This study discovered that glycyrrhetinic acid inhibited the human 20S proteasome at 22.3 µM. Esterification of the C-3 hydroxyl group on glycyrrhetinic acid with various carboxylic acid reagents yielded a series of analogs with marked improved potency. Among the derivatives, glycyrrhetinic acid 3-O-isophthalate (17) was the most potent compound with IC50 of 0.22 µM, which was approximately 100-fold more potent than glycyrrhetinic acid.
Glycyrrhetinic acid; proteasome inhibitor; triterpene
Derivatives of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid substituted with electron withdrawing groups at the 2-position in the A-ring which also contains a 1-en-3-one structure are potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth. In this study, we have compared the effects of several 2-substituted analogs of triterpenoid acid methyl esters derived from ursolic and glycyrrhetinic acid on proliferation of KU7 and 253JB-V bladder and Panc-1 and Panc-28 pancreatic cancer cells. The results show that the 2-cyano and 2-trifluoromethyl derivatives were the most active compounds. The glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives with the rearranged C-ring containing the 9(11)-en-12-one structure were generally more active than the corresponding 12-en-11-one isomers. However, differences in growth inhibitory IC50 values were highly variable and dependent on the 2- substitutent (CN vs. CF3) and cancer cell context.
glycyrrhetinate analogs; growth inhibition; bladder cancer; pancreatic cancer
Many of the traditional herbal formulations contain extracts of Piper longum and Glycyrrhiza glabra, piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid respectively, being active constituents of these two herbs. An attempt has been made to develop a simple, precise, rapid, and cost-effective high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for simultaneous estimation of these in a herbomineral formulation (Efiplus® Capsules). Precoated silica gel 60 F254 plates with toluene-ethyl acetate-glacial acetic acid 12.5:7.5:0.5, as mobile phase were used in chromatographic determinations. The plates were scanned and the compounds were quantified at their wavelengths of maximum absorption of 260 and 331 nm for glycyrrhetinic acid and piperine respectively. The respective RF, values of glycyrrhetinic acid and piperine were 0.51 and 0.55. Under these experimental conditions linearity was observed between 0.8-2.6 μg/ spot for glycyrrhetinic acid and between 10-50 ng/ spot for piperine and average recovery was 96.25% for glycyrrhetinic acid and 98.55% for piperine.
HPTLC; glycyrrhetinic acid; piperine; herbomineral formulation
Many cell types in the retina are coupled via gap junctions and so there is a pressing need for a potent and reversible gap junction antagonist. We screened a series of potential gap junction antagonists by evaluating their effects on dye coupling in the network of A-type horizontal cells. We evaluated the following compounds: meclofenamic acid (MFA), mefloquine, 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate (2-APB), 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid, 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid (18-β-GA), retinoic acid, flufenamic acid, niflumic acid, and carbenoxolone. The efficacy of each drug was determined by measuring the diffusion coefficient for Neurobiotin (Mills & Massey, 1998). MFA, 18-β-GA, 2-APB and mefloquine were the most effective antagonists, completely eliminating A-type horizontal cell coupling at a concentration of 200 μM. Niflumic acid, flufenamic acid, and carbenoxolone were less potent. Additionally, carbenoxolone was difficult to wash out and also may be harmful, as the retina became opaque and swollen. MFA, 18-β-GA, 2-APB and mefloquine also blocked coupling in B-type horizontal cells and AII amacrine cells. Because these cell types express different connexins, this suggests that the antagonists were relatively non-selective across several different types of gap junction. It should be emphasized that MFA was water-soluble and its effects on dye coupling were easily reversible. In contrast, the other gap junction antagonists, except carbenoxolone, required DMSO to make stock solutions and were difficult to wash out of the preparation at the doses required to block coupling in A-type HCs. The combination of potency, water solubility and reversibility suggest that MFA may be a useful compound to manipulate gap junction coupling.
Horizontal cells; Retina; Gap junction antagonist
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alginic acid alone versus alginic acid combined with low doses of pure glycyrrhetinic acid and bilberry anthocyanosides as an addon to conventional proton pump inhibitor therapy in relieving symptoms associated with nonerosive reflux disease.
This prospective, randomized, 8-week, open-label trial was conducted at two centers. Sixty-three patients with persistent symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and normal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were eligible for the study. Patients in group A (n = 31) were treated with pantoprazole and a formula (Mirgeal®) containing alginic acid and low doses of pure glycyrrhetinic acid + standardized Vaccinium myrtillus extract for 4 weeks, then crossed over to the multi-ingredient formula for a further 4 weeks. Patients in group B (n = 32) were treated pantoprazole and alginic acid alone twice daily, then crossed over to alginic acid twice daily for a further 4 weeks. Efficacy was assessed by medical evaluation of a symptom relief score, estimated using a visual analog scale (0–10). Side effects, tolerability, and compliance were also assessed.
Of the 63 patients enrolled in the study, 58 (29 in group A and 29 in group B) completed the 8-week trial. The baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. During the study, significant differences were recorded in symptom scores for both groups. In group A, symptoms of chest pain, heartburn, and abdominal swelling were less serious than in group B. Treatment A was better tolerated, did not induce hypertension, and had fewer side effects than treatment B. No significant differences in compliance were found between the two groups.
Use of low doses of pure glycyrrhetinic acid + bilberry anthocyanosides, together with alginic acid as addon therapy, substantially improves symptoms in patients with nonerosive reflux disease without increasing side effects or worsening tolerability or compliance.
proton pump inhibitors; alginic acid; glycyrrhetinic acid; anthocyanosides; nonerosive reflux disease; gastroesophageal reflux disease
Synthetic analogues of naturally occurring triterpenoids; glycyrrhetinic acid, arjunolic acid and boswellic acids, by modification of A-ring with a cyano- and enone- functionalities, have been reported. A novel method of synthesis of α-cyanoenones from isoxazoles is reported. Bio-assays using primary mouse macrophages and tumor cell lines indicate potent anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities associated with cyanoenones of boswellic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid.
We cloned the β-glucuronidase gene (AtGUS) from Aspergillus terreus Li-20 encoding 657 amino acids (aa), which can transform glycyrrhizin into glycyrrhetinic acid monoglucuronide (GAMG) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). Based on sequence alignment, the C-terminal non-conservative sequence showed low identity with those of other species; thus, the partial sequence AtGUS(-3t) (1–592 aa) was amplified to determine the effects of the non-conservative sequence on the enzymatic properties. AtGUS and AtGUS(-3t) were expressed in E. coli BL21, producing AtGUS-E and AtGUS(-3t)-E, respectively. At the similar optimum temperature (55°C) and pH (AtGUS-E, 6.6; AtGUS(-3t)-E, 7.0) conditions, the thermal stability of AtGUS(-3t)-E was enhanced at 65°C, and the metal ions Co2+, Ca2+ and Ni2+ showed opposite effects on AtGUS-E and AtGUS(-3t)-E, respectively. Furthermore, Km of AtGUS(-3t)-E (1.95 mM) was just nearly one-seventh that of AtGUS-E (12.9 mM), whereas the catalytic efficiency of AtGUS(-3t)-E was 3.2 fold higher than that of AtGUS-E (7.16 vs. 2.24 mM s−1), revealing that the truncation of non-conservative sequence can significantly improve the catalytic efficiency of AtGUS. Conformational analysis illustrated significant difference in the secondary structure between AtGUS-E and AtGUS(-3t)-E by circular dichroism (CD). The results showed that the truncation of the non-conservative sequence could preferably alter and influence the stability and catalytic efficiency of enzyme.
Triterpenoids are used for medicinal purposes in many countries. Some, such as oleanolic and glycyrrhetinic acids, are known to be anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic. However, the biological activities of these naturally occurring molecules against their particular targets are weak, so the synthesis of new synthetic analogues with enhanced potency is needed. By combining modifications to both the A and C rings of 18βH-glycyrrhetinic acid, the novel synthetic derivative methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxo-18βH-olean-9(11),1(2)-dien-30-oate was obtained. This derivative displays high antiproliferative activity in cancer cells, including a cell line with a multidrug-resistance phenotype. It causes cell death by inducing the intrinsic caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway.
antitumor agents; apoptosis; biological activity; glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives; medicinal chemistry
The title compound, C33H49NO3, is the propargylamide of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid of interest as a therapeutic agent. The five six-membered rings of the glycyrrhetinic acid moiety show normal geometries, with four rings in chair conformations and the unsaturated ring C in a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the terminal N-propargylcarboxamide group has remarkable structural effects on weak hydrogen-bond-like interactions. Particularly noteworthy are an intermolecular O—H⋯π interaction accepted side-on by the terminal alkyne group [O⋯C = 3.097 (2) and 3.356 (2) Å] and a short intermolecular C—H⋯O interaction [C⋯O = 3.115 (2) Å] donated by the alkyne C—H group. An N—H⋯O [N⋯O = 3.251 (2) Å] and a Calkyl—H⋯O [C⋯O = 3.254 (2) Å] interaction complement the crystal structure.
The title compound, C34H52N2O7·CH4O, is the methanol solvate of a difunctionalized derivative of the therapeutic agent 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene. The five six-membered rings of the glycyrrhetinic acid moiety show normal geometries, with four rings in chair conformations and the unsaturated ring in a half-chair conformation. This moiety is substituted by a nitrate ester group and an O-ethylglycine group. In the crystal, the nonsolvent molecules are packed parallel to (010) in a herringbone fashion with the nitrato, ethylglycine and methanol-O atom being proximate. The methanol solvent molecule is anchored via a donated O—H⋯Oacyl and an accepted N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, giving rise to infinite zigzag chains of hydrogen bonds parallel to . Two weak intermolecular C—H⋯O interactions to the methanol and to an acyl oxygen establish links along  and , respectively.
Active components of complementary/alternative medicines and natural supplements are often anionic compounds and flavonoids. As such, organic anion transporters (OATs) may play a key role in their pharmacokinetic and pharmacological profiles, and represent sites for adverse drug-drug interactions. Therefore, we assessed the inhibitory effects of nine natural products, including flavonoids (catechin and epicatechin), chlorogenic acids (1,3- and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid), phenolic acids (ginkgolic acids (13 : 0), (15 : 1), and (17 : 1)), and the organic acids ursolic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, on the transport activity of the human OATs, hOAT1 (SLC22A6), hOAT3 (SLC22A8), and hOAT4 (SLC22A11). Four compounds, 1,3- and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, ginkgolic acid (17 : 1), and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, significantly inhibited hOAT1-mediated transport (50 μM inhibitor versus 1 μM substrate). Five compounds, 1,3- and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, ginkgolic acids (15 : 1) and (17 : 1), and epicatechin, significantly inhibited hOAT3 transport under similar conditions. Only catechin inhibited hOAT4. Dose-dependency studies were conducted for 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid on hOAT1, and IC50 values were estimated as 1.2 ± 0.4 μM and 2.7 ± 0.2 μM, respectively. These data suggest that 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid may cause significant hOAT1-mediated DDIs in vivo; potential should be considered for safety issues during use and in future drug development.
Esterification of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) with dehydrozingerone (DZ) resulted in a novel cytotoxic GA-DZ conjugate. Based on this exciting finding, we conjugated eleven different DZ analogs with GA or other triterpenoids, including oleanoic acid (OA) or ursolic acid (UA). In an in vitro anticancer assay using nine different human tumor cell lines, most of the GA-DZ conjugates showed significant potency. Particularly, compounds 5, 29, and 30 showed significant cytotoxic effects against LN-Cap, 1A9, and KB cells with ED50 values of 0.6, 0.8, and 0.9 μM, respectively. Similar conjugates between DZ and OA or UA were inactive suggesting that the GA component is critical for activity. Notably, although GA-DZ conjugates showed potent cytotoxic activity, the individual components (GA and DZ analogs) were inactive. Thus, GA-DZ conjugates are new chemical entities and represent interesting hits for anticancer drug discovery and development.
Glycyrrhetinic acid; Dehydrozingerone; Conjugation; Cytotoxicity
Postmortem research has revealed that there is a lower density of glial cells in regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of uncomplicated alcoholics when compared with control subjects. Impairment of astrocyte function in the PFC may contribute to malfunction in circuits involved in emotion- and reward-related subcortical centers, heavily connected with the PFC and directly involved in the pathophysiology of addictive behaviours. The hypothesis was tested that infusion of gliotoxins known to injure astrocytes or of a gap junction blocker into the prelimbic area of the rat PFC results in increased preference for ethanol in rats exposed to free choice between water and 10% ethanol. Fluorocitric acid, L-α-aminoadipic acid (AAD) or the gap junction blocker 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid (AGA) were bilaterally infused once into the rat prelimbic cortex and alcohol preference (ratio of 10% ethanol consumed to total liquid ingested) was measured before and after infusion. Infusion of AAD or AGA dissolved in their vehicles, but not of their vehicles alone, resulted in significant transient increase of preference for 10% ethanol. The present data suggest that impaired integrity of glial cells or the gap junctional communication between them in the rat PFC may contribute to changes in ethanol preference.
alcoholism; astrocytes; glia; prefrontal cortex; rat model
The bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare cause enteric septicemia and columnaris disease, respectively, in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Natural therapeutants may provide an alternative to current management approaches used by producers. In this study, a rapid bioassay identified plant compounds as potential therapeutants. Chelerythrine chloride and ellagic acid were the most toxic toward E. ictaluri, with 24-h IC50 of 7.3 mg/L and 15.1 mg/L, respectively, and MIC of 2.1 mg/L and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. Chelerythrine chloride, ellagic acid, β-glycyrrhetinic acid, sorgoleone, and wogonin were the most toxic towards two genomovars of F. columnare, and wogonin had the strongest antibacterial activity (MIC = 0.3 mg/L).
antibacterial; channel catfish; chelerythrine; columnaris; ellagic acid; enteric septicemia of catfish; β-glycyrrhetinic acid; sorgoleone; therapeutant; wogonin
Carbenoxolone (Biogastrone, Berk) has been shown to reduce the peptic activity and total acidity of gastric juice obtained from anaesthetized pylorus-ligated rats without affecting significantly the volume of gastric juice secreted or the K+ concentration. Glycyrrhetinic acid was less potent in reducing peptic activity and caused no reduction in total acidity.
Antipeptic activity of carbenoxolone has also been demonstrated in vitro using the pepsin plate technique and the haemoglobin pepsin assay.
It is suggested that these actions of carbenoxolone may contribute to the increased rate of healing of peptic ulcer in patients treated with the drug.
Increases in global Ca2+ in the endothelium are a crucial step in releasing relaxing factors to modulate arterial tone. In the present study we investigated spontaneous Ca2+ events in endothelial cells, and the contribution of smooth muscle cells to these Ca2+ events, in pressurized rat mesenteric resistance arteries. Spontaneous Ca2+ events were observed under resting conditions in 34% of cells. These Ca2+ events were absent in arteries preincubated with either cyclopiazonic acid or U-73122, but were unaffected by ryanodine or nicotinamide. Stimulation of smooth muscle cell depolarization and contraction with either phenylephrine or high concentrations of KCl significantly increased the frequency of endothelial cell Ca2+ events. The putative gap junction uncouplers carbenoxolone and 18· -glycyrrhetinic acid each inhibited spontaneous and evoked Ca2+ events, and the movement of calcein from endothelial to smooth muscle cells. In addition, spontaneous Ca2+ events were diminished by nifedipine, lowering extracellular Ca2+ levels, or by blockers of non-selective Ca2+ influx pathways. These findings suggest that in pressurized rat mesenteric arteries, spontaneous Ca2+ events in the endothelial cells appear to originate from endoplasmic reticulum IP3 receptors, and are subject to regulation by surrounding smooth muscle cells via myoendothelial gap junctions, even under basal conditions.
Endothelial cells; Rat mesenteric arteries; Gap junctions; Spontaneous Ca2+ events
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is thought to be present largely in the plasma membrane and its function solely to provide low resistance electrical connection between myocytes. A recent report suggested the presence of Cx43 in the mitochondria as well. We confirmed the presence of Cx43 in the mitochondria isolated from adult rat ventricles with the Cx43 immunoreactivity fractionating to the outer mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial Cx43 is mostly phosphorylated only detected by a phospho-specific antibody. Using a Ca++-sensitive electrode and Western blot, we showed that the gap junction inhibitors 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid (β-GA), oleamide, and heptanol all induced concomitant release of Ca++ and cytochrome C in isolated mitochondria whereas the inactive analog 18-β-glycyrrhizic acid failed to do so. In low density neonatal myocyte culture with no appreciable cell-cell contacts, β-GA induced apoptosis as assessed by TUNEL staining. Our results suggest a novel role of Cx43 as a regulator of mitochondrial physiology and myocyte apoptosis.
mitochondria; connexins; apoptosis; β-glycyrrhetinic acid; gap junction inhibitors; cytochrome C; TUNEL; cardiac myocytes
We have studied the role of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication on the steroidogenic response of bovine (BAC) and human (HAC) adrenal fasciculo-reticularis cells in culture to corticotropin (ACTH). Indirect immunofluorescence analyses showed that intact human and bovine adreno-cortical tissue as well as HAC and BAC in culture expressed the gap junction protein connexin43 (also termed alpha 1 connexin). Both HAC and BAC were functionally coupled through gap junctions as demonstrated by microinjection of a low molecular mass fluorescent probe, Lucifer yellow. The cell-to-cell transfer of the probe was blocked by 18 alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), an inhibitor of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication. GA markedly decreased the steroidogenic response (cortisol production) of both HAC and BAC to low (10 pM) but not to high (5 nM) concentrations of ACTH. GA had no inhibitory effect on the steroidogenic response to 8 Br-cAMP (at either low or high concentrations) and did neither modify the binding of 125I-ACTH to its receptor nor the ACTH-induced cAMP production. BAC cultured at high or low cell densities (2.4 x 10(5) vs. 0.24 x 10(5) cells/cm2) exhibited distinct levels of intercellular communication and were differently responsive to sub-maximal ACTH concentrations. The ACTH ED50 values for cortisol production were 8.5 +/- 1.3 and 45 +/- 14 pM (P < 0.02) for BAC cultured at high and low density, respectively. In the presence of GA, there was a shift of the ACTH concentration-response curves in the two culture conditions. The ACTH ED50 of high density and low density cultured BAC increased 25- and 5-fold, respectively, and became similar (220 +/- 90 and 250 +/- 120 pM). These results demonstrate that gap junction-mediated communication between hormone-responsive and nonresponsive cells is one mechanism by which adrenal cells increase their responsiveness to low ACTH concentrations.
Oleamide is a sleep-inducing lipid originally isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats. Oleamide was found to potently and selectively inactivate gap junction–mediated communication between rat glial cells. In contrast, oleamide had no effect on mechanically stimulated calcium wave transmission in this same cell type. Other chemical compounds traditionally used as inhibitors of gap junctional communication, like heptanol and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, blocked not only gap junctional communication but also intercellular calcium signaling. Given the central role for intercellular small molecule and electrical signaling in central nervous system function, oleamide- induced inactivation of glial cell gap junction channels may serve to regulate communication between brain cells, and in doing so, may influence higher order neuronal events like sleep induction.
Heptanol and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (18βGA) block gap junctions, but have other actions on transmitter release that have not been characterised. This study investigates the prejunctional and postjunctional effects of these compounds in guinea pig and mouse vas deferens using intracellular electrophysiological recording and confocal Ca2+ imaging of sympathetic nerve terminals. In mice, heptanol (2 mM) reversibly decreased the amplitude of purinergic excitatory junction potentials (EJPs; 52±5%, P<0.05) while having little effect on spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (sEJPs). Heptanol (2 mM) reversibly abolished the nerve terminal Ca2+ transient in 52% of terminals. 18βGA (10 μM) decreased the mean EJP amplitude, and increased input resistance in both mouse (137±17%, P<0.05) and guinea pig (354±50%, P<0.001) vas deferens indicating gap junction blockade. Further, 18βGA increased the sEJP frequency significantly in guinea pigs (by 71±25%, P<0.05) and in 5 out of 6 tissues in mice (19±3%, P<0.05). Moreover, 18βGA depolarised cells from both mice (11±1%, P<0.01) and guinea pigs (8±1%, P<0.005). Therefore, we conclude that heptanol (2 mM) decreases neurotransmitter release (given the decrease in EJP amplitude) by abolishing the nerve terminal action potential in a proportion of nerve terminals. 18βGA (10 μM) effectively blocks the gap junctions, but the increase in sEJP frequency suggests an additional prejunctional effect, which might involve the induction of spontaneous nerve terminal action potentials.
Heptanol; 18β-glycyrretinic acid; Sympathetic neurotransmission; Gap junctions; Smooth muscle
Mechanosensing bone osteocytes express large amounts of connexin (Cx)43, the component of gap junctions; yet, gap junctions are only active at the small tips of their dendritic processes, suggesting another function for Cx43. Both primary osteocytes and the osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells respond to fluid flow shear stress by releasing intracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Cells plated at lower densities release more PGE2 than cells plated at higher densities. This response was significantly reduced by antisense to Cx43 and by the gap junction and hemichannel inhibitors 18 β-glycyrrhetinic acid and carbenoxolone, even in cells without physical contact, suggesting the involvement of Cx43-hemichannels. Inhibitors of other channels, such as the purinergic receptor P2X7 and the prostaglandin transporter PGT, had no effect on PGE2 release. Cell surface biotinylation analysis showed that surface expression of Cx43 was increased by shear stress. Together, these results suggest fluid flow shear stress induces the translocation of Cx43 to the membrane surface and that unapposed hemichannels formed by Cx43 serve as a novel portal for the release of PGE2 in response to mechanical strain.
Fifteen different taxoid conjugates were prepared by linking various anticancer compounds, including camptothecin (CPT), epipodophyllotoxin (EP), colchicine (COL), and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), at the 2’- or 7-position on paclitaxel (TXL, 1) through an ester, imine, amine, or amide bond. Newly synthesized conjugates were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against replication of several human tumor cell lines. Among them, TXL-CPT conjugates, 8–10, were more potent than TXL itself against the human prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3 (ED50 = 14.8, 3.1, 19.4 nM compared with 55.5 nM), and conjugate 10 was also eightfold more active than TXL against the LN-CAP prostate cancer cell line. These compounds also possessed anti-angiogenesis ability as well as lower inhibitory effects against a normal cell line (MRC-5). Thus, conjugates 8–10 are possible antitumor drug candidates, particularly for prostate cancer.
Paclitaxel; Conjugation; Cytotoxity; Prostate cancer
In rat liver epithelial (WB) cells, the protein kinase C inhibitor H7 blocked gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and reduced virus infectivity. Octanol, 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, and staurosporine, agents that reduce GJIC, had no effect upon virus infectivity. Previous studies demonstrated that herpes simplex virus- type 2 (HSV-2) infection was accompanied by attenuated GJIC. Of agents tested, only H7 reduced plaque forming unit (pfu) ability in a dose-dependent manner with 100% plaque reduction at 40 μM without evidence of cytotoxicity. Dye transfer indicated that H7 decreased GJIC, although Western blotting revealed that it did not alter phosphorylation of the gap junction protein, connexin 43 (Cx43). Using indirect immunofluorescence, Cx43 was found to localize in membrane plaques in uninfected cells and H-7 did not alter this distribution. However, Cx43 was lost from the membrane at 24 hrs in both H-7 treated and untreated cells infected with HSV-2. Viral infection increased serine phosphorylation, particularly in the nuclear region, and this effect was reduced following H-7 treatment. Thus, H-7 attenuated both GJIC and infectivity of HSV-2 in WB cells but the anti-viral effects were due to reduced nuclear protein phosphorylation rather than alterations in phosphorylation or localization of Cx43.
Gap junctions; Connexin 43; protein kinase C; H7; HSV-2
Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is the agent of choice for
anticoagulant therapy and prophylaxis of thrombosis and coronary syndromes.
However, its therapeutic use is limited due to poor oral bioavailability. The
aim of this study was to investigate the oral delivery of LMWH, ardeparin
formulated with 18-β glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), as an alternative to
currently used subcutaneous (sc) delivery. Drug transport through Caco-2 cell
monolayers was monitored in the presence and absence of GA by scintillation
counting and transepithelial electrical resistance. Regional permeability
studies using rat intestine were performed using a modified Ussing chamber. Cell
viability in the presence of various concentrations of enhancer was determined
by MTT assay. The absorption of ardeparin after oral administration in rats was
measured by an anti-factor Xa assay. Furthermore, the eventual mucosal
epithelial damage was histologically evaluated. Higher ardeparin permeability
(~7-fold) compared to control was observed in the presence of 0.02 %
GA. Regional permeability studies indicated predominant absorption in the
duodenal segment. Cell viability studies showed no significant cytotoxicity
below 0.01 % GA. Ardeparin oral bioavailability was significantly
increased (Frelative/S.C. = 13.3%)
without causing any damage to the intestinal tissues. GA enhanced the oral
absorption of ardeparin both in vitro and in vivo. The oral formulation of
ardeparin with GA could be absorbed in the intestine. These results suggest that
GA may be used as an absorption enhancer for the oral delivery of LMWH.
glycyrrhetinic acid; LMWH; Caco-2 cells; absorption enhancer; oral delivery
The present study examined the inhibitory effect of licorice compounds glycyrrhizin and a metabolite 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid on the neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in the mouse and on the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cell death in differentiated PC12 cells. MPTP treatment increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and the levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls in the brain compared to control mouse brain. Co-administration of glycyrrhizin (16.8 mg/kg) attenuated the MPTP effect on the enzyme activities and formation of tissue peroxidation products. In vitro assay, licorice compounds attenuated the MPP+-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation in PC12 cells. Glycyrrhizin up to 100µM significantly attenuated the toxicity of MPP+. Meanwhile, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid showed a maximum inhibitory effect at 10µM; beyond this concentration the inhibitory effect declined. Glycyrrhizin and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid attenuated the hydrogen peroxide- or nitrogen species-induced cell death. Results from this study indicate that glycyrrhizin may attenuate brain tissue damage in mice treated with MPTP through inhibitory effect on oxidative tissue damage. Glycyrrhizin and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid may reduce the MPP+ toxicity in PC12 cells by suppressing caspase-3 activation. The effect seems to be ascribed to the antioxidant effect.
Glycyrrhizin; MPTP; MPP+; Brain tissue damage; Cell death; Inhibitory effect