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1.  The Information Commons: a model for (physical) digital resource centers. 
Since its planning, construction, and opening in 1996, the Information Commons, located in The University of Iowa's Hardin Library for the Health Sciences, has served as a common ground for self-directed learning, information research, hands-on class sessions, and multimedia development. Initiatives launched from the Information Commons not only have helped increase the visibility of Hardin Library as an environment well equipped to support traditional research and education needs, but have promoted the library as a campus leader and viable partner in planning and delivering digital technologies effectively. Ongoing initiatives have focused on better integrating the library's services and resources with the curricula and research needs of the university's health sciences units. This paper describes the facility, its programmatic elements, and its impact on education, communication, and technology trends in an academic health sciences setting. Particular attention is paid to initiatives launched during the first two years of operation. This paper also discusses plans for expansion of the facility.
PMCID: PMC226454  PMID: 9803303
2.  How hyper are we? A look at hypermedia management in academic health sciences libraries. 
Advances in instruction-delivery technology have a direct impact on academic media centers. New technology challenges librarians philosophically, financially, and ethically to provide access to information and instructional systems. Each institution has a unique set of circumstances governing decisions to provide access to hypermedia. If patron needs are met satisfactorily through labs outside the library, it may not be necessary for the library to incorporate hypermedia into its collection. Other library media centers may serve as a main point of access, or a substantial alternative computing resource may exist in departments or professional schools. Regardless of which route is taken, hypermedia is a viable instructional delivery system and can coexist with traditional services. Future studies on various aspects of hypermedia and multimedia management should be encouraged. Academic health sciences librarians would benefit from the study of hypermedia and multimedia collection-development policies, equipment, and personnel management. As computer networking of multimedia and image databases becomes available, it will be interesting to see the role academic health sciences libraries assume in integrating these data-bases with traditional information-delivery systems. Changing technology and instructional methods will affect budgets as well as library relationships with academic departments and computing centers.
PMCID: PMC225732  PMID: 8428192
3.  Using findings in multimedia learning to inform technology-based behavioral health interventions 
Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using technology-based behavioral health interventions to improve intervention effectiveness and to reach underserved populations. However, these interventions are rarely informed by evidence-based findings of how technology can be optimized to promote acquisition of key skills and information. At the same time, experts in multimedia learning generally do not apply their findings to health education or conduct research in clinical contexts. This paper presents an overview of some key aspects of multimedia learning research that may allow those developing health interventions to apply informational technology with the same rigor as behavioral science content. We synthesized empirical multimedia learning literature from 1992 to 2011. We identified key findings and suggested a framework for integrating technology with educational and behavioral science theory. A scientific, evidence-driven approach to developing technology-based interventions can yield greater effectiveness, improved fidelity, increased outcomes, and better client service.
PMCID: PMC3771008  PMID: 24073174
Technology; Behavior; Intervention; Computer; Multimedia; Learning
4.  Interactive Methods for Teaching Action Potentials, an Example of Teaching Innovation from Neuroscience Postdoctoral Fellows in the Fellowships in Research and Science Teaching (FIRST) Program 
Acquiring a faculty position in academia is extremely competitive and now typically requires more than just solid research skills and knowledge of one’s field. Recruiting institutions currently desire new faculty that can teach effectively, but few postdoctoral positions provide any training in teaching methods. Fellowships in Research and Science Teaching (FIRST) is a successful postdoctoral training program funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) providing training in both research and teaching methodology. The FIRST program provides fellows with outstanding interdisciplinary biomedical research training in fields such as neuroscience. The postdoctoral research experience is integrated with a teaching program which includes a How to Teach course, instruction in classroom technology and course development and mentored teaching. During their mentored teaching experiences, fellows are encouraged to explore innovative teaching methodologies and to perform science teaching research to improve classroom learning. FIRST fellows teaching neuroscience to undergraduates have observed that many of these students have difficulty with the topic of neuroscience. Therefore, we investigated the effects of interactive teaching methods for this topic. We tested two interactive teaching methodologies to determine if they would improve learning and retention of this information when compared with standard lectures. The interactive methods for teaching action potentials increased understanding and retention. Therefore, FIRST provides excellent teaching training, partly by enhancing the ability of fellows to integrate innovative teaching methods into their instruction. This training in turn provides fellows that matriculate from this program more of the characteristics that hiring institutions desire in their new faculty.
PMCID: PMC3592690  PMID: 23493377
action potential; postdoctoral fellowship; interactive teaching; pedagogy; neuroscience; mentoring
5.  Online Teaching Tool Simplifies Faculty Use of Multimedia and Improves Student Interest and Knowledge in Science 
CBE Life Sciences Education  2011;10(3):298-308.
Digital technologies can improve student interest and knowledge in science. However, researching the vast number of websites devoted to science education and integrating them into undergraduate curricula is time-consuming. We developed an Adobe ColdFusion– and Adobe Flash–based system for simplifying the construction, use, and delivery of electronic educational materials in science. The Online Multimedia Teaching Tool (OMTT) in Neuroscience was constructed from a ColdFusion-based online interface, which reduced the need for programming skills and the time for curriculum development. The OMTT in Neuroscience was used by faculty to enhance their lectures in existing curricula. Students had unlimited online access to encourage user-centered exploration. We found the OMTT was rapidly adapted by multiple professors, and its use by undergraduate students was consistent with the interpretation that the OMTT improved performance on exams and increased interest in the field of neuroscience.
PMCID: PMC3164569  PMID: 21885826
6.  Computers in Medical Education: A Cooperative Approach to Planning and Implementation 
After years of ‘ad hoc’ growth in the use of computers in the curriculum, the University of Minnesota Medical School in cooperation with the Bio-Medical Library and Health Sciences Computing Services developed and began implementation of a plan for integration of medical informatics into all phases of medical education.
Objectives were developed which focus on teaching skills related to:
1) accessing, retrieving, evaluating and managing medical information;
2) appropriate utilization of computer-assisted instruction lessons;
3) electronic communication with fellow students and medical faculty; and
4) fostering a lifelong commitment to effective use of computers to solve clinical problems.
Surveys assessed the status of computer expertise among faculty and entering students. The results of these surveys, lessons learned from this experience, and implications for the future of computers in medical education are discussed.
PMCID: PMC2245246
7.  The Missouri planning grant for the education and training of health sciences librarians. 
The planning grant at the School of Library and Informational Science (SLIS) at the University of Missouri has two aims: (a) developing a model curriculum for health sciences librarianship at the master's level and (b) developing materials that can be delivered by alternative instructional methods. To accomplish the first aim, the faculty will investigate the possibility of offering courses in other disciplines, such as health care administration, educational technology, adult education, and medical sociology. In addition, the SLIS faculty will investigate the development of new kinds of placement for the students' practicum experience. To reach the second aim, the SLIS faculty will investigate alternative means of delivering both graduate and continuing education. Three instructional modalities will be evaluated. Some material will be delivered via satellite broadcast, some material will be made available via the World Wide Web and some will be presented in an intensive seminar. The outcome of the planning grant will be two distinct plans. The first will be a plan for the curriculum in health sciences librarianship at the master's level. The second will be a plan for offering instruction through alternative methods, both for graduate education and for continuing education.
PMCID: PMC226196  PMID: 8913559
8.  Animating the curriculum: integrating multimedia into teaching. 
At many medical schools, the medical library assists faculty in finding and integrating new technology into the classroom, student laboratories, and lecture or small group sessions. Libraries also provide faculty with a place to do development. This paper recounts the author's experience creating software-based educational materials. In the process of creating the Slice of Life videodisc and developing and distributing other medical education software, techniques that do and do not work in producing multimedia for medical education became evident. Use of multimedia features and new modalities not possible with books, rather than development of electronic versions of texts and atlases, should be emphasized. Important human factors include collaboration, continuity, evaluation, and sharing of equipment, software, code, effort, expertise, and experiences. Distribution and technical support also are important activities in which medical libraries can participate.
PMCID: PMC225884  PMID: 8004014
9.  A multidisciplinary approach to information and critical appraisal instruction. 
The formulation of clinical decisions based on evidence requires the ability to locate information and evaluate it critically. A ten-week critical appraisal course for third-year medical students, taught cooperatively by library and Department of Medicine faculty, integrates education in the selection, evaluation, and application of information to patient care. The course is distinctive in that information management skills are taught by a multidisciplinary team in a problem-based format as part of the compulsory medical curriculum. Medical faculty provided instruction in reading and evaluating research methodology, as well as statistical analyses in published reports, using clinical scenarios and related journal articles at weekly sessions. Library faculty provided instruction in locating pertinent research on a sample clinical problem using standard printed and computerized indexes and local library resources, and presented criteria for selecting the most useful and significant works from those retrieved. Library faculty also met individually with students to provide instruction in online literature searching. Based on formal evaluation and informal feedback, the course was well received; it effectively presents the literature search as an integral part of critical appraisal of the medical literature and of the clinical decision-making process.
PMCID: PMC225325  PMID: 2295011
10.  IAIMS development at Harvard Medical School. 
The long-range goal of this IAIMS development project is to achieve an Integrated Academic Information Management System for the Harvard Medical School, the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, and Harvard's affiliated institutions and their respective libraries. An "opportunistic, incremental" approach to planning has been devised. The projects selected for the initial phase are to implement an increasingly powerful electronic communications network, to encourage the use of a variety of bibliographic and information access techniques, and to begin an ambitious program of faculty and student education in computer science and its applications to medical education, medical care, and research. In addition, we will explore means to promote better collaboration among the separate computer science units in the various schools and hospitals. We believe that our planning approach will have relevance to other educational institutions where lack of strong central organizational control prevents a "top-down" approach to planning.
PMCID: PMC227113  PMID: 3416098
11.  A collaborative institutional model for integrating computer applications in the medical curriculum. 
The introduction and promotion of information technology in an established medical curriculum with existing academic and technical support structures poses a number of challenges. The UNC School of Medicine has developed the Taskforce on Educational Applications in Medicine (TEAM), to coordinate this effort. TEAM works as a confederation of existing research and support units with interests in computers and education, along with a core of interested faculty with curricular responsibilities. Constituent units of the TEAM confederation include the medical center library, medical television studios, basic science teaching laboratories, educational development office, microcomputer and network support groups, academic affairs administration, and a subset of course directors and teaching faculty. Among our efforts have been the establishment of (1) a mini-grant program to support faculty initiated development and implementation of computer applications in the curriculum, (2) a symposium series with visiting speakers to acquaint faculty with current developments in medical informatics and related curricular efforts at other institution, (3) 20 computer workstations located in the multipurpose teaching labs where first and second year students do much of their academic work, (4) a demonstration center for evaluation of courseware and technologically advanced delivery systems. The student workstations provide convenient access to electronic mail, University schedules and calendars, the CoSy computer conferencing system, and several software applications integral to their courses in pathology, histology, microbiology, biochemistry, and neurobiology. The progress achieved toward the primary goal has modestly exceeded our initial expectations, while the collegiality and interest expressed toward TEAM activities in the local environment stand as empirical measures of the success of the concept.
PMCID: PMC2247631  PMID: 1807705
12.  Information-seeking behavior of health sciences faculty: the impact of new information technologies. 
This paper reports on an ongoing investigation into health sciences faculty's information-seeking behavior, including their use of new information technologies. A survey was administered to all faculty in medicine, nursing, and pharmacy at the University of Illinois at Chicago. It was similar to one administered to the same population in 1991. The survey asked about faculty's use of electronic resources, documented any shift from the use of print to electronic formats, and measured the utilization of library training. The response rate was 48.5% for medicine faculty, 45.0% for nursing, and 62.5% for pharmacy. The study found that use of the print Index Medicus among faculty was in transition: While 30.5% continued to use the print resources, 68.0% of faculty accessed MEDLINE through electronic means. Faculty preferred accessing electronic databases from their offices to doing so from the library. Health sciences faculty used a wide variety of databases, in addition to MEDLINE, to fill their information needs. Most faculty did not take advantage of either in-house or electronic training sessions offered by librarians. The study concluded that the training preferences of faculty need to be further explored.
PMCID: PMC226298  PMID: 9431430
13.  Interdisciplinary multiinstitutional alliances in support of educational programs for health sciences librarians. 
This project responds to the need to identify the knowledge, skills, and expertise required by health sciences librarians in the future and to devise mechanisms for providing this requisite training. The approach involves interdisciplinary multiinstitutional alliances with collaborators drawn from two graduate schools of library and information science (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Indiana University) and two medical schools (University of Illinois at Chicago and Washington University). The project encompasses six specific aims: (1) investigate the evolving role of the health sciences librarian; (2) analyze existing programs of study in library and information science at all levels at Illinois and Indiana; (3) develop opportunities for practicums, internships, and residencies; (4) explore the possibilities of computing and communication technologies to enhance instruction; (5) identify mechanisms to encourage faculty and graduate students to participate in medical informatics research projects; and (6) create recruitment strategies to achieve better representation of currently underrepresented groups. The project can serve as a model for other institutions interested in regional collaboration to enhance graduate education for health sciences librarianship.
PMCID: PMC226197  PMID: 8913560
14.  Development of criteria and procedures for appointment, promotion, and tenure of library faculty in an academic health sciences library. 
A subcommittee of the Appointment, Promotion and Tenure Committee was appointed to develop a document establishing procedures and criteria for the appointment, promotion, and tenure of library faculty at the Library of the Health Sciences, University of Illinois. The subcommittee analyzed the library's objectives within the academic setting and developed guidelines to enhance individual and organizational contributions. Early and regular evaluation of library faculty was emphasized. Skills required to implement library participation and support of education, research, and public service programs were categorized. A mechanism for review and amendment of the document has been established.
PMCID: PMC199297  PMID: 831885
15.  Engaging Actively with Issues in the Responsible Conduct of Science: Lessons from International Efforts Are Relevant for Undergraduate Education in the United States 
CBE Life Sciences Education  2013;12(4):596-603.
This Feature describes a National Research Council project centered on educating faculty in the Middle East/North Africa and Asia to use active learning when teaching responsible conduct of science (RCS). It provides insights for faculty in the United States as they engage students in the intricacies of RCS or establish “train-the-trainer” programs at their home institutions.
Numerous studies are demonstrating that engaging undergraduate students in original research can improve their achievement in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and increase the likelihood that some of them will decide to pursue careers in these disciplines. Associated with this increased prominence of research in the undergraduate curriculum are greater expectations from funders, colleges, and universities that faculty mentors will help those students, along with their graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, develop an understanding and sense of personal and collective obligation for responsible conduct of science (RCS). This Feature describes an ongoing National Research Council (NRC) project and a recent report about educating faculty members in culturally diverse settings (Middle East/North Africa and Asia) to employ active-learning strategies to engage their students and colleagues deeply in issues related to RCS. The NRC report describes the first phase of this project, which took place in Aqaba and Amman, Jordan, in September 2012 and April 2013, respectively. Here we highlight the findings from that report and our subsequent experience with a similar interactive institute in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Our work provides insights and perspectives for faculty members in the United States as they engage undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdoctoral fellows, to help them better understand the intricacies of and connections among various components of RCS. Further, our experiences can provide insights for those who may wish to establish “train-the-trainer” programs at their home institutions.
PMCID: PMC3846510  PMID: 24297287
16.  Providing consumer health information through institutional collaboration. 
In the past several years, The Claude Moore Health Sciences Library of the University of Virginia Health Sciences Center (HSC) has noted a growing demand for consumer health information. However, because the primary role of the library is to provide information services to health professionals at the HSC, questions have been raised as to the amount of time, energy, and money that should be expended to provide health care information to consumers. The library staff, because it can provide special expertise regarding the availability and utilization of consumer health materials, has felt the responsibility to participate in HSC initiatives that reach a broad audience. Library efforts in that regard include assisting with inventory and management of patient education materials, participating in a community health promotion task force, collaborating with hospital departments in planning a consumer health information center, establishing a consumer health information reference section in the library, and obtaining a grant to offer a networked health information system to local public and community college libraries. Consumers of health information benefit from the enhanced services that result from combining the expertise of health professionals and patient educators with the information management skills of library staff.
PMCID: PMC225860  PMID: 8136761
17.  Pragmatists, Positive Communicators, and Shy Enthusiasts: Three Viewpoints on Web Conferencing in Health Sciences Education 
Web conferencing is a synchronous technology that allows coordinated online audio and visual interactions with learners logged in to a central server. Recently, its use has grown rapidly in academia, while research on its use has not kept up. Conferencing systems typically facilitate communication and support for multiple presenters in different locations. A paucity of research has evaluated synchronous Web conferencing in health sciences education.
McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences trialed Wimba’s Live Classroom Web conferencing technology to support education and curriculum activities with students and faculty. The purpose of this study was to explore faculty, staff, and student perceptions of Web conferencing as a support for teaching and learning in health sciences. The Live Classroom technology provided features including real-time VoIP audio, an interactive whiteboard, text chat, PowerPoint slide sharing, application sharing, and archiving of live conferences to support student education and curriculum activities.
Q-methodology was used to identify unique and common viewpoints of participants who had exposure to Web conferencing to support educational applications during the trial evaluation period. This methodology is particularly useful for research on human perceptions and interpersonal relationships to identify groups of participants with different perceptions. It mixes qualitative and quantitative methods. In a Q-methodology study, the goal is to uncover different patterns of thought rather than their numerical distribution among the larger population.
A total of 36 people participated in the study, including medical residents (14), nursing graduate students (11), health sciences faculty (9), and health sciences staff (2). Three unique viewpoints were identified: pragmatists (factor 1), positive communicators (factor 2A), and shy enthusiasts (factor 2B). These factors explained 28% (factor 1) and 11% (factor 2) of the total variance, respectively. The majority of respondents were pragmatists (n = 26), who endorsed the value of Web conferencing yet identified that technical and ease-of-use problems could jeopardize its use. Positive communicators (N = 4) enjoyed technology and felt that Web conferencing could facilitate communication in a variety of contexts. Shy enthusiasts (N = 4) were also positive and comfortable with the technology but differed in that they preferred communicating from a distance rather than face-to-face. Common viewpoints were held by all groups: they found Web conferencing to be superior to audio conferencing alone, felt more training would be useful, and had no concerns that Web conferencing would hamper their interactivity with remote participants or that students accustomed to face-to-face learning would not enjoy Web conferencing.
Overall, all participants, including pragmatists who were more cautious about the technology, viewed Web conferencing as an enabler, especially when face-to-face meetings were not possible. Adequate technical support and training need to be provided for successful ongoing implementation of Web conferencing.
PMCID: PMC2270418  PMID: 18166527
Web conferencing; Q-methodology; synchronous communication; e-learning; distance education; Internet
18.  A college course for nurses on the utilization of library resources. 
Library user instruction has been a no-man's-land between librarian and educator. Each assumes that the other has offered the student some necessary preparation before his assignments requiring library consultation. Too often, this is not the case. Reference librarians at the Duke University Medical Center Library are currently offering a ten-week, 1 1/2-hour credit library instruction course for nursing baccalaureate candidates. "Introduction to Library Resources in the Nursing Field" is designed not so much to orient students to a specific library facility, but rather, to provide them with background material on library organization and services and to familiarize them with basic bibliographic tools relevant to the nursing profession. Lectures are supplemented through the use of homework questions, bibliographies, handouts, in-class exercises, and on-line demonstrations. Very positive feedback from both students and faculty has attested to the value of such a course in the nursing curriculum and has resulted in its being offered four times to date. The library staff is exploring methods for offering additional library instruction not only to nursing students but to other user groups in Duke's medical complex.
PMCID: PMC199334  PMID: 843654
19.  Faculty Perception of and Resistance to Online Education in the Fields of Acupuncture, Chiropractic, and Massage Therapy 
This paper reports findings of a research study undertaken to determine the attitudes and perceptions of acupuncture, chiropractic, and massage therapy faculty with regard to online learning within their respective disciplines, and to determine how they might be persuaded to teach online. The study surveyed faculty teaching at schools in these three fields and followed up with additional interviews. The study results indicate that, in general, acupuncture, chiropractic, and massage therapy faculty lack awareness of the capabilities of online education and the elements of good online learning. There is also a perception that what they teach cannot be taught online because of its kinesthetic requirements. The faculty hold this perception in spite of the success of medical science and related health care fields in the online environment, and they do not seem to separate the kinesthetic from the didactic. The present study indicates that faculty opinions about online instruction in this alternative type of education range from being willing to look at the potential of online education to outright dismissing it.
PMCID: PMC3091435  PMID: 21589712
Massage therapy; acupuncture; chiropractic; online education; faculty; education; CAM faculty
20.  From both sides now: librarians' experiences at the Rocky Mountain Evidence-Based Health Care Workshop 
The Colorado Health Outcomes (COHO) Department of the School of Medicine at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (UCHSC) coordinates the Rocky Mountain Evidence-Based Health Care (EBHC) Workshop, which has been held annually since 1999. The goals of the workshop include helping participants—physicians, pharmacists, health care policy makers, journalists and librarians—learn and apply skills for critically appraising medical research literature and for effective use of evidence-based information resources. Participants are encouraged to share ideas and to plan local services and instruction for those working in clinical settings. Each year, librarians from UCHSC Denison Memorial Library participate as faculty by teaching searching skills (PubMed, Cochrane Library, ACP Journal Club, etc.), providing support to small groups, and staffing two computer labs. In 2002, Denison Library received a National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) MidContinental Region Impact Award to fund the attendance of three health sciences librarians from the MidContinental Region, an academic education librarian, a clinical medical librarian, and a department librarian. In this paper, the participating librarians share the lessons they learned about how health care practitioners approach evidence-based practice. The participating librarians also share how they incorporated these lessons into their support of evidence-based practice related to teaching about evidence-based resources, assisting health care practitioners with developing answerable questions, enhancing the clinician-librarian partnership, and assisting practitioners in selecting evidence-based resources for quick answers to clinical questions.
PMCID: PMC314105  PMID: 14762465
21.  Are health science faculty interested in medical history? An evaluative case study. 
This paper deals with the efforts of a medical library to stimulate interest in the history of medicine by utilizing its historical resources. It is based on a survey designed to evaluate the monthly publication of the library, the Bookman, and to determine the response of health science faculty to historical essays as well as to other sections of the publication. The results show that a large percentage of the faculty reads historical essays either regularly or occasionally, and reveal a trend contrary to the common belief that the teaching staff in health science centers is not interested in medical history. The authors suggest that a library with historical resources can contribute to the educational process in a medical community by actively publicizing its collections and providing opportunities for informal and self-initiated reading.
PMCID: PMC199450  PMID: 656659
22.  Educational Innovations in Academic Medicine and Environmental Trends 
Fifteen educational innovations in academic medicine are described in relation to 5 environmental trends. The first trend, demands for increased clinical productivity, has diminished the learning environment, necessitating new organizational structures to support teaching, such as academies of medical educators, mission-based management, and faculty development. The second trend is multidisciplinary approaches to science and education. This is stimulating the growth of multidisciplinary curricular design and oversight along with integrated curricular structures. Third, the science of learning advocates the use of case-based, active learning methods; learning communities such as societies and colleges; and instructional technology. Fourth, shifting views of health and disease are encouraging the addition of new content in the curriculum. In response, theme committees are weaving content across the curriculum, new courses are being inserted into curricula, and community-based education is providing learning experiences outside of academic medical centers. Fifth, calls for accountability are leading to new forms of performance assessment using objective structured clinical exams, clinical examination exercises, simulators, and comprehensive assessment programs. These innovations are transforming medical education.
PMCID: PMC1494858  PMID: 12795736
educational innovations; environmental trends
23.  Medical education and faculty development: a new role for the health sciences librarian. 
This paper describes the roles and responsibilities of the associate director for medical education at the Primary Care Resource Center (PCRC), School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo (UB). The PCRC was established to increase the number of UB medical school graduates who selected graduate medical education in the generalist disciplines. The associate director, who is a health sciences librarian, has established collaborative working relationships with primary care physicians in the clinical departments of family medicine, pediatrics, and internal medicine with the goal of improving the teaching effectiveness of faculty and residents. Another goal is to incorporate the use of computerized information technologies into clinical practice by training physicians and residents, at specially equipped ambulatory training sites, in how to access and manage information for the purpose of providing quality medical care. This has been accomplished in part through the provision of highly personalized instruction to participants. In addition to describing these activities, this paper examines how the duties of the associate director reflect the potential for long-term change in the roles and responsibilities of health sciences librarians, whether they work in a traditional or nontraditional setting.
PMCID: PMC226070  PMID: 8547911
24.  Pedagogical Utilization and Assessment of the Statistic Online Computational Resource in Introductory Probability and Statistics Courses 
Computers & education  2008;50(1):284-300.
Technology-based instruction represents a new recent pedagogical paradigm that is rooted in the realization that new generations are much more comfortable with, and excited about, new technologies. The rapid technological advancement over the past decade has fueled an enormous demand for the integration of modern networking, informational and computational tools with classical pedagogical instruments. Consequently, teaching with technology typically involves utilizing a variety of IT and multimedia resources for online learning, course management, electronic course materials, and novel tools of communication, engagement, experimental, critical thinking and assessment.
The NSF-funded Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR) provides a number of interactive tools for enhancing instruction in various undergraduate and graduate courses in probability and statistics. These resources include online instructional materials, statistical calculators, interactive graphical user interfaces, computational and simulation applets, tools for data analysis and visualization. The tools provided as part of SOCR include conceptual simulations and statistical computing interfaces, which are designed to bridge between the introductory and the more advanced computational and applied probability and statistics courses. In this manuscript, we describe our designs for utilizing SOCR technology in instruction in a recent study. In addition, present the results of the effectiveness of using SOCR tools at two different course intensity levels on three outcome measures: exam scores, student satisfaction and choice of technology to complete assignments. Learning styles assessment was completed at baseline. We have used three very different designs for three different undergraduate classes. Each course included a treatment group, using the SOCR resources, and a control group, using classical instruction techniques. Our findings include marginal effects of the SOCR treatment per individual classes; however, pooling the results across all courses and sections, SOCR effects on the treatment groups were exceptionally robust and significant. Coupling these findings with a clear decrease in the variance of the quantitative examination measures in the treatment groups indicates that employing technology, like SOCR, in a sound pedagogical and scientific manner enhances overall the students’ understanding and suggests better long-term knowledge retention.
PMCID: PMC2740633  PMID: 19750185
education research; teaching with technology; Java applets; online course materials; probability and statistics
25.  Education for health sciences/biomedical librarianship: past, present, future. 
This paper offers an analysis of and some predictions for the fields of library education and medical librarianship. The recent past of education for medical/health sciences librarianship is outlined, with emphasis on the changing nature of the library school, its faculty, and its students. The present situation is described, with specific reference to faculty, curriculum, and accreditation issues. A future agenda is proposed, identifying the need for interdisciplinary and cooperative efforts within the larger realms of medical informatics, high technology, a variety of health professions, and the community of contemporary library practice.
PMCID: PMC227811  PMID: 3708197

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