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1.  Susceptibility and Pathogenesis of Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus) to Heterologous and Homologous Rabies Viruses 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(16):9008-9015.
Rabies virus (RABV) maintenance in bats is not well understood. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the United States. These colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the United States and Canada. This is of interest because silver-haired bats are more solitary bats with infrequent human interaction. Our goal was to determine the likelihood of a colonial bat species becoming infected with and transmitting a heterologous RABV. To ascertain the potential of heterologous RABV infection in colonial bat species, little brown bats were inoculated with a homologous RABV or one of two heterologous RABVs. Additionally, to determine if the route of exposure influenced the disease process, bats were inoculated either intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with a homologous or heterologous RABV. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular inoculation results in a more rapid progression of disease onset, whereas the incubation time in bats inoculated s.c. is significantly longer. Additionally, cross protection was not consistently achieved in bats previously inoculated with a heterologous RABV following a challenge with a homologous RABV 6 months later. Finally, bats that developed rabies following s.c. inoculation were significantly more likely to shed virus in their saliva and demonstrated increased viral dissemination. In summary, bats inoculated via the s.c. route are more likely to shed virus, thus increasing the likelihood of transmission.
doi:10.1128/JVI.03554-12
PMCID: PMC3754046  PMID: 23741002
2.  The epidemiology of bat rabies in New York State, 1988-92. 
Epidemiology and Infection  1994;113(3):501-511.
In 1993 New York and Texas each reported a human rabies case traced to a rare variant of rabies virus found in an uncommon species of bat. This study examined the epidemiology of bat rabies in New York State. Demographic, species, and animal-contact information for bats submitted for rabies testing from 1988-92 was analysed. The prevalence of rabies in 6810 bats was 4.6%. Nearly 90% of the 308 rabid bats identified to species were the common big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), which comprised 62% of all submissions. Only 25 submissions were silver-haired bats (Lasionycterus noctivagans), the species associated with the two 1993 human cases of rabies, and only two of these bats were positive. Rabies was most prevalent in female bats, in bats submitted because of human [corrected] contact, and in animals tested during September and October. These results highlight the unusual circumstances surrounding the recent human rabies cases in the United States. A species of bat rarely encountered by humans, and contributing little to the total rabies cases in bats, has been implicated in the majority of the indigenously acquired human rabies cases in the United States. The factors contributing to the transmission of this rare rabies variant remain unclear.
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PMCID: PMC2271321  PMID: 7995360
3.  Emerging Pattern of Rabies Deaths and Increased Viral Infectivity 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2003;9(2):151-154.
Most human rabies deaths in the United States can be attributed to unrecognized exposures to rabies viruses associated with bats, particularly those associated with two infrequently encountered bat species (Lasionycteris noctivagans and Pipistrellus subflavus). These human rabies cases tend to cluster in the southeastern and northwestern United States. In these regions, most rabies deaths associated with bats in nonhuman terrestrial mammals are also associated with virus variants specific to these two bat species rather than more common bat species; outside of these regions, more common bat rabies viruses contribute to most transmissions. The preponderance of rabies deaths connected with the two uncommon L. noctivagans and P. subflavus bat rabies viruses is best explained by their evolution of increased viral infectivity.
doi:10.3201/eid0902.020083
PMCID: PMC2901935  PMID: 12603983
rabies; cryptic deaths; terrestrial mammals; increased infectivity; Silver-haired Bat; Eastern Pipistrelle; research
4.  Knowledge of Bat Rabies and Human Exposure Among United States Cavers 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2002;8(5):532-534.
We surveyed cavers who attended the National Speleological Society convention in June 2000. Fifteen percent of respondents did not consider a bat bite a risk for acquiring rabies; only 20% had received preexposure prophylaxis against the disease. An under-appreciation of the risk for rabies from bat bites may explain the preponderance of human rabies viruses caused by variant strains associated with bats in the United States.
doi:10.3201/eid0805.010290
PMCID: PMC2732483  PMID: 11996694
rabies; lyssa virus; cavers; spelunkers; vaccination; bats; zoonoses
5.  Demonstration of antigenic variation among rabies virus isolates by using monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1986;24(4):573-580.
Rabies virus isolates from terrestrial animals in six areas of the United States were examined with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins. Characteristic differences in immunofluorescence reactions permitted the formation of four antigenically distinct reaction groups from the 231 isolates tested. The geographic distribution of these groups corresponded well with separate rabies enzootic areas recognized by surveillance of sylvatic rabies in the United States. Distinctive reaction patterns were also identified for viral proteins from four infected bat species, and identical patterns were found in eight isolated cases of rabies in terrestrial animals. These findings suggest that monoclonal antibodies can be used to study the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of rabies among wildlife species.
PMCID: PMC268974  PMID: 2429983
6.  Monoclonal antibodies to Mokola virus for identification of rabies and rabies-related viruses. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1988;26(12):2489-2494.
Rabies and rabies-related virus strains were studied by using a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against either nucleocapsid proteins or cell surface antigens of Mokola virus (Mok-3). Each strain was used in parallel to infect cultured cells and mice. Then, the patterns of reactivity of the different monoclonal antibodies were determined by the immunofluorescent-antibody staining procedure. On cells, the monoclonal antibodies differentiated fixed rabies virus strains (serotype 1) from rabies-related virus strains. The seven fixed strains (CVS, PV4, PM, Flury LEP and HEP, ERA, and SAD) reacted identically. The previous serotype groupings (serotype 2, Lagos-bat virus; serotype 3, Mokola virus; serotype 4, Duvenhage virus) established with anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies were confirmed, except for that of Lagos-bat Kindia, which appeared to be related to the African subtype of the Duvenhage serotype (Duv-2). Within the Mokola (Mok-1, -2, -3, and -5 and Umhlanga) and the Lagos-bat (Lag-1 and -2, Zimbabwe, Pinetown, and Dakar) serotypes, each strain appeared to be distinct. The African subtype of the Duvenhage serotype reacted differently from the European subtype. Within the Duvenhage serotype, subtypes Duv-4, -5, and -6 and Denmark reacted identically, while subtypes Duv-1, -2, and -3 and German Democratic Republic appeared to be distinct. The monoclonal antibodies specific for the cell surface antigens were also used in neutralization tests with all the strains. Two of them neutralized the infectivity of Mokola virus.
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PMCID: PMC266931  PMID: 3068246
7.  Potential and Actual Terrestrial Rabies Exposures in People and Domestic Animals, Upstate South Carolina, 1994–2004: A Surveillance Study 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:65.
Background
Although there has been a reduction of rabies in pets and domestic animals during recent decades in the United States, rabies remains enzootic among bats and several species of terrestrial wildlife. Spillover transmission of wildlife rabies to domestic animals therefore remains a public health threat
Methods
Retrospective analysis of surveillance data of reported animal incidents (bites, scratches, mucous membrane contacts) from South Carolina, 1995 to 2003, was performed to assess risk factors of potential rabies exposures among human and animal victims.
Results
Dogs and cats contributed the majority (66.7% and 26.4%, respectively) of all reported incidents, with stray dogs and cats contributing 9.0% and 15.1 respectively. Current rabies vaccination status of dogs and cats (40.2% and 13.8%, respectively) were below World Health Organization recommended levels. Owned cats were half as likely to be vaccinated for rabies as dogs (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.48, 0.58). Animal victims were primarily exposed to wildlife (83.0%), of which 27.5% were rabid. Almost 90% of confirmed rabies exposures were due to wildlife. Skunks had the highest prevalence of rabies among species of exposure animals (63.2%). Among rabid domestic animals, stray cats were the most commonly reported (47.4%).
Conclusion
While the majority of reported potential rabies exposures are associated with dog and cat incidents, most rabies exposures derive from rabid wildlife. Stray cats were most frequently rabid among domestic animals. Our results underscore the need for improvement of wildlife rabies control and the reduction of interactions of domestic animals, including cats, with wildlife.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-65
PMCID: PMC2651164  PMID: 19236696
8.  The ascension of wildlife rabies: a cause for public health concern or intervention? 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  1995;1(4):107-114.
The epidemiology of rabies in the United States has changed substantially during the last half century, as the source of the disease has changed from domesticated animals to wildlife, principally raccoons, skunks, foxes, and bats. Moreover, the changes observed among affected wildlife populations have not occurred without human influence. Rather, human attraction to the recreational and economic resources provided by wildlife has contributed to the reemergence of rabies as a major zoonosis. Although human deaths caused by rabies have declined recently to an average of one or two per year, the estimated costs associated with the decrease in deaths amount to hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In future efforts to control rabies harbored by free-ranging animal reservoirs, public health professionals will have to apply imaginative, safe, and cost-effective solutions to this age-old malady in addition to using traditional measures.
PMCID: PMC2626887  PMID: 8903179
9.  Failure To Open the Blood-Brain Barrier and Deliver Immune Effectors to Central Nervous System Tissues Leads to the Lethal Outcome of Silver-Haired Bat Rabies Virus Infection▿  
Journal of Virology  2006;81(3):1110-1118.
Rabies is a lethal disease caused by neurotropic viruses that are endemic in nature. When exposure to a potentially rabid animal is recognized, prompt administration of virus-neutralizing antibodies, together with active immunization, can prevent development of the disease. However, once the nonspecific clinical symptoms of rabies appear conventional postexposure treatment is unsuccessful. Over the last decade, rabies viruses associated with the silver-haired bat (SHBRV) have emerged as the leading cause of human deaths from rabies in the United States and Canada as a consequence of the fact that exposure to these viruses is often unnoticed. The need to treat SHBRV infection following the development of clinical rabies has lead us to investigate why the immune response to SHBRV fails to protect at a certain stage of infection. We have established that measurements of innate and adaptive immunity are indistinguishable between mice infected with the highly lethal SHBRV and mice infected with an attenuated laboratory rabies virus strain. While a fully functional immune response to SHBRV develops in the periphery of infected animals, the invasion of central nervous system (CNS) tissues by immune cells is reduced and, consequently, the virus is not cleared. Our data indicate that the specific deficit in the SHBRV-infected animal is an inability to enhance blood-brain barrier permeability in the cerebellum and deliver immune effectors to the CNS tissues. Conceivably, at the stage of infection where immune access to the infected CNS tissues is limited, either the provision or the development of antiviral immunity will be ineffective.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01964-06
PMCID: PMC1797506  PMID: 17108029
10.  Current issues in rabies prevention in the United States health dilemmas. Public coffers, private interests. 
Public Health Reports  1996;111(5):400-407.
OVER THE LAST 100 years, rabies in the United States has changed dramatically. More than 90% of all animal rabies cases reported annually to the CDC now occur in wildlife, whereas before 1960 the majority were in domestic animals. The principal rabies hosts today are wild carnivores and bats infected with several viral variants. Annual human deaths have fallen from more than a hundred at the turn of the century to one to two per year despite major outbreaks of animal rabies in several geographic areas. Modern day prophylaxis has proven nearly 100% successful; most human fatalities now occur in people who fail to seek medical treatment, usually because they do not recognize a risk in the animal contact leading to the infection. Although these human rabies deaths are rare, the estimated public health costs associated with disease detection, prevention, and control have risen, exceeding millions of dollars each year. Cost considerations must be weighed along with other factors in addressing issues such as the appropriate handling of nontraditional and exotic pets, future guidelines for rabies prophylaxis, and novel methods of disease prevention.
PMCID: PMC1381782  PMID: 8837628
11.  Estimating the risk of rabies transmission to humans in the U.S.: a delphi analysis 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:278.
Background
In the United States, the risk of rabies transmission to humans in most situations of possible exposure is unknown. Controlled studies on rabies are clearly not possible. Thus, the limited data on risk has led to the frequent administration of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), often in inappropriate circumstances.
Methods
We used the Delphi method to obtain an expert group consensus estimate of the risk of rabies transmission to humans in seven scenarios of potential rabies exposure. We also surveyed and discussed the merits of recommending rabies PEP for each scenario.
Results
The median risk of rabies transmission without rabies PEP for a bite exposure by a skunk, bat, cat, and dog was estimated to be 0.05, 0.001, 0.001, and 0.00001, respectively. Rabies PEP was unanimously recommended in these scenarios. However, rabies PEP was overwhelmingly not recommended for non-bite exposures (e.g. dog licking hand but unavailable for subsequent testing), estimated to have less than 1 in 1,000,000 (0.000001) risk of transmission.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that there are many common situations in which the risk of rabies transmission is so low that rabies PEP should not be recommended. These risk estimates also provide a key parameter for cost-effective models of human rabies prevention and can be used to educate health professionals about situation-specific administration of rabies PEP.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-278
PMCID: PMC2887820  PMID: 20500896
12.  Naturally Acquired Rabies Virus Infections in Wild-Caught Bats 
Abstract
The study of a zoonotic disease requires an understanding of the disease incidence in animal reservoirs. Rabies incidence in bats submitted to diagnostic laboratories does not accurately reflect the true incidence in wild bat populations as a bias exists for testing bats that have been in contact with humans or pets. This article details the rabies incidence in two species of bats collected from natural settings without such bias. In this study, brain smears from 0.6% and 2.5% of wild-caught and apparently healthy Tadarida brasiliensis and Eptesicus fuscus, respectively, were positive for rabies virus (RV) antigen. Conversely, 92% of the grounded T. brasiliensis were positive for RV. Serology performed on captive colony and sick bats reveal an immune response to rabies. This work illustrates the complex interplay between immunity, disease state, and the conundrum of RV maintenance in bats.
doi:10.1089/vbz.2011.0674
PMCID: PMC3249890  PMID: 21923271
Antibodies; Bats; Rabies; Viral isolation
13.  Antigenic and molecular characterization of bat rabies virus in Europe. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1992;30(9):2419-2426.
The predominant role of Eptesicus serotinus in the epizootic of bat rabies in Europe was further outlined by the first isolation of the rabies virus from this species in France. The distribution of the virus was studied in naturally infected E. serotinus bats at the time of death and suggested that the papillae of the tongue and the respiratory mucosa may play a role in virus production and excretion. The analysis of 501 French rabies virus isolates from various animal species by antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies indicated that transmission of the disease from bats to terrestrial animals is unlikely. The antigenic profile of two isolates from French bats corresponded to that of European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBL1). Comparisons of 12 different isolates from bats with antinucleocapsid and antiglycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and by direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction amplification product of the N gene indicated that EBL1, EBL2, Duvenhage virus (serotype 4 of lyssavirus), and the European fox rabies virus (serotype 1) are phylogenetically distant. They formed four tight genetic clusters named genotypes. EBL1 was shown to be antigenically and genetically more closely related to Duvenhage virus than to EBL2. We propose that EBL1 and EBL2 constitute two distinct genotypes which further serologic characterization will probably classify as new serotypes. We also report a simple method for the rapid characterization of EBL based on the digestion of the polymerase chain reaction product of the N gene by three restriction endonucleases.
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PMCID: PMC265516  PMID: 1401009
14.  Rabies: ocular pathology. 
Ocular pathology in the first European case of human bat-borne rabies is described. The patient was a 30-year-old bat scientist who seven weeks after bat bite developed neurological symptoms and died 23 days later. Rabies virus antigens were detected in brain smears. After extensive virological studies the virus turned out to be a rabies-related virus, closely resembling the Duvenhage virus isolated from bats in South Africa in 1980. By light microscopy focal chronic inflammatory infiltration of the ciliary body and of the choroid was found. PAS-positive exudate was seen in the subretinal and in the outer plexiform layers of the retina, and retinal veins showed endothelial damage and perivascular inflammation. Many of the retinal ganglion cells were destroyed. The presence of rabies-related viral antigen in the retinal ganglion cells was shown by positive cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, though electron microscopy failed to identify definite viral structures in the retina. By immunohistochemistry glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the Müller's cells, which are normally negative for this antigen but express it as a reactive change when the retina is damaged. Synaptophysin, a constituent of presynaptic vesicles of normal retinal neurons, was not detected in the retina.
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PMCID: PMC1041645  PMID: 2920157
15.  Molecular epidemiology of livestock rabies viruses isolated in the northeastern Brazilian states of Paraíba and Pernambuco from 2003 - 2009 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:32.
Background
Limited or no epidemiological information has been reported for rabies viruses (RABVs) isolated from livestock in the northeastern Brazilian states of Paraíba (PB) and Pernambuco (PE). The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular epidemiology of RABVs circulating in livestock, especially cattle, in these areas between 2003 and 2009.
Findings
Phylogenetic analysis based on 890 nt of the nucleoprotein (N) gene revealed that the 52 livestock-derived RABV isolates characterized here belonged to a single lineage. These isolates clustered with a vampire bat-related RABV lineage previously identified in other states in Brazil; within PB and PE, this lineage was divided between the previously characterized main lineage and a novel sub-lineage.
Conclusions
The occurrences of livestock rabies in PB and PE originated from vampire bat RABVs, and the causative RABV lineage has been circulating in this area of northeastern Brazil for at least 7 years. This distribution pattern may correlate to that of a vampire bat population isolated by geographic barriers.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-32
PMCID: PMC3285087  PMID: 22243739
16.  First Human Rabies Case in French Guiana, 2008: Epidemiological Investigation and Control 
Background
Until 2008, human rabies had never been reported in French Guiana. On 28 May 2008, the French National Reference Center for Rabies (Institut Pasteur, Paris) confirmed the rabies diagnosis, based on hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction on skin biopsy and saliva specimens from a Guianan, who had never travelled overseas and died in Cayenne after presenting clinically typical meningoencephalitis.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Molecular typing of the virus identified a Lyssavirus (Rabies virus species), closely related to those circulating in hematophagous bats (mainly Desmodus rotundus) in Latin America. A multidisciplinary Crisis Unit was activated. Its objectives were to implement an epidemiological investigation and a veterinary survey, to provide control measures and establish a communications program. The origin of the contamination was not formally established, but was probably linked to a bat bite based on the virus type isolated. After confirming exposure of 90 persons, they were vaccinated against rabies: 42 from the case's entourage and 48 healthcare workers. To handle that emergence and the local population's increased demand to be vaccinated, a specific communications program was established using several media: television, newspaper, radio.
Conclusion/Significance
This episode, occurring in the context of a Department far from continental France, strongly affected the local population, healthcare workers and authorities, and the management team faced intense pressure. This observation confirms that the risk of contracting rabies in French Guiana is real, with consequences for population educational program, control measures, medical diagnosis and post-exposure prophylaxis.
Author Summary
Until 2008, rabies had never been described within the French Guianan human population. Emergence of the first case in May 2008 in this French Overseas Department represented a public health event that markedly affected the local population, healthcare workers and public health authorities. The antirabies clinic of French Guiana, located at Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, had to reorganize its functioning to handle the dramatically increased demand for vaccination. A rigorous epidemiological investigation and a veterinary study were conducted to identify the contamination source, probably linked to a bat bite, and the exposed population. Communication was a key factor to controlling this episode and changing the local perception of this formerly neglected disease. Because similar clinical cases had previously been described, without having been diagnosed, medical practices must be adapted and the rabies virus should be sought more systematically in similarly presenting cases. Sharing this experience could be useful for other countries that might someday have to manage such an emergence.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001537
PMCID: PMC3283561  PMID: 22363830
17.  Rabies in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), Ceará, Brazil. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2001;7(6):1062-1065.
A new Rabies virus variant, with no close antigenic or genetic relationship to any known rabies variants found in bats or terrestrial mammals in the Americas, was identified in association with human rabies cases reported from the state of Ceará, Brazil, from 1991 to 1998. The marmoset, Callithrix jacchus acchus, was determined to be the source of exposure.
PMCID: PMC2631923  PMID: 11747745
18.  Bat-transmitted Human Rabies Outbreaks, Brazilian Amazon 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2006;12(8):1197-1202.
We describe 2 bat-transmitted outbreaks in remote, rural areas of Portel and Viseu Municipalities, Pará State, northern Brazil. Central nervous system specimens were taken after patients' deaths and underwent immunofluorescent assay and histopathologic examination for rabies antigens; also, specimens were injected intracerebrally into suckling mice in an attempt to isolate the virus. Strains obtained were antigenically and genetically characterized. Twenty-one persons died due to paralytic rabies in the 2 municipalities. Ten rabies virus strains were isolated from human specimens; 2 other cases were diagnosed by histopathologic examination. Isolates were antigenically characterized as Desmodus rotundus variant 3 (AgV3). DNA sequencing of 6 strains showed that they were genetically close to D. rotundus–related strains isolated in Brazil. The genetic results were similar to those obtained by using monoclonal antibodies and support the conclusion that the isolates studied belong to the same rabies cycle, the virus variants found in the vampire bat D. rotundus.
doi:10.3201/1208.050929
PMCID: PMC3291204  PMID: 16965697
human rabies virus, bat transmission, antigenic and genetic characterization; Brazilian Amazon
19.  Human Rabies and Rabies in Vampire and Nonvampire Bat Species, Southeastern Peru, 2007 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2009;15(8):1308-1311.
After a human rabies outbreak in southeastern Peru, we collected bats to estimate the prevalence of rabies in various species. Among 165 bats from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibody positive; antibody prevalence was similar in vampire and nonvampire bats. Thus, nonvampire bats may also be a source for human rabies in Peru.
doi:10.3201/eid1508.081522
PMCID: PMC2815962  PMID: 19751600
Rabies virus; rabies; viruses; outbreak investigation; reservoir; vampire bats; Peru; dispatch
20.  Rabies serogroup viruses in neuroblastoma cells: propagation, "autointerference," and apparently random back-mutation of attenuated viruses to the virulent state. 
Infection and Immunity  1980;27(3):1012-1022.
Each of several strains of fixed rabies virus was found to replicate to high titers in C1300 mouse neuroblastoma (clone NA) cells, without adaptation. Rabies serogroup Lagos bat, Mokola, and Duvenhage viruses also replicated efficiently in NA cells. Kotonkan and Obodhiang viruses replicated efficiently after adaptation, to titers not previously obtained in vitro. Infection in NA cells was frequently more cytopathic than in BHK-21 cells, allowing titration of Kotonkan and Obodhiang viruses by plaque assay. Duvenhage virus caused syncytium formation. Serial propagation of rabies viruses at a high multiplicity of infection in NA cells led to a rapid decline in virus yields; similar "autointerference" has not previously been demonstrated with rabies virus in other cell systems. Rabies virus infection in NA cells exhibited extreme sensitivity to interference by experimentally added defective interfering virions. Although several strains of attenuated rabies virus consistently reverted rapidly to virulence after propagation in NA cells, other strains of attenuated rabies and rabies serogroup viruses acquired increased virulence at a more gradual rate or not at all, suggesting that diverse characters may control virulence. When attenuated Flury HEP rabies virus was serially propagated at a low multiplicity of infection in either NA cells or suckling mouse brain, virulence appeared at a very variable rate, indicating that these systems may selectively enhance replication of randomly occurring virulent virus mutants.
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PMCID: PMC550874  PMID: 7380549
21.  Two African Viruses Serologically and Morphologically Related to Rabies Virus 
Journal of Virology  1970;6(5):690-692.
Lagos bat virus and an isolate from shrews (IbAn 27377), both from Nigeria, were found to be bullet-shaped and to mature intracytoplasmically in association with a distinct matrix. They were related to, but readily distinguishable from, rabies virus and each other by complement fixation and neutralization tests. The three viruses, including rabies, form a subgrouping within the rhabdoviruses.
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PMCID: PMC376175  PMID: 5530013
22.  An outbreak of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle in northeastern Mexico. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1997;38(3):175-177.
An outbreak of bovine rabies occurred on a ranch when cattle were bitten by vampire bats. Microscopic lesions showed a nonsuppurative encephalitis with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated viral antigen in the brain, and monoclonal antibodies identified a serotype 1 (vampire strain) of the rabies virus.
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PMCID: PMC1576554  PMID: 9056070
23.  Rabies virus antinucleoprotein antibody protects against rabies virus challenge in vivo and inhibits rabies virus replication in vitro. 
Journal of Virology  1993;67(10):6080-6086.
We previously reported that A/WySnJ mice vaccinated via a tail scratch with a recombinant raccoon poxvirus (RCN) expressing the rabies virus internal structural nucleoprotein (N) (RCN-N) were protected against a street rabies virus (D. L. Lodmell, J. W. Sumner, J.J. Esposito, W.J. Bellini, and L. C. Ewalt, J. Virol. 65:3400-3405, 1991). To improve our understanding of the mechanism(s) of this protection, we investigated whether sera of A/WySnJ mice that had been vaccinated with RCN-N but not challenged with street rabies virus had anti-rabies virus activity. In vivo studies illustrated that mice inoculated in the footpad with preincubated mixtures of anti-N sera and virus were protected. In addition, anti-N sera inoculated into the site of virus challenge protected mice. The antiviral activity of anti-N sera was also demonstrated in vitro. Infectious virus was not detected in cultures 24 h following infection with virus that had been preincubated with anti-N sera. At later time points, infectious virus was detected, but inhibition of viral production was consistently > or = 99% compared with control cultures. The protective and antiviral inhibitory activity of the anti-N sera was identified as anti-N antibody by several methods. First, absorption of anti-N sera with goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin serum, but not normal goat serum, removed the activity. Second, radioimmuno-precipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of sucrose density gradient-fractionated anti-N sera showed that antiviral activity was present only in the fraction containing anti-N antibody. Finally, absorption of anti-N sera with insect cells infected with a baculovirus expressing the N protein removed the protective activity. These data indicate that anti-N antibody is a component of the resistance to rabies virus infections.
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PMCID: PMC238029  PMID: 8371354
24.  Characteristics of bat rabies in Alberta. 
Rabies in bats was monitored in Alberta from 1971 to 1978 Big brown bats replaced silver-haired bats as the species most frequently reported rabid during these years. Rabies infection was comparatively high among little brown bats in central Alberta in 1973 and has subsequently declined. Only one rabid little brown bat was discovered in southern Alberta which is populated by a different subspecies. Outbreaks of rabies in little brown and big brown bat colonies tended to be brief events. Observations of free-ranging bats with probable furious rabies suggested that bats do not generally identify humans as targets for attack. Independent trends in infection rates suggested that spread of rabies is primarily intraspecific but there is evidence that migratory bats play a role in introduction and maintenance of rabies in northern temperate bat communities. The dynamics of bat rabies in Alberta are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1320036  PMID: 7397600
25.  Enzootic Rabies Elimination from Dogs and Reemergence in Wild Terrestrial Carnivores, United States 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2008;14(12):1849-1854.
Independent enzootics in wild terrestrial carnivores resulted from spillover events from long-term enzootics associated with dogs.
To provide molecular and virologic evidence that domestic dog rabies is no longer enzootic to the United States and to identify putative relatives of dog-related rabies viruses (RVs) circulating in other carnivores, we studied RVs associated with recent and historic dog rabies enzootics worldwide. Molecular, phylogenetic, and epizootiologic evidence shows that domestic dog rabies is no longer enzootic to the United States. Nonetheless, our data suggest that independent rabies enzootics are now established in wild terrestrial carnivores (skunks in California and north-central United States, gray foxes in Texas and Arizona, and mongooses in Puerto Rico), as a consequence of different spillover events from long-term rabies enzootics associated with dogs. These preliminary results highlight the key role of dog RVs and human–dog demographics as operative factors for host shifts and disease reemergence into other important carnivore populations and highlight the need for the elimination of dog-related RVs worldwide.
doi:10.3201/eid1412.080876
PMCID: PMC2634643  PMID: 19046506
Rabies elimination; rabies re-emergence; molecular epidemiology; oral vaccination; rabies in wildlife; research

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