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1.  Croatian Medical Journal Citation Score in Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar 
Croatian Medical Journal  2010;51(2):99-103.
Aim
To analyze the 2007 citation count of articles published by the Croatian Medical Journal in 2005-2006 based on data from the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar.
Methods
Web of Science and Scopus were searched for the articles published in 2005-2006. As all articles returned by Scopus were included in Web of Science, the latter list was the sample for further analysis. Total citation counts for each article on the list were retrieved from Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The overlap and unique citations were compared and analyzed. Proportions were compared using χ2-test.
Results
Google Scholar returned the greatest proportion of articles with citations (45%), followed by Scopus (42%), and Web of Science (38%). Almost a half (49%) of articles had no citations and 11% had an equal number of identical citations in all 3 databases. The greatest overlap was found between Web of Science and Scopus (54%), followed by Scopus and Google Scholar (51%), and Web of Science and Google Scholar (44%). The greatest number of unique citations was found by Google Scholar (n = 86). The majority of these citations (64%) came from journals, followed by books and PhD theses. Approximately 55% of all citing documents were full-text resources in open access. The language of citing documents was mostly English, but as many as 25 citing documents (29%) were in Chinese.
Conclusion
Google Scholar shares a total of 42% citations returned by two others, more influential, bibliographic resources. The list of unique citations in Google Scholar is predominantly journal based, but these journals are mainly of local character. Citations received by internationally recognized medical journals are crucial for increasing the visibility of small medical journals but Google Scholar may serve as an alternative bibliometric tool for an orientational citation insight.
doi:10.3325/cmj.2010.51.99
PMCID: PMC2859414  PMID: 20401951
2.  Citation Analysis of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences in ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Google Scholar 
Objective(s): Citation tracking is an important method to analyze the scientific impact of journal articles and can be done through Scopus (SC), Google Scholar (GS), or ISI web of knowledge (WOS). In the current study, we analyzed the citations to 2011-2012 articles of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (IJBMS) in these three resources.
Material and Methods: The relevant data from SC, GS, and WOS official websites. Total number of citations, their overlap and unique citations of these three recourses were evaluated.
Results: WOS and SC covered 100% and GS covered 97% of the IJBMS items. Totally, 37 articles were cited at least once in one of the studied resources. Total number of citations were 20, 30, and 59 in WOS, SC, and GS respectively. Forty citations of GS, 6 citation of SC, and 2 citations of WOS were unique.
Conclusion: Every scientific resource has its own inaccuracies in providing citation analysis information. Citation analysis studies are better to be done each year to correct any inaccuracy as soon as possible. IJBMS has gained considerable scientific attention from wide range of high impact journals and through citation tracking method; this visibility can be traced more thoroughly.
PMCID: PMC3874088  PMID: 24379959
Citation tracking; Google Scholar; Impact factor; Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; Scopus; Web of Science
3.  Citations and the h index of soil researchers and journals in the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar 
PeerJ  2013;1:e183.
Citation metrics and h indices differ using different bibliometric databases. We compiled the number of publications, number of citations, h index and year since the first publication from 340 soil researchers from all over the world. On average, Google Scholar has the highest h index, number of publications and citations per researcher, and the Web of Science the lowest. The number of papers in Google Scholar is on average 2.3 times higher and the number of citations is 1.9 times higher compared to the data in the Web of Science. Scopus metrics are slightly higher than that of the Web of Science. The h index in Google Scholar is on average 1.4 times larger than Web of Science, and the h index in Scopus is on average 1.1 times larger than Web of Science. Over time, the metrics increase in all three databases but fastest in Google Scholar. The h index of an individual soil scientist is about 0.7 times the number of years since his/her first publication. There is a large difference between the number of citations, number of publications and the h index using the three databases. From this analysis it can be concluded that the choice of the database affects widely-used citation and evaluation metrics but that bibliometric transfer functions exist to relate the metrics from these three databases. We also investigated the relationship between journal’s impact factor and Google Scholar’s h5-index. The h5-index is a better measure of a journal’s citation than the 2 or 5 year window impact factor.
doi:10.7717/peerj.183
PMCID: PMC3807595  PMID: 24167778
Soil science; Bibliometrics; h index; Impact factor; Citations; Transfer functions
4.  THE ASSOCIATION OF DEPRESSION WITH ADHERENCE TO ANTIHYPERTENSIVE MEDICATIONS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW 
Journal of hypertension  2010;28(9):1785-1795.
Objective
To examine the strength and consistency of the evidence on the relationship between depression and adherence to antihypertensive medications.
Methods
The MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, SCOPUS, and ISI databases were searched from inception until December 11, 2009 for published studies of original research that assessed adherence to antihypertensive medications and used a standardized interview, validated questionnaire or International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code to assess depression or symptoms of depression in patients with hypertension. Manual searching was conducted on 22 selected journals. Citations of included articles were tracked using Web of Science and Google Scholar. Two investigators independently extracted data from the selected articles and discrepancies were resolved by consensus.
Results
Eight studies were identified that included a total of 42,790 patients. 95% of these patients were from one study. Only 4 of the studies had the assessment of this relationship as a primary objective. Adherence rates varied from 29% to 91%. There were widely varying results within and across studies. All 8 studies reported at least one significant bivariate or multivariate negative relationship between depression and adherence to antihypertensive medications. Insignificant findings in bivariate or multivariate analyses were reported in 6 of 8 studies.
Conclusions
All studies reported statistically significant relationships between depression and poor adherence to antihypertensive medications, but definitive conclusions cannot be drawn because of substantial heterogeneity between studies with respect to the assessment of depression and adherence, as well as inconsistencies in results both within and between studies. Additional studies would help clarify this relationship.
doi:10.1097/HJH.0b013e32833b4a6f
PMCID: PMC2923094  PMID: 20531223
Hypertension; depression; adherence; systematic review
5.  Citation searching: a systematic review case study of multiple risk behaviour interventions 
Background
The value of citation searches as part of the systematic review process is currently unknown. While the major guides to conducting systematic reviews state that citation searching should be carried out in addition to searching bibliographic databases there are still few studies in the literature that support this view. Rather than using a predefined search strategy to retrieve studies, citation searching uses known relevant papers to identify further papers.
Methods
We describe a case study about the effectiveness of using the citation sources Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science and OVIDSP MEDLINE to identify records for inclusion in a systematic review.
We used the 40 included studies identified by traditional database searches from one systematic review of interventions for multiple risk behaviours. We searched for each of the included studies in the four citation sources to retrieve the details of all papers that have cited these studies.
We carried out two analyses; the first was to examine the overlap between the four citation sources to identify which citation tool was the most useful; the second was to investigate whether the citation searches identified any relevant records in addition to those retrieved by the original database searches.
Results
The highest number of citations was retrieved from Google Scholar (1680), followed by Scopus (1173), then Web of Science (1095) and lastly OVIDSP (213). To retrieve all the records identified by the citation tracking searching all four resources was required. Google Scholar identified the highest number of unique citations.
The citation tracking identified 9 studies that met the review’s inclusion criteria. Eight of these had already been identified by the traditional databases searches and identified in the screening process while the ninth was not available in any of the databases when the original searches were carried out. It would, however, have been identified by two of the database search strategies if searches had been carried out later.
Conclusions
Based on the results from this investigation, citation searching as a supplementary search method for systematic reviews may not be the best use of valuable time and resources. It would be useful to verify these findings in other reviews.
doi:10.1186/1471-2288-14-73
PMCID: PMC4048585  PMID: 24893958
Systematic reviews; Information retrieval; Citation searching
6.  H-indices of Academic Pediatricians of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences 
Acta Informatica Medica  2013;21(4):234-236.
Background:
Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar are three major sources which provide h-indices for individual researchers. In this study we aimed to compare the h-indices of the academic pediatricians of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences obtained from the above mentioned sources.
Method:
Academic pediatrician who had at least 5 ISI indexed articles entered the study. Information required for evaluating the h-indices of the included researchers were retrieved from official websites Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, and Google Scholar (GS). Correlations between obtained h-indices from the mentioned databases were analyzed using Spearrman correlation coefficient. Ranks of each researcher according to each database h-index were also evaluated.
Results:
In general, 16 pediatricians entered the study. Computed h-indices for individual authors were different in each database. Correlations between obtained h-indices were: 0.439 (ISI and Scopus), 0.488 (ISI and GS), and 0.810 (Scopus and GS). Despite differences between evaluated h-indices in each database for individual authors, the rankings according to these h-indices were almost similar.
Conclusion:
Although h-indices supplied by WOS, SCOPUS, and GS can be used interchangeably, their differences should be acknowledged. Setting up “ReasercherID” in WOS and “User profile” in GS, and giving regular feedback to SCOPUS can increase the validity of the calculated h-indices.
doi:10.5455/aim.2013.21.234-236
PMCID: PMC3916174  PMID: 24554795
SCOPUS; ISI; Web of Science; Google Scholar; Pediatric; Mashhad; H-index.
7.  References that anyone can edit: review of Wikipedia citations in peer reviewed health science literature 
Objectives To examine indexed health science journals to evaluate the prevalence of Wikipedia citations, identify the journals that publish articles with Wikipedia citations, and determine how Wikipedia is being cited.
Design Bibliometric analysis.
Study selection Publications in the English language that included citations to Wikipedia were retrieved using the online databases Scopus and Web of Science.
Data sources To identify health science journals, results were refined using Ulrich’s database, selecting for citations from journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase. Using Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports, 2011 impact factors were collected for all journals included in the search.
Data extraction Resulting citations were thematically coded, and descriptive statistics were calculated.
Results 1433 full text articles from 1008 journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase with 2049 Wikipedia citations were accessed. The frequency of Wikipedia citations has increased over time; most citations occurred after December 2010. More than half of the citations were coded as definitions (n=648; 31.6%) or descriptions (n=482; 23.5%). Citations were not limited to journals with a low or no impact factor; the search found Wikipedia citations in many journals with high impact factors.
Conclusions Many publications are citing information from a tertiary source that can be edited by anyone, although permanent, evidence based sources are available. We encourage journal editors and reviewers to use caution when publishing articles that cite Wikipedia.
doi:10.1136/bmj.g1585
PMCID: PMC3944683  PMID: 24603564
8.  Increasing frequency of reirradiation studies in radiation oncology: systematic review of highly cited articles 
Objectives: Identification of the most influential scientific publications and directions of mainstream reirradiation research. Methods: A systematic search of the database Scopus (Elsevier B.V., www.scopus.com) was performed, which focused on the time period 1998-2010. Patterns of citation were analysed (total number of citations accumulated independently of their origin and proportion of highly cited articles, arbitrarily defined as those with ≥50 citations). Results: Up to 64 articles were published each year. Numbers increased over time, especially after the year 2007. Among all 76 articles with at least 50 citations, 28 (37%) focused on head and neck cancer, 27 (36%) on brain tumours including metastases, and 5 (7%) on bone metastases. Most articles evaluated external beam approaches while 10 (13%) focused on brachytherapy. Many of the often quoted publications reported on stereotactic and/or intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Two (3%) reported on randomised clinical studies and 10 (13%) on non-randomised prospective clinical studies (single institution or cooperative group). Only two articles (3%) reported on experimental animal studies. Conclusions: The number of published reirradiation studies has increased in recent years. Many studies examined highly conformal and precise radiotherapy, in particular of brain and head and neck tumours. Given that few randomised clinical trials were published, efforts to increase this type of research activity are warranted.
PMCID: PMC3623835  PMID: 23593538
Radiotherapy; radiation oncology; radiation retreatment; reirradiation; citation; research evaluation
9.  Design and Update of a Classification System: The UCSD Map of Science 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e39464.
Global maps of science can be used as a reference system to chart career trajectories, the location of emerging research frontiers, or the expertise profiles of institutes or nations. This paper details data preparation, analysis, and layout performed when designing and subsequently updating the UCSD map of science and classification system. The original classification and map use 7.2 million papers and their references from Elsevier’s Scopus (about 15,000 source titles, 2001–2005) and Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science (WoS) Science, Social Science, Arts & Humanities Citation Indexes (about 9,000 source titles, 2001–2004)–about 16,000 unique source titles. The updated map and classification adds six years (2005–2010) of WoS data and three years (2006–2008) from Scopus to the existing category structure–increasing the number of source titles to about 25,000. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a widely used map of science was updated. A comparison of the original 5-year and the new 10-year maps and classification system show (i) an increase in the total number of journals that can be mapped by 9,409 journals (social sciences had a 80% increase, humanities a 119% increase, medical (32%) and natural science (74%)), (ii) a simplification of the map by assigning all but five highly interdisciplinary journals to exactly one discipline, (iii) a more even distribution of journals over the 554 subdisciplines and 13 disciplines when calculating the coefficient of variation, and (iv) a better reflection of journal clusters when compared with paper-level citation data. When evaluating the map with a listing of desirable features for maps of science, the updated map is shown to have higher mapping accuracy, easier understandability as fewer journals are multiply classified, and higher usability for the generation of data overlays, among others.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039464
PMCID: PMC3395643  PMID: 22808037
10.  The first three years of the Journal of Global Health: Assessing the impact 
Journal of Global Health  2014;4(1):010101.
The Journal of Global Health (JoGH) is three years old. To assess its impact, we analysed online access to JoGH's articles using PubMed Central and Google Analytics tools. Moreover, we tracked citations that JoGH received in 2013 using ISI Web of KnowledgeSM and Google Scholar® tools. The 66 items (articles, viewpoints and editorials) published between June 2011 and December 2013 were accessed more than 50 000 times during 2013, from more than 160 countries of the world. Seven among the 13 most accessed papers were focused on global, regional and national epidemiological estimates of important infectious diseases. JoGH articles published in 2011 and 2012 received 77 citations in Journal Citation Reports® (JCR)–indexed journals in 2013 to 24 original research articles, setting our first, unofficial impact factor at 3.208. In addition, JoGH received 11 citations during 2013 to its 12 original research papers published during 2013, resulting in an immediacy index of 0.917. The number of external, non–commissioned submissions that we consider to be of high quality is continuously increasing, leading to current JoGH's rejection rate of about 80%. The current citation analysis raises favourable expectations for the JoGH's overall impact on the global health community in future years.
doi:10.7189/jogh.04.010101
PMCID: PMC4073248  PMID: 24976952
11.  Trends in and contributions to entrepreneurship research: a broad review of literature from 1996 to June 2012 
Scientometrics  2013;99:353-369.
This article, which began as an effort to gauge trends in and contributions to the broad field of “entrepreneur/entrepreneurship,” reviews 5,476 academic articles on entrepreneurship that were published in 522 Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index journals from 1996 to June 2012. This survey identifies keywords and conducts a review to search for and identify related articles in the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science database. We then present our findings, including the number of publications by year, categorization of article types, main academic journals, authors, and most-cited articles. The citation counts for authors, journals, and articles are also analyzed. This study indicates that the number of articles related to the keyword entrepreneur increased from 1996 to the end of 2011, which is a sign of an upward trend in the influence of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneur research fascinated numerous scholars during the study period covering 16.5 years. In particular, researchers from the USA, England, Canada, Germany, and the Netherlands have made the most contributions to this field. This literature review provides evidence that the concept of entrepreneur attracted academic researchers, resulting in significant contributions to the field of entrepreneur research.
doi:10.1007/s11192-013-1203-5
PMCID: PMC3976513  PMID: 24719495
Entrepreneur; Contribution research; Literature review; Trend; Citation analysis
12.  Author Self-Citation in the General Medicine Literature 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(6):e20885.
Background
Author self-citation contributes to the overall citation count of an article and the impact factor of the journal in which it appears. Little is known, however, about the extent of self-citation in the general clinical medicine literature. The objective of this study was to determine the extent and temporal pattern of author self-citation and the article characteristics associated with author self-citation.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We performed a retrospective cohort study of articles published in three high impact general medical journals (JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine) between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2000. We retrieved the number and percentage of author self-citations received by the article since publication, as of June 2008, from the Scopus citation database. Several article characteristics were extracted by two blinded, independent reviewers for each article in the cohort and analyzed in multivariable linear regression analyses. Since publication, author self-citations accounted for 6.5% (95% confidence interval 6.3–6.7%) of all citations received by the 328 articles in our sample. Self-citation peaked in 2002, declining annually thereafter. Studies with more authors, in cardiovascular medicine or infectious disease, and with smaller sample size were associated with more author self-citations and higher percentage of author self-citation (all p≤0.01).
Conclusions/Significance
Approximately 1 in 15 citations of articles in high-profile general medicine journals are author self-citations. Self-citation peaks within about 2 years of publication and disproportionately affects impact factor. Studies most vulnerable to this effect are those with more authors, small sample size, and in cardiovascular medicine or infectious disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020885
PMCID: PMC3116850  PMID: 21698195
13.  Citation Analysis of the Korean Journal of Urology From Web of Science, Scopus, Korean Medical Citation Index, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(4):220-228.
The Korean Journal of Urology began to be published exclusively in English in 2010 and is indexed in PubMed Central/PubMed. This study analyzed a variety of citation indicators of the Korean Journal of Urology before and after 2010 to clarify the present position of the journal among the urology category journals. The impact factor, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), impact index, Z-impact factor (ZIF, impact factor excluding self-citation), and Hirsch Index (H-index) were referenced or calculated from Web of Science, Scopus, SCImago Journal & Country Ranking, Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI), KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar. Both the impact factor and the total citations rose rapidly beginning in 2011. The 2012 impact factor corresponded to the upper 84.9% in the nephrology-urology category, whereas the 2011 SJR was in the upper 58.5%. The ZIF in KoMCI was one fifth of the impact factor because there are only two other urology journals in KoMCI. Up to 2009, more than half of the citations in the Web of Science were from Korean researchers, but from 2010 to 2012, more than 85% of the citations were from international researchers. The H-indexes from Web of Science, Scopus, KoMCI, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar were 8, 10, 12, 9, and 18, respectively. The strategy of the language change in 2010 was successful from the perspective of citation indicators. The values of the citation indicators will continue to increase rapidly and consistently as the research achievement of authors of the Korean Journal of Urology increases.
doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.4.220
PMCID: PMC3630339  PMID: 23614057
Analysis; Bibliometrics; Database; Korea
14.  The relationship between quality of research and citation frequency 
Background
Citation counts are often regarded as a measure of the utilization and contribution of published articles. The objective of this study is to assess whether statistical reporting and statistical errors in the analysis of the primary outcome are associated with the number of citations received.
Methods
We evaluated all original research articles published in 1996 in four psychiatric journals. The statistical and reporting quality of each paper was assessed and the number of citations received up to 2005 was obtained from the Web of Science database. We then examined whether the number of citations was associated with the quality of the statistical analysis and reporting.
Results
A total of 448 research papers were included in the citation analysis. Unclear or inadequate reporting of the research question and primary outcome were not statistically significantly associated with the citation counts. After adjusting for journal, extended description of statistical procedures had a positive effect on the number of citations received. Inappropriate statistical analysis did not affect the number of citations received. Adequate reporting of the primary research question, statistical methods and primary findings were all associated with the journal visibility and prestige.
Conclusion
In this cohort of published research, measures of reporting quality and appropriate statistical analysis were not associated with the number of citations. The journal in which a study is published appears to be as important as the statistical reporting quality in ensuring dissemination of published medical science.
doi:10.1186/1471-2288-6-42
PMCID: PMC1570136  PMID: 16948835
15.  Trends in Citations to Books on Epidemiological and Statistical Methods in the Biomedical Literature 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e61837.
Background
There are no analyses of citations to books on epidemiological and statistical methods in the biomedical literature. Such analyses may shed light on how concepts and methods changed while biomedical research evolved. Our aim was to analyze the number and time trends of citations received from biomedical articles by books on epidemiological and statistical methods, and related disciplines.
Methods and Findings
The data source was the Web of Science. The study books were published between 1957 and 2010. The first year of publication of the citing articles was 1945. We identified 125 books that received at least 25 citations. Books first published in 1980–1989 had the highest total and median number of citations per year. Nine of the 10 most cited texts focused on statistical methods. Hosmer & Lemeshow's Applied logistic regression received the highest number of citations and highest average annual rate. It was followed by books by Fleiss, Armitage, et al., Rothman, et al., and Kalbfleisch and Prentice. Fifth in citations per year was Sackett, et al., Evidence-based medicine. The rise of multivariate methods, clinical epidemiology, or nutritional epidemiology was reflected in the citation trends. Educational textbooks, practice-oriented books, books on epidemiological substantive knowledge, and on theory and health policies were much less cited. None of the 25 top-cited books had the theoretical or sociopolitical scope of works by Cochrane, McKeown, Rose, or Morris.
Conclusions
Books were mainly cited to reference methods. Books first published in the 1980s continue to be most influential. Older books on theory and policies were rooted in societal and general medical concerns, while the most modern books are almost purely on methods.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061837
PMCID: PMC3646840  PMID: 23667447
16.  A Reverse Engineering Approach to the Suppression of Citation Biases Reveals Universal Properties of Citation Distributions 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e33833.
The large amount of information contained in bibliographic databases has recently boosted the use of citations, and other indicators based on citation numbers, as tools for the quantitative assessment of scientific research. Citations counts are often interpreted as proxies for the scientific influence of papers, journals, scholars, and institutions. However, a rigorous and scientifically grounded methodology for a correct use of citation counts is still missing. In particular, cross-disciplinary comparisons in terms of raw citation counts systematically favors scientific disciplines with higher citation and publication rates. Here we perform an exhaustive study of the citation patterns of millions of papers, and derive a simple transformation of citation counts able to suppress the disproportionate citation counts among scientific domains. We find that the transformation is well described by a power-law function, and that the parameter values of the transformation are typical features of each scientific discipline. Universal properties of citation patterns descend therefore from the fact that citation distributions for papers in a specific field are all part of the same family of univariate distributions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033833
PMCID: PMC3315498  PMID: 22479454
17.  Citation Analysis of Hepatitis Monthly by Journal Citation Report (ISI), Google Scholar, and Scopus 
Hepatitis Monthly  2012;12(9):e7441.
Background
Citation analysis as one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics can be used for computing the various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation databases. Journal Citation Reports (JCR) from Thomson Reuters provides annual report in the form of impact factor (IF) for each journal.
Objectives
We aimed to evaluate the citation parameters of Hepatitis Monthly by JCR in 2010 and compare them with GS and Sc.
Materials and Methods
All articles of Hepat Mon published in 2009 and 2008 which had been cited in 2010 in three databases including WoS, Sc and GS gathered in a spreadsheet. The IFs were manually calculated.
Results
Among the 104 total published articles the accuracy rates of GS and Sc in recording the total number of articles was 96% and 87.5%. There was a difference between IFs among the three databases (0.793 in ISI [Institute for Scientific Information], 0.945 in Sc and 0.85 GS). The missing rate of citations in ISI was 4% totally. Original articles were the main cited types, whereas, guidelines and clinical challenges were the least ones.
Conclusions
None of the three databases succeed to record all articles published in the journal. Despite high sensitivity of GS comparing to Sc, it cannot be a reliable source for indexing since GS has lack of screening in the data collection and low specificity. Using an average of three IFs is suggested to find the correct IF. Editors should be more aware on the role of original articles in increasing IF and the potential efficacy of review articles in long term impact factor.
doi:10.5812/hepatmon.7441
PMCID: PMC3475027  PMID: 23087765
Citation Analysis; Impact Factor; Hepatitis Monthly; ISI; Scopus; Google Scholar
18.  Citability of Original Research and Reviews in Journals and Their Sponsored Supplements 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(3):e9876.
Background
The contents of pharmaceutical industry sponsored supplements to medical journals are perceived to be less credible than the contents of their parent journals. It is unknown if their contents are cited as often. The objective of this study was to quantify the citability of original research and reviews contained in supplements and compare it with that for the parent journal.
Methodology/Principal Findings
This was a cohort study of 446 articles published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (JCP) and its supplements for calendar years 2000 and 2005. The total citation counts for each article up to October 5, 2009 were retrieved from the ISI Web of Science database. The main outcome measure was the number of citations received by an article since publication. Regular journal articles included 114 from calendar year 2000 and 190 from 2005. Articles from supplements included 90 from 2000 and 52 from 2005. The median citation counts for the 3 years post-publication were 10 (interquartile range [IQR], 4–20), 14 (IQR, 8–20), 13.5 (IQR, 8–23), and 13.5 (IQR, 8–20), for the 2000 parent journal, 2000 supplements, 2005 parent journal, and 2005 supplements, respectively. Citation counts were higher for the articles in the supplements than the parent journal for the cohorts from 2000 (p = .02), and no different for the year 2005 cohorts (p = .88). The 2005 parent journal cohort had higher citation counts than the 2000 cohort (p = .007), in contrast to the supplements where citation counts remained the same (p = .94).
Conclusions/Significance
Articles published in JCP supplements are robustly cited and thus can be influential in guiding clinical and research practice, as well as shaping critical thinking. Because they are printed under the sponsorship of commercial interests, they may be perceived as less than objective. A reasonable step to help improve this perception would be to ensure that supplements are peer-reviewed in the same way as regular articles in the parent journal.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009876
PMCID: PMC2844430  PMID: 20352048
19.  How Far Has the International Neurourology Journal Progressed Since Its Transformation Into an English Language Journal? 
Purpose
The publisher of the International Neurourology Journal changed the text to English in 2010 to promote the journal as an international publication. Four years later, what has happened to this journal? This paper will use citation indicators to describe the degree of internationalization.
Methods
Citation indicators such as impact factors, total citations from Web of Science, Science Journal Rankings (SJR), cites per documents (2 years), and Hirsch indexes (h-indexes) from Web of Science, digital object identifier (DOI)/CrossRef, ScimagoJR, or Scopus were calculated. In addition, the native countries of the authors and researchers citing the journal in Web of Science were analyzed.
Results
Impact factors in 2012 and 2013 were 0.645 and 0.857, respectively. Total citations in 2011, 2012, and 2013 from Web of Science were 15, 51, and 99, respectively, and the SJRs in 2011 and 2012 were 0.220 and 0.390, respectively. The h-indexes from DOI/CrossRef, Scopus, and Web of Science were 7, 8, and 6, respectively. Out of 153 unsolicited published papers, 27 (17.6%) were from outside of Korea. The researchers citing the journal in Web of Science and Scopus were primarily from the United States, Korea, China, the United Kingdom, and France. Funding agencies supported 39 of 101 original articles (38.6%).
Conclusions
After changing the text to the English language, the citation indicators show that the International Neurourology Journal has been elevated to an international journal. Although the nationality of authors varies from year to year, the increase in the number of manuscripts from international authors is obvious.
doi:10.5213/inj.2014.18.1.3
PMCID: PMC3983506  PMID: 24729921
Journal impact factor; Bibliographic database; PubMed
20.  Twenty Years of Research on Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Scientometric Report 
Iranian Endodontic Journal  2013;8(1):1-5.
Introduction
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been suggested for root-end filling, vital pulp therapy, apical plug, perforations repair, and root canal filling. Since the introduction of MTA in 1993, many studies about this material have been published. The aim of this survey was to illustrate statistical information about published articles in PubMed-index journals vis-à-vis the various aspects of this biomaterial.
Material and Methods
A PubMed search was performed to retrieve the relative articles from 1993 to August 2012. The data of each article including publication year, journal name, number of authors, first author name, affiliations and study design were recorded. Citation of each article till 2009 was obtained from Scopus and Google scholar databases. Data were analyzed to determine the related scientometric indicators.
Results
In total, 1027 articles were found in PubMed-indexed journals which show considerable increase from 2 papers in 1993 to 139 in 2011. While ~62% of articles had no level of evidence, only ~5% could be classified as having the highest level of evidence (LOE1); however, the majority of LOE1 articles originated from Iran (~1%: n=10). Journal of Endodontics, as the top rank journal, published 31.7% of MTA related articles. The majority of articles were four-authored (19.6%). Most of the articles originated from USA (21.9%), Brazil (18.5%) and Iran (8.76%). The average number of citation for the top ten articles from Scopus was 231.
Conclusion
This data demonstrates that during the past two decades, research on this novel endodontic biomaterial had a rapid positive trend especially during the last 5 years. Further high-level evidence articles for the various clinical applications of MTA would result in superior clinical decision making and stronger scientific-based endodontic practice.
PMCID: PMC3570971  PMID: 23411944
Biomaterial; Endodontic; Mineral trioxide aggregate; MTA; PubMed; Scientometric
21.  The top cited clinical research articles on sepsis: a bibliometric analysis 
Critical Care  2012;16(3):R110.
Introduction
The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the most highly cited clinical research articles published on sepsis.
Methods
A comprehensive list of citation classics in sepsis was generated by searching the database of Web of Science-Expanded (1970 to present) using keywords 'sepsis' or 'septic shock'. The top 50 cited clinical research papers were retrieved by reading the abstract or full text if needed. Each eligible article was reviewed for basic information, including country of origin, article type, journals, authors, and funding sources.
Results
A total of 2,151 articles were cited more than 100 times; the 50 top-cited clinical articles were published between 1974 and 2008. The number of citations ranged from 372 to 2,932, with a mean of 678 citations per article. These citation classics came from nine countries, of which 26 articles came from the United States. Rush University and the University of Pittsburgh lead the list of classics with six papers each. The 50 top-cited articles were published in 17 journals, with the New England Journal of Medicine and Journal of the American Medical Association topping the list. The top 50 articles consisted of 21 clinical trials and 29 observational studies.
Conclusions
Our bibliometric analysis provides a historical perspective on the progress of clinical research on sepsis. Articles originating from the United States and published in high-impact journals are most likely to be cited in the field of sepsis research.
doi:10.1186/cc11401
PMCID: PMC3580668  PMID: 22731930
22.  CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology 
Journal of Biomedical Semantics  2010;1(Suppl 1):S6.
CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology, is an ontology for describing the nature of reference citations in scientific research articles and other scholarly works, both to other such publications and also to Web information resources, and for publishing these descriptions on the Semantic Web. Citation are described in terms of the factual and rhetorical relationships between citing publication and cited publication, the in-text and global citation frequencies of each cited work, and the nature of the cited work itself, including its publication and peer review status. This paper describes CiTO and illustrates its usefulness both for the annotation of bibliographic reference lists and for the visualization of citation networks. The latest version of CiTO, which this paper describes, is CiTO Version 1.6, published on 19 March 2010. CiTO is written in the Web Ontology Language OWL, uses the namespace http://purl.org/net/cito/, and is available from http://purl.org/net/cito/. This site uses content negotiation to deliver to the user an OWLDoc Web version of the ontology if accessed via a Web browser, or the OWL ontology itself if accessed from an ontology management tool such as Protégé 4 (http://protege.stanford.edu/). Collaborative work is currently under way to harmonize CiTO with other ontologies describing bibliographies and the rhetorical structure of scientific discourse.
doi:10.1186/2041-1480-1-S1-S6
PMCID: PMC2903725  PMID: 20626926
23.  Published Endodontic Articles in PubMed-Indexed Journals from Iran 
Iranian Endodontic Journal  2012;7(1):1-4.
Introduction
The aim of this survey was to illustrate statistical information about endodontic research published in pubmed index journals from the different universities of Iran.
Materials and Methods
A PubMed search was performed to retrieve the endodontic publications of authors affiliated to different universities of Iran. Abstracts were reviewed and unrelated articles were omitted. Citation of each article was obtained from Scopus and Google scholar databases. Data were extracted and transferred to Microsoft Excel to determine the related scintometric indicators.
Results
A total of 307 papers were found according to the defined criteria which shows considerable increase from 2 papers in 1992 to 54 in 2011. The majority of the papers (48%) were related to in vitro studies; this number was 33% for in vivo surveys. Meta-analysis, systematic review and clinical trial constituted 10% of all publications. The average number of authors for the overall publications was 3.84; majority of articles (20%) were written by three authors. The average number of citation from Google Scholar (8.93) was higher than those from Scopus (4.74). Most of the endodontic articles originated from the Mashad University of Medical Sciences (16%).
Conclusion
Endodontic publication from different universities in Iran has considerably increased, showing that research is becoming more important.
PMCID: PMC3467117  PMID: 23060905
Endodontic research; Impact factor; Iran; Publications; PubMed- indexed papers; Scintometric
24.  Correlation between article download and citation figures for highly accessed articles from five open access oncology journals 
SpringerPlus  2013;2:261.
Different approaches can be chosen to quantify the impact and merits of scientific oncology publications. These include source of publication (including journal reputation and impact factor), whether or not articles are cited by others, and access/download figures. When relying on citation counts, one needs to obtain access to citation databases and has to consider that results differ from one database to another. Accumulation of citations takes time and their dynamics might differ from journal to journal and topic to topic. Therefore, we wanted to evaluate the correlation between citation and download figures, hypothesising that articles with fewer downloads also accumulate fewer citations. Typically, publishers provide download figures together with the article. We extracted and analysed the 50 most viewed articles from 5 different open access oncology journals. For each of the 5 journals and also all journals combined, correlation between number of accesses and citations was limited (r = 0.01-0.30). Considerable variations were also observed when analyses were restricted to specific article types such as reviews only (r = 0.21) or case reports only (r = 0.53). Even if year of publication was taken into account, high correlation coefficients were the exception from the rule. In conclusion, downloads are not a universal surrogate for citation figures.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-261
PMCID: PMC3698439  PMID: 23853747
Oncology research; Oncology bibliometrics; Publication pattern; Open access
25.  The production and recognition of psychiatric original articles published in languages other than English 
BMC Psychiatry  2013;13:102.
Background
Whereas the most influential journals in psychiatry are English language journals, periodicals published in other languages serve an important purpose for local communities of clinicians and researchers. This study aimed at analyzing the scientific production and the recognition of non-English general psychiatry journals.
Methods
In a cohort study, the 2009 volume of ten journals from Brazil (1), German language countries (5), France (2), Italy (1), and Poland (1) was searched for original articles. Patterns of citations to these articles during 2010 and 2011 as documented in Web of Science were analyzed.
Results
The journals published 199 original articles (range: 4–46), mostly observational studies. Half of the papers were cited in the following two years. There were 246 citations received, or an average of 1.25 cites per article (range: 0.25-4.04). Many of these citations came from the local community, that is, from the same authors and journals. Citations by other periodicals and other authors accounted for 36% [95%-CI: 30%-42%], citations in English sources for 33% [28%-39%] of all quotations. There was considerable heterogeneity with regard to citations received among the ten journals investigated.
Conclusion
Non-English language general psychiatry journals contribute substantially to the body of research. However, recognition, and in particular recognition by the international research community is moderate.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-102
PMCID: PMC3622575  PMID: 23531084
Journals as topic; Bibliometric analysis; Psychiatry

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