present findings could be useful to elucidate the genetic background of the population and to provide valuable data for HLA matching in clinical bone marrow transplantation, HLA-linked disease-association studies, population genetics, human identification and paternity tests in forensic sciences.
The hereditary hemochromatosis gene HFE plays a pivotal role in iron homeostasis. The association between cancer and HFE hetero- or homozygosity has previously been shown including hepatocellular and nonhepatocellular malignancies. This study was performed to compare frequencies of HFE C282Y and H63D variants in Turkish women with breast cancer and healthy controls.
Archived DNA samples of Hacettepe University Oncology Institute were used in this study. The HFE gene was investigated by PCR-RFLP.
All subjects studied were free from C282Y mutation. Thirty-nine patients had H63D mutation and were all heterozygous. H63D allele frequency was 22.2% (39/176) in the breast cancer patients, and 14% (28/200) in the healthy volunteers. Statistical analysis of cases with HFE H63D phenotype showed significant difference between breast cancer and healthy volunteers (P = 0.02).
Our results suggest that HFE H63D mutation frequencies were increased in the breast cancer patients in comparison to those in the general population. Also, odds ratios (odds ratio = 2.05) computed in this study suggest that H63D has a positive association with breast cancer.
Elevated body iron stores are associated with morbidity and mortality due to oxidative stress. Hereditary hemochromatosis, a common condition caused by HFE gene mutations, can lead to excess iron storage and disease but clinical penetrance of HFE gene mutations is low and many people with elevated iron stores lack HFE mutations. We analyzed data from the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study to assess the relationship among HFE genotype (individuals with either homozygous or compound heterozygous status for C282Y and/or H63D HFE mutations were defined as genotype positive, or G+), elevated iron phenotype (individuals exceeding gender-specific transferrin saturation and serum ferritin threshold levels were considered phenotype positive, or P+), and leukocyte telomere length, a marker of biological aging and cumulative oxidative stress. In unadjusted analyses in comparison to individuals who were G−P−, G+P− were not significantly different (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.26–2.04), while the G+P+ (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.15–3.56), and G−P+ (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.5–3.29) had increased risk of short telomeres (<=25th percentile) rather than long telomeres (>=75th percentile). In analyses adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, the effect of individuals with elevated iron phenotypes having short telomeres persisted with G+P+ individuals (OR 1.94; 95% CI 1.02–3.72), and G−P+ individuals (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.39–3.39) being significantly different from the G−P− group. In conclusion, elevated iron phenotype, but not HFE genotype, was associated with shortened telomeres. Further studies will be needed to determine whether telomere length provides a marker for morbidities specifically associated with iron overload.
A study of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic characteristics in the Zhuang, the largest ethnic population in China, would provide insight into Zhuang history and give a useful tool for disease associations, transplantation, and anthropology. In the present study, we report the comprehensive HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1 alleles and haplotypes in the Zhuang population of southern China for the first time. A total of 13 HLA-A, 24 HLA-B, 22 HLA-C, and 18 HLA-DRB1 were identified in 104 Zhuang individuals. The frequencies of HLA-A*11:01, A*02:07, A*24:02, A*02:03, and A*33:03 on A loci, B*15:02, B*58:01, B*46:01, and B*13:01 on B loci, C*03:04, C*08:01, C*01:02, C*03:02, and C*07:02 on C loci, and DRB1*15:01, DRB1*16:02, DRB1*14:01, DRB1*15:02, and DRB1*03:01 on the DRB1 loci were >10%. The A*33:03-C*03:02-B*58:01-DRB1*03:01 and A*02:07-C*01:02-B*46:01-DRB1*14:01 haplotypes were predominant in the Zhuang. The phylogenetic tree, as well as the analysis of haplotypes, suggested that the Zhuang are genetically similar to southern Chinese populations, especially the Zhuang-Dong language-speaking populations, such as the Bouyei, Dai, and Maonan. Even though the Zhuang and southern Chinese populations shared common alleles and haplotypes, the Zhuang has maintained its unique genetic characteristics.
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles; Haplotypes; Zhuang population
Pathological brain iron deposition has been implicated as a source of neurotoxic reactive oxygen species in Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson diseases (PD). Iron metabolism is associated with the gene hemochromatosis (HFE Human genome nomenclature committee ID:4886), and mutations in HFE are a cause of the iron mismetabolism disease, hemochromatosis. Several reports have tested the association of HFE variants with neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD and PD with conflicting results.
Genotypes were analysed for the two most common variants of HFE in a series of 130 AD, 55 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and 132 PD patients. Additionally, a series of 115 healthy age-matched controls was also screened.
A statistically significant association was found in the PD group when compared to controls, showing that the presence of the C282Y variant allele may confer higher risk for developing the disease.
Taken together these results suggest that the common variants in HFE may be a risk factor for PD, but not for AD in the Portuguese population.
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE), which affects 1 in 400 and has an estimated carrier frequency of 1 in 10 individuals in Western population, results in multiple organ damage caused by iron deposition, and is treatable if detected early. C282Y mutation in HFE gene has been known to be responsible for the most hereditary hemochromatosis cases and 5-10% of white subjects are heterozygous for this mutation. However, the prevalence of hemochromatosis in the Asian population was reported to be very low and ethnic heterogeneity has been suspected. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of heterozygosity and homozygosity for the C282Y HFE gene mutations in 502 unrelated Koreans. Results revealed that none of them had the mutant gene, suggesting a significant ethnic difference when compared with Caucasians. Our study excluded underlying possibility of hereditary hemochromatosis in Korean which could mimic the findings of alcoholic liver disease with iron overload or liver cirrhosis with chronic hepatitis C.
Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH) is a genetic disease associated with iron overload, in which individuals homozygous for the mutant C282Y HFE associated allele are at risk for the development of a range of disorders particularly liver disease. Conformational diseases are a class of disorders associated with the expression of misfolded protein. HFE C282Y is a mutant protein that does not fold correctly and consequently is retained in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). In this context, we sought to identify ER stress signals associated with mutant C282Y HFE protein expression, which may have a role in the molecular pathogenesis of HH.
Vector constructs of Wild type HFE and Mutant C282Y HFE were made and transfected into HEK293 cell lines. We have shown that expression of C282Y HFE protein triggers both an unfolded protein response (UPR), as revealed by the increased GRP78, ATF6 and CHOP expression, and an ER overload response (EOR), as indicated by NF-κB activation. Furthermore, C282Y HFE protein induced apoptotic responses associated with activation of ER stress. Inhibition studies demonstrated that tauroursodeoxycholic acid, an endogenous bile acid, downregulates these events. Finally, we found that the co-existence of both C282Y HFE and Z alpha 1-antitrypsin protein (the protein associated with the liver disease of Z alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency) expression on ER stress responses acted as potential disease modifiers with respect to each other.
Our novel observations suggest that both the ER overload response (EOR) and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are activated by mutant C282Y HFE protein.
The polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region are powerful tool for studying human evolutionary processes. We investigated genetic structure of Japanese by using five-locus HLA genotypes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DPB1) of 2,005 individuals from 10 regions of Japan. We found a significant level of population substructure in Japanese; particularly the differentiation between Okinawa Island and mainland Japanese. By using a plot of the principal component scores, we identified ancestry informative alleles associated with the underlying population substructure. We examined extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between pairs of HLA alleles on the haplotypes that were differentiated among regions. The LDs were strong and weak for pairs of HLA alleles characterized by low and high frequencies in Okinawa Island, respectively. The five-locus haplotypes whose alleles exhibit strong LD were unique to Japanese and South Korean, suggesting that these haplotypes had been recently derived from the Korean Peninsula. The alleles characterized by high frequency in Japanese compared to South Korean formed segmented three-locus haplotype that was commonly found in Aleuts, Eskimos, and North- and Meso-Americans but not observed in Korean and Chinese. The serologically equivalent haplotype was found in Orchid Island in Taiwan, Mongol, Siberia, and Arctic regions. It suggests that early Japanese who existed prior to the migration wave from the Korean Peninsula shared ancestry with northern Asian who moved to the New World via the Bering Strait land bridge. These results may support the admixture model for peopling of Japanese Archipelago.
Background:Patients with hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) are usually homozygous for the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene. They have variable expression of iron overload and present with a variety of complications, including liver disease, diabetes, arthropathy, fatigue, and cardiomyopathy. The mitochondrial 16189 variant is associated with diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy, and low body fat at birth, and might contribute to genetic predisposition in further multifactorial disorders. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of the 16189 variant in a range of patients with haemochromatosis, who had mutations in the HFE gene.
Methods:Blood DNA was analysed for the presence of the 16189 variant in British, French, and Australian C282Y homozygotes and controls, with known iron status, and in birth cohorts.
Results:The frequency of the mitochondrial 16189 variant was found to be elevated in individuals with haemochromatosis who were homozygous for the C282Y allele, compared with population controls and with C282Y homozygotes who were asymptomatic (42/292 (14.4%); 102/1186 (8.6%) (p = 0.003); and 2/64 (3.1%) (p = 0.023), respectively).
Conclusions:Iron loading in C282Y homozygotes with HH was exacerbated by the presence of the mitochondrial 16189 variant.
The human HFE gene (a key component of iron homeostasis in humans) is involved in hereditary hemochromatosis, a common autosomal recessive genetic disorder that is characterized by excessive intestinal iron absorption and progressive iron overload.
In this study, we assessed the frequency of two common forms of hemochromatosis HFE gene mutation (C282Y and H63D) in patients suffering from cryptogenic cirrhosis.
Patients and Methods
One hundred and fifty individuals were included in this study, in which 100 were patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis and 50 were from the normal population. All individuals were examined for common HFE gene mutations by amplification of nucleotide 845 C282Y and 187 H63D alleles and product analysis using the polymerase chain reaction method and restriction enzyme digestion.
No case of either a homozygous or heterozygous C282Y mutation was found. For the H63D mutation, no homozygosity was detected but heterozygosity was detected in 22% of patients and in 28% of the normal population.
Hereditary hemochromatosis is not a major cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis in the Iranian population.
Mutation; Iran; Liver Cirrhosis; Genes
It is believed that hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) might play a role in cardiac disease (heart failure (HF) and ischemia). Mutations within several genes are HH-associated, the most common being the HFE gene. In a large cohort of HF patients, we sought to determine the etiological role and the prognostic significance of HFE genotypes.
We studied 667 HF patients (72.7% men) with depressed systolic function, enrolled in a multicentre trial with a follow-up period of up to 5 years. All were genotyped for the known HFE variants C282Y, H63D and S65C.
The genotype and allele frequencies in the HF group were similar to the frequencies determined in the general Danish population. In multivariable analysis mortality was not predicted by C282Y-carrier status (HR 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.7); H63D-carrier status (HR 1.0, 95% CI: 0.7-1.3); nor S65C-carrier status (HR 1.2, 95% CI: 0.7-2.0). We identified 27 (4.1%) homozygous or compound heterozygous carriers of HFE variants. None of these carriers had a clinical presentation suggesting hemochromatosis, but hemoglobin and ferritin levels were higher than in the rest of the cohort. Furthermore, a trend towards reduced mortality was seen in this group in univariate analyses (HR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, p = 0.03), but not in multivariate (HR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-1.2).
HFE genotypes do not seem to be a significant contributor to the etiology of heart failure in Denmark. HFE variants do not affect mortality in HF.
Cancer cells require large amounts of micronutrients, particularly iron, for their rapid growth and frequent divisions. Cellular iron uptake is regulated by the transferrin receptor and the hemochromatosis protein (HFE) system. Two frequent mutations in the HFE gene, H63D and C282Y, are associated with hemochromatosis type I, an inherited iron overload disease and, possibly, with cancer. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of the H63D and C282Y mutations in a cohort of 677 consecutive cases of woman with gynecological pathologies. Cases included 80 women with tumor-free pathologies normal ovary (NOV), 124 with benign ovarian tumors (BOV), 96 with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tumors of low malignant potential (LPM), 264 with invasive tumors of the ovary (TOV) and 113 with endometrial cancer. We found that the C282Y allele frequency in EOC patients was higher than that in the control NOV group (5.8% vs. 1.3%, p < 0.001) and was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 4.88; 95% CI 1.15–20.61; p = 0.018). The effect of the two HFE mutations on patient survival was also analyzed. Kaplan-Meier analyses did not find any significant association between the H63D allele and patient survival. However, EOC patients with at least one C282Y allele had a decreased overall survival compared to those with no C282Y allele (p = 0.001). These results indicate that the C282Y mutation may increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer and may be further associated with poor outcomes.
PMID: 20669231 CAMSID: cams2162
ovarian cancer; HFE mutations; hemochromatosis; iron; prognosis
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a common autosomal recessive disorder in populations of European descent. It is characterized by a variable prevalence of mutations in the hemochromatosis gene (HFE) in different countries and a complex relationship between the HFE genotype and the HH phenotype. Genetic analysis has not been conducted in Croatian patients with iron overload. The aim of this study was to determine whether HFE mutations, C282Y, H63D, and S65C were correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters in Croatian patients with suspected HH.
Clinical examination, biochemical analysis, and genotyping were performed in 175 patients suspected of having HH. The control group consisted of 350 healthy blood donors.
Among the patients, 20% had genotypes related to HH – 7.4% were homozygous for C282Y, 6.3% were compound heterozygous for C282Y and H63D, 5.7% were homozygous for H63D, and 0.6% was compound heterozygous for C282Y and S65C. The allelic frequencies were 14.6% for C282Y mutation, 23.7% for H63D mutation, and 1.4% for S65C mutation. A comparison of the clinical and laboratory profiles of patients revealed that C282Y homozygotes had higher frequencies of all clinical symptoms and higher levels of biochemical parameters than others. The C282Y/H63D compound heterozygotes and H63D homozygotes were found to be clinically important, despite the fact that they were associated with less severe disease.
Our results show that HFE mutations are responsible for only about 20% of Croatian patients with suspected HH. Screening with biochemical methods and HFE genotyping may be not sufficient for diagnoses in the Croatian population.
hemochromatosis; HFE mutations; iron overload; Croatia
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, 6p21) codes for traditional HLA and other host response related genes. The polymorphic HLA-DRB1 gene in MHC Class II has been associated with several complex diseases. In this study we focus on MHC haplotype structures in the Finnish population. We explore the variability of extended HLA-DRB1 haplotypes in relation to the other traditional HLA genes and a selected group of MHC class III genes. A total of 150 healthy Finnish individuals were included in the study. Subjects were genotyped for HLA alleles (HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1). The polymorphism of TNF, LTA, C4, BTNL2 and HLA-DRA genes was studied with 74 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). The C4A and C4B gene copy numbers and a 2-bp silencing insertion at exon 29 in C4A gene were analysed with quantitative genomic realtime-PCR. The allele frequencies for each locus were calculated and haplotypes were constructed using both the traditional HLA alleles and SNP blocks. The most frequent Finnish A∼B∼DR -haplotype, uncommon in elsewhere in Europe, was A*03∼B*35∼DRB1*01∶01. The second most common haplotype was a common European ancestral haplotype AH 8.1 (A*01∼B*08∼DRB1*03∶01). Extended haplotypes containing HLA-B, TNF block, C4 and HLA-DPB1 strongly increased the number of HLA-DRB1 haplotypes showing variability in the extended HLA-DRB1 haplotype structures. On the contrary, BTNL2 block and HLA-DQB1 were more conserved showing linkage with the HLA-DRB1 alleles. We show that the use of HLA-DRB1 haplotypes rather than single HLA-DRB1 alleles is advantageous when studying the polymorphisms and LD patters of the MHC region. For disease association studies the HLA-DRB1 haplotypes with various MHC markers allows us to cluster haplotypes with functionally important gene variants such as C4 deficiency and cytokines TNF and LTA, and provides hypotheses for further assessment. Our study corroborates the importance of studying population-specific MHC haplotypes.
Hereditary HFE-linked hemochromatosis is a frequent recessive disorder among individuals of northern European ancestry. The clinical characteristic of this disease is the gradual accumulation of iron in internal organs, which ultimately may lead to organ damage and death. Three allelic variants of HFE gene have been correlated with hereditary hemochromatosis: C282Y is significantly associated with hereditary hemochromatosis in populations of Celtic origin, H63D and S65C are associated with milder form of iron overload. In this study we performed mutation analysis to identify allele frequency of the three variants of HFE gene in Jordanian Arab population, to assess deviations of these frequencies from those detected elsewhere, and to determine if there is an increased frequency of these variants in a diabetic population (Type 2 diabetes) from the same area. DNA was extracted from blood samples of 440 individuals attending King Abdullah University Hospital for ambulatory services. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify exons 2 and 4 of the HFE gene then restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method to detect the variants. There were neither homozygous nor heterozygous for C282Y variant. For the H63D variant, 0.68% were homozygous and 21.1% were heterozygous. For the S65C variant, there were no homozygous and 0.23% were heterozygous. Allelic frequencies were, 0%, 11.25%, and 0.11% for C282Y, H63D, and S65C, respectively. Our samples were subdivided into two categories of type 2 diabetic (89 cases) and controls (blood donors, 204 cases) and compared with regard to the H63D variant. Both groups did not have homozygous H63D variant. H63D heterozygous in diabetics were 23.60% and in blood donor controls 22.55%. Allelic frequency of the mutant H63D allele was 11.80% in diabetics and 11.27% for the blood donor controls. This is the first study to show the frequency of the three hemochromatosis gene variants in Jordan with the interesting finding of no C282Y allele detected in 440 samples. Additionally, no significant difference was observed in H63D variant frequency in type 2 diabetics as compared to controls.
Hemochromatosis; HFE; diabetes; H63D