The frequency of encountering radiodermatitis caused by X-ray fluoroscopic procedures for ischaemic heart disease is increasing. In severe cases, devastating ulcers with pain, for which conservative therapy is ineffective, emerge. Radiation-induced ulcers are notorious for being difficult to treat. Simple skin grafting often fails because of the poor state of the wound bed. A vascularized flap is a very good option. However, the non-adherence of the well-vascularized flap with the irradiated wound bed is frequently experienced.
To ameliorate the irradiated wound bed, bone marrow-derived platelet-rich plasma (bm-PRP) was delivered during the surgery.
Materials and Methods:
Four patients with severe cutaneous radiation injury accompanied by unbearable pain after multiple fluoroscopic procedures for ischaemic heart disease were treated. Wide excision of the lesion and coverage with a skin flap supplemented with bm-PRP injection was performed.
All patients obtained wound closure and were relieved from pain. No complication concerning the bone marrow aspiration and delivery of bm-PRP was observed.
Supplementation of bm-PRP can be an option without major complications, time, and cost to improve the surgical outcome for irradiated wounds.
Bone marrow; cardiac fluoroscopy; platelet-rich plasma; radiation ulcer; skin flap
Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) requires relatively lengthy fluoroscopic guidance, which might lead to substantial radiation exposure to patients or operators. The two-fluoroscopic technique (two-plane radiographs obtained using two fluoroscopes) during PV can provide simultaneous two-planar projections with reducing operative time. However, the two-fluoroscopic technique may expose the operator or patient to increased radiation dose. The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of radiation exposure to the patient or operator that occurs during PV using one- vs. two-fluoroscopic technique.
Two radiation dosimeters were placed on the right flank of each patient and on the upper sternum of each operator during 26 single-level PV procedures by one senior surgeon. The use of two-fluoroscopic technique (13 patients) and one-fluoroscopic technique (13 patients) were allocated in a consecutive and alternative manner. The operative time and mean radiation dose to each patient and operator were monitored and compared between groups.
Mean radiation dose to the patient was 1.97 ± 1.20 mSv (95% CI, 0.71 to 3.23) for the one-fluoroscopic technique group vs. 0.95 ± 0.34 mSv (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.23) for the two-fluoroscopic technique group (P =0.031). Mean radiation dose to the operator was 0.27 ± 0.12 mSv (95% CI, 0.17–0.56) for the one-fluoroscopic technique group vs. 0.25 ± 0.14 mSv (95% CI, 0.06–0.44) for the two-fluoroscopic technique group (P = 0.653). The operative time was significantly different between groups: 47.15 ± 13.48 min (range, 20–75) for the one-fluoroscopic technique group vs. 36.62 ± 8.42 min (range, 21–50) for the two-fluoroscopic technique group (P =0.019).
Compared to the one-fluoroscopic technique, the two-fluoroscopic technique used during PV provides not only shorter operative times but also reduces the radiation exposure to the patient. There was no significant difference between the two techniques with regards to radiation exposure to the operator.
Vertebral compression fracture; Osteoporosis; Vertebroplasty; Radiation dose
This case report describes a routine diagnostic left heart catheterisation (coronary angiography, aortography and left ventriculography) procedure at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, which was complicated by the development of new asymptomatic, but permanent, left bundle branch block that was observed incidentally towards the end of the procedure. The patient was completely asymptomatic and haemodynamically stable throughout the procedure and afterwards. Urgent investigations, immediately after the procedure, including routine blood, serial cardiac troponin I, serial electrocardiograms, chest X-ray, and urgent echocardiography were normal and failed to show any possible causation of the LBBB. The results of left heart catheterisation showed two vessel coronary artery disease and severe mitral valve regurgitation. After eight days, the patient went on to have coronary artery bypass surgery and mitral valve replacement surgery both of which were successful. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe the occurrence of permanent LBBB after left heart catheterisation. This report describes the case and reviews the literature for the incidence and implications of such a complication.
LBBB; Left bundle branch block; Coronary angiography; aortography; Left ventriculography; Left heart catheterisation; Diagnostic heart catheterisation; Case Report; Oman
Balloon atrial septostomy was undertaken under cross sectional echocardiographic control in 63 consecutive infants: in no case was fluoroscopic imaging required. The procedure was performed in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory, ward side room, or at the bedside in the neonatal intensive care unit. Catheterisation via the umbilical vein was attempted in 37 infants aged less than 48 hours old and was successful in 27. No complication was clearly attributable to the procedure though two infants died. A nine day old child died from disseminated intravascular coagulation the day after septostomy by the iliofemoral route and another, aged nine days, died of necrotising enterocolitis which had developed when he was eight days old, after umbilical catheterisation at eight hours. Balloon atrial septostomy is a safe and easy procedure under cross sectional echocardiographic imaging control. Catheterisation via the umbilical vein was safe, easy to perform, and is appropriate in infants aged less than 48 hours.
Recent improvements in x-ray technology have greatly contributed to the advancement of diagnostic imaging. Fluoroscopically guided neurointerventional procedures with digital subtraction angiography (DSΛ) are being performed with increasing frequency as the treatment of choice for a variety of neurovascular diseases. Radiation-induced skin injuries can occur after extended fluoroscopic exposure times, and the injuries have recently been reported. In this article, measured radiation doses at the surface of Rando Phantom with Skin Dose Monitor, and estimated and measured entrance skin doses in patients underwent neurointerventional procedures are reported as well as means of reducing radiation doses absorbed by patients and personnel to avoid occurrence of radiation-induced injuries.
fluoroscopically guided interventional procedure, digital subtraction angiography, radiation protection
LABELED BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy may cause common cutaneous side effects such as acute and chronic radiodermatitis and also rare skin conditions. CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old woman who received radiotherapy for invasive breast carcinoma developed multiple, scaly, rough papules and nodules restricted to treatment fields six months after completion of the treatment. A relapse of the breast cancer and/or seborrheic keratosis was ruled out by histological confirmation of verruca vulgaris. CONCLUSION: We report the first case of verruca vulgaris associated with radiation treatment. Radiotherapists and dermatologists should be aware of this possibility and be able to differentiate it from other skin lesions associated with irradiation.
X-ray fluoroscopy is widely used for image guidance during cardiac intervention. However, radiation dose in these procedures can be high, and this is a significant concern, particularly in pediatric applications. Pediatrics procedures are in general much more complex than those performed on adults and thus are on average four to eight times longer1. Furthermore, children can undergo up to 10 fluoroscopic procedures by the age of 10, and have been shown to have a three-fold higher risk of developing fatal cancer throughout their life than the general population2,3.
We have shown that radiation dose can be significantly reduced in adult cardiac procedures by using our scanning beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system4-- a fluoroscopic imaging system that employs an inverse imaging geometry5,6 (Figure 1, Movie 1 and Figure 2). Instead of a single focal spot and an extended detector as used in conventional systems, our approach utilizes an extended X-ray source with multiple focal spots focused on a small detector. Our X-ray source consists of a scanning electron beam sequentially illuminating up to 9,000 focal spot positions. Each focal spot projects a small portion of the imaging volume onto the detector. In contrast to a conventional system where the final image is directly projected onto the detector, the SBDX uses a dedicated algorithm to reconstruct the final image from the 9,000 detector images.
For pediatric applications, dose savings with the SBDX system are expected to be smaller than in adult procedures. However, the SBDX system allows for additional dose savings by implementing an electronic adaptive exposure technique. Key to this method is the multi-beam scanning technique of the SBDX system: rather than exposing every part of the image with the same radiation dose, we can dynamically vary the exposure depending on the opacity of the region exposed. Therefore, we can significantly reduce exposure in radiolucent areas and maintain exposure in more opaque regions. In our current implementation, the adaptive exposure requires user interaction (Figure 3). However, in the future, the adaptive exposure will be real time and fully automatic.
We have performed experiments with an anthropomorphic phantom and compared measured radiation dose with and without adaptive exposure using a dose area product (DAP) meter. In the experiment presented here, we find a dose reduction of 30%.
Radiation injury in the skin causes radiodermatitis, a condition in which the skin becomes inflamed and the epidermis can break down. This condition causes significant morbidity and if severe it can be an independent factor that contributes to radiation mortality. Radiodermatitis is seen in some settings of radiotherapy for cancer and is also of concern as a complication post-radiation exposure from accidents or weapons, such as a “dirty bomb”. The pathogenesis of this condition is incompletely understood. Here we have developed a murine model of radiodermatitis wherein the skin is selectively injured by irradiation with high-energy electrons. Using this model we showed that the interleukin-1 (IL-1) pathway plays a significant role in the development of radiodermatitis. Mice that lack either IL-1 or the IL-1 receptor developed less inflammation and less severe pathological changes in their skin, especially at later time-points. These findings suggest that IL-1 pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for reducing the severity of radiodermatitis.
Minimally invasive spine surgery requires placement of the skin incision at an ideal location in the patient's back by the surgeon. However, numerous fluoroscopic x-ray images are sometimes required to find the site of entry, thereby exposing patients and Operating Room personnel to additional radiation. To minimize this exposure, a radiopaque localizer grid was devised to increase planning efficiency and reduce radiation exposure.
The radiopaque localizer grid was utilized to plan the point of entry for minimally invasive spine surgery. Use of the grid allowed the surgeon to accurately pinpoint the ideal entry point for the procedure with just one or two fluoroscopic X-ray images.
The reusable localizer grid is a simple and practical device that may be utilized to more efficiently plan an entry site on the skin, thus reducing radiation exposure. This device or a modified version may be utilized for any procedure involving the spine.
Radiation; Exposure; Minimally Invasive; Spine Surgery; Localization; Innovation; Grid
Radiodermatitis is a known complication in patients having undergone radiotherapy. It usually appears 2 to 5 years after irradiation. We are reporting on a case of radiodermatitis that occurred within months after coronary dilatation and stenting. It started with painful swelling, followed by a typical appearance on the skin surface. Histological finding confirmed the diagnosis. However, magnetic resonance imaging showed changes in the subcutaneous tissue extending into the ribs. A radical debridement was performed including removal of a partially necrotic 4th rib. The defect was closed with a latissimus dorsi transposition flap. Our findings are compared with the literature reports.
OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the frequency and nature of complications in patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterisation and to assess the feasibility of a voluntary cooperative audit system. METHODS--27 centres enrolled patients over a two year period. Each centre voluntarily reported numbers of patients catheterised every month. Complications were reported as they occurred. Feedback was provided in the form of newsletters and reports. RESULTS--39,795 procedures were registered, of which 33,776 were diagnostic catheterisations in adults or adolescents, 1265 were paediatric catheter studies in patients under the age of 12 years, and 4754 were coronary angioplasties or balloon dilatation of valves. 83.3% of diagnostic catheter studies in adults were left heart studies with coronary arteriography. The overall complication rate for diagnostic studies was 0.80%, mortality rate 0.12%, emergency surgical intervention rate 0.08%. Complication rates varied between centres, but there was no correlation with case load. Different patterns of complication were associated with different technical approaches. CONCLUSIONS--Complication rates of diagnostic catheterisation are low but neither negligible nor irreducible. Voluntary audit of this kind has limitations, but it is useful and inexpensive.
Cholesterol crystal embolisation is a frequently underdiagnosed condition. While coronary catheterisation is safe and commonly performed, the reported patient developed very painful trash feet after undergoing this routine procedure. Ulceration and gangrene occurred after catheter manipulation during cardiac angiography, which caused occlusion of the small arteries in his feet. The triad of pain, livedo reticularis, and intact peripheral pulses is pathognomonic for cholesterol embolisation. The prognosis depends on the extent of the systemic disease and a high rate of mortality (75–80%) is observed. Prognosis is poor and the treatment is only supportive. It is suggested that while cardiac catheterisation is largely safe and a very commonly performed procedure, it can still lead to complications with serious side effects and can even prove fatal.
cholesterol crystal embolisation; coronary angiography; gangrene
A tracking system has been developed to provide real-time feedback of skin dose and dose rate during interventional fluoroscopic procedures. The dose tracking system (DTS) calculates the radiation dose rate to the patient’s skin using the exposure technique parameters and exposure geometry obtained from the x-ray imaging system digital network (Toshiba Infinix) and presents the cumulative results in a color mapping on a 3D graphic of the patient. We performed a number of tests to verify the accuracy of the dose representation of this system. These tests included comparison of system–calculated dose-rate values with ionization-chamber (6 cc PTW) measured values with change in kVp, beam filter, field size, source-to-skin distance and beam angulation. To simulate a cardiac catheterization procedure, the ionization chamber was also placed at various positions on an Alderson Rando torso phantom and the dose agreement compared for a range of projection angles with the heart at isocenter. To assess the accuracy of the dose distribution representation, Gafchromic film (XR-RV3, ISP) was exposed with the beam at different locations. The DTS and film distributions were compared and excellent visual agreement was obtained within the cm-sized surface elements used for the patient graphic. The dose (rate) values agreed within about 10% for the range of variables tested. Correction factors could be applied to obtain even closer agreement since the variable values are known in real-time. The DTS provides skin-dose values and dose mapping with sufficient accuracy for use in monitoring diagnostic and interventional x-ray procedures.
skin dose; dosimetry; radiation safety; cardiac fluoroscopic procedures; fluoroscopic dose; dose tracking; real-time dosimetry; fluoroscopic interventional procedures
Study of 80 consecutive patients undergoing elective diagnostic cardiac catheterisation showed that after the procedure 25 (31%) developed myoglobinaemia. This was attributed to complications of the catheterisation in two. The remaining 23 had received premedication by intramuscular injection. In patients without intramuscular injections myoglobinaemia did not occur after uncomplicated cardiac catheterisation. The study did not support the proposition that cardiac catheterisation results in myocardial damage which can be detected by abnormalities of myoglobin but not by conventional indications of myocardial necrosis.
To estimate the frequency and nature of complications in patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterisation and to assess time trends in complications since the introduction of a voluntary cooperative audit.
Cardiac centres undertaking diagnostic cardiac catheterisation in England and Wales during the 10 years 1990–9 were invited to join the study. Each participating centre reported numbers of patients catheterised each month and details of complications and deaths as they occurred. Complication rates were calculated for the main diagnostic procedures and for each participating hospital and time trends in complications were examined.
41 cardiac centres contributed. 211 645 diagnostic procedures in adults and 7582 paediatric procedures were registered. The majority (87%) of diagnostic catheter studies in adults were left heart studies with coronary arteriography. The overall complication rate for adult procedures was 7.4/1000, with mortality at 0.7/1000; for paediatric procedures the complication rate was similar but mortality rather higher. Complication rates varied between centres but there was little association with caseload. Time trends across the decade showed both complication and mortality decreasing; from 9.5 to 5.8/1000 and from 1.4 to 0.4/1000, respectively.
Complication rates of diagnostic catheterisation are low but neither negligible nor irreducible. While voluntary audit of cardiac catheter complications is useful and inexpensive, there is a clear need to establish a formal reporting system in all cardiac catheter laboratories, with clear definitions of reportable complications.
complications; cardiac catheterisation; medical audit
OBJECTIVE—To assess complications of diagnostic cardiac catheterisation in a non-surgical centre by review of the first three years' experience and audit of 2804 diagnostic left heart procedures.
DESIGN—Analysis of a prospective database of cardiac catheter procedures.
SETTING—District general hospital without available on site cardiac surgery.
RESULTS—The rate of major complications of cardiac catheterisation was 0.07%. Mortality was 0.07%, and the rate of arterial complications (requiring surgical repair) was 0.24% for brachial arteries and 0.17% for femoral. These results are comparable to those reported from national and international surgical centres.
CONCLUSION—A diagnostic cardiac catheterisation service can be offered in non-surgical hospitals without an increased risk to patients. It highlights the relevance of training in angioplasty and questions the appropriateness of starting preliminary invasive cardiology training of specialist registrars in district general hospitals.
Keywords: cardiac catheterisation; complications; specialist training; district general hospital
Minimally invasive percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation methods may increase the need for intraoperative fluoroscopy, resulting in excessive radiation exposure for the patient, surgeon, and support staff. Electromagnetic field (EMF)-based navigation may aid more accurate placement of percutaneous pedicle screws while reducing fluoroscopic exposure. We compared the accuracy, time of insertion, and radiation exposure of EMF with traditional fluoroscopic percutaneous pedicle screw placement.
Minimally invasive pedicle screw placement in T8 to S1 pedicles of eight fresh-frozen human cadaveric torsos was guided with EMF or standard fluoroscopy. Set-up, insertion, and fluoroscopic times and radiation exposure and accuracy (measured with post-procedural computed tomography) were analyzed in each group.
Sixty-two pedicle screws were placed under fluoroscopic guidance and 60 under EMF guidance. Ideal trajectories were achieved more frequently with EMF over all segments (62.7% vs. 40%; p = 0.01). Greatest EMF accuracy was achieved in the lumbar spine, with significant improvements in both ideal trajectory and reduction of pedicle breaches over fluoroscopically guided placement (64.9% vs. 40%, p = 0.03, and 16.2% vs. 42.5%, p = 0.01, respectively). Fluoroscopy time was reduced 77% with the use of EMF (22 s vs. 5 s per level; p < 0.0001) over all spinal segments. Radiation exposure at the hand and body was reduced 60% (p = 0.058) and 32% (p = 0.073), respectively. Time for insertion did not vary between the two techniques.
Minimally invasive pedicle screw placement with the aid of EMF image guidance reduces fluoroscopy time and increases placement accuracy when compared with traditional fluoroscopic guidance while adding no additional time to the procedure.
Minimally invasive; Electromagnetic field navigation; Pedicle screw; Fluoroscopy; Accuracy
OBJECTIVE: To establish the feasibility and safety of an appropriately trained clinical nurse specialist performing diagnostic cardiac catheterisation. DESIGN: Non-randomised retrospective comparison between the first 100 and second 100 consecutive investigations by a clinical nurse specialist and 200 consecutive patients investigated by two cardiology registrars over a similar period. SETTING: Regional cardiac centre performing 3200 catheterisation procedures per annum. PATIENTS: 200 patients undergoing routine (non-emergency) cardiac catheterisation for investigation of ischaemic heart disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Procedural complications, image quality, fluoroscopy times. RESULTS: Satisfactory diagnostic images in all nurse specialist cases with no deaths and two complications (coronary artery dissection and femoral pseudoaneurysm). Procedure duration and fluoroscopy times slightly shorter for clinical nurse specialist by 3 and 1.6 minutes, respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Non-medical practitioners can be trained to perform straightforward cardiac angiography in low risk patients with consultant supervision, as for cardiology registrars. With important restrictions such posts may have a limited role in supporting future consultant based services.
The clinical and psychosocial states of 46 patients (26 men and 20 women) who had undergone cardiac catheterisation were examined prospectively. All of the patients had insignificant (less than 50%) coronary lesions and had been told that no limitation of activity was necessary. Twelve months after angiography 19 of the patients continued to complain of chest pain. Twenty one reported phobic symptoms, and 13 were found by standardised clinical interview to have psychiatric morbidity. This had been evident at the time of catheterisation in 28. Twenty three patients had evidence of unexplained breathlessness, 13 were taking psychotropic drugs, 29 were continuing to consult a doctor, and 11 were unable to work because of their symptoms. Patients initially assessed as having high levels of psychiatric morbidity and raised neuroticism scores were more likely to complain of chest pain one year after angiography. The 19 patients with persistent pain also had significantly higher levels of psychiatric and social morbidity at one year than the 27 patients whose chest pain had lessened during the follow up period. Those patients who fail to improve after being told that they have normal or nearly normal coronary arteries tend to be a chronically neurotic and socially maladjusted group in whom psychiatric disorder presents with predominantly somatic symptoms.
Radiotherapy can cause adverse skin reactions over the course of their treatment. Currently, management is based on several tropical products although there is no gold-standard approach to prevention and management of radiation toxicity.
We report our experience of vitamin E acetate in the treatment of radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients who experienced grade 4 side effects (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria).
Clinical management consisted of oral antibiotics and local application of vitamin E acetate and local escarectomy. All of the patients achieved complete re-epithelialization within 40 days.
Skin ulceration and necrosis post-radiation may interrupt oncological treatment in breast cancer patients. In acute radiodermatitis with skin necrosis, we propose the use of oral antibiotics together with escarectomy and the application of vitamin E acetate to facilitate the healing process in order to minimize the interruption to the oncological treatment.
Radiation dermatitis; breast cancer; vitamin E
This software tool locates and computes the intensity of radiation skin dose resulting from fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. It is comprised of multiple modules. Using standardized body specific geometric values, a software module defines a set of male and female patients arbitarily positioned on a fluoroscopy table. Simulated X-ray angiographic (XA) equipment includes XRII and digital detectors with or without bi-plane configurations and left and right facing tables. Skin dose estimates are localized by computing the exposure to each 0.01 × 0.01 m2 on the surface of a patient irradiated by the X-ray beam. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Structured Report Dose data sent to a modular dosimetry database automatically extracts the 11 XA tags necessary for peak skin dose computation. Skin dose calculation software uses these tags (gantry angles, air kerma at the patient entrance reference point, etc.) and applies appropriate corrections of exposure and beam location based on each irradiation event (fluoroscopy and acquistions). A physicist screen records the initial validation of the accuracy, patient and equipment geometry, DICOM compliance, exposure output calibration, backscatter factor, and table and pad attenuation once per system. A technologist screen specifies patient positioning, patient height and weight, and physician user. Peak skin dose is computed and localized; additionally, fluoroscopy duration and kerma area product values are electronically recorded and sent to the XA database. This approach fully addresses current limitations in meeting accreditation criteria, eliminates the need for paper logs at a XA console, and provides a method where automated ALARA montoring is possible including email and pager alerts.
Peak skin dose; sentinal event; DICOM structured report dose; patient entrance reference point; fluoroscopy; interventional radiology; Joint Commission (JC); radiation dose; Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)
OBJECTIVE--To assess the value of a chest radiograph in the performance of diagnostic cardiac catheterisation in adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS--340 consecutive diagnostic cardiac catheter procedures in adults at one institution. It is normal practice for primary operators to report the results of catheterisation using a graphical user interface database system. Data entry screens were modified to present a study questionnaire to assess the use made of the chest radiograph in the performance of the catheter procedure. SETTING--Tertiary referral cardiac centre. RESULTS--The chest radiograph was judged of value in only 12/340 procedures (4%). The radiograph influenced catheter selection in six procedures, the volume of injected radiographic contrast medium in five, and showed an abnormality important to the planning or conduct of the procedure in six procedures. A dual benefit was reported in five procedures. Utility of the radiograph was related to the pre-catheter diagnosis. It proved of value in only 2/283 (0.7%) procedures with a working diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease, influencing only catheter selection. Its utility was greater in congenital heart disease, contributing in 3/4 (75%) procedures, dilated cardiomyopathy in 2/6 (33%) procedures, and valvar heart disease in 4/35 (11.5%) procedures. CONCLUSIONS--In the performance of diagnostic cardiac catheterisation in adults access to a recent chest radiograph contributes little to the conduct of investigations performed for suspected ischaemic heart disease, but may be of greater value in congenital disease, valve abnormalities, and dilated cardiomyopathy.
OBJECTIVE--To assess the efficacy and safety of a haemostatic bovine collagen plug (VasoSeal) in reducing patient immobilisation after cardiac catheterisation from a percutaneous femoral arterial approach. DESIGN--A non-randomised, prospective analysis of a new biodegradable haemostatic agent on an intention to treat basis. SETTING--The catheterisation suite of a regional cardiothoracic unit. PATIENTS--A series of 63 patients having various diagnostic investigations and therapeutic interventions agreed to participate in this study. INTERVENTIONS--Cardiac catheterisation was performed from a percutaneous femoral artery approach. Patients taking aspirin and those who required formal anticoagulation were not excluded. Patients were measured for the appropriate sized collagen delivery system at the beginning of the procedure. At the end of the procedure two bovine collagen plugs were applied to the surface of the femoral artery through the channel created by the application device. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Incidence of successful delivery, insertion time, immediate outcome, inpatient complications, success of mobilisation of the patient at one and two hours after the procedure, and whether these variables relate to individual patient characteristics. RESULTS--Successful placement of the device was achieved in 57 of 63 consecutive patients (90.5%). The mean (SD) insertion time was 86 (24) seconds. Six (9.5%) patients did not receive the haemostat because of femoral artery perforation by the tissue dilator (n = 3), inability to compress the femoral artery proximal to the site of delivery (n = 1), pre-existing haematoma (n = 1), or patient withdrawal from the study (n = 1). Uncomplicated mobilisation within two hours of investigation was possible in 54 of 57 (94.7%) patients receiving this device. A sizeable haematoma (> 5 x 5 cm) prevented early mobilisation in the remaining three patients. Mobilisation was uncomplicated in 32 of 34 (94.1%) patients mobilised at two hours and 22 of 23 (95.6%) at one hour (NS). One patient who was mobilised early without complication later developed evidence of claudication in the treated leg. Femoral arteriography showed a smooth intraluminal filling defect attached to the wall of the femoral artery at the puncture site. This obstruction, presumed to be a collagen plug, was treated successfully with angioplasty. Sheath size, arterial pressure, the use of aspirin, heparin or warfarin, and body mass index did not influence patient outcome. The pattern of complications did not relate to a learning curve experience. CONCLUSIONS--The bovine collagen haemostat is a relatively safe and effective device that allows far earlier patient mobilisation than conventional haemostasis after diagnostic and therapeutic interventions from a percutaneous femoral artery approach. These results have important implications for patients undergoing investigation in mobile x ray units or in hospital based day case units.
The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the technical success rates and clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided nose tube drainage of mediastinal abscesses and a nasojejunum feeding tube in post-operative gastro-oesophageal anastomotic leakage (GEAL).
From January 2006 to June 2011, 18 cases of post-operative GEAL with mediastinal abscesses after oesophagectomy with intrathoracic oesophagogastric anastomotic procedures for oesophageal and cardiac carcinoma were treated by insertion of a nose drainage tube and nasojejunum feeding tube under fluoroscopic guidance. We evaluated the feasibility of two-tube insertion to facilitate leakage site closure and complete resolution of the abscess, and the patients’ nutritional benefit was also evaluated by checking the serum albumin level between pre- and post-enteral feeding via the feeding tube.
The two tubes were placed successfully under fluoroscopic guidance in 18 patients (100%). The procedure time for two-tube insertion ranged from 20 to 40 min (mean 30 min). 17 patients (94%) achieved leakage site closure after two-tube insertion and had a good tolerance of two tubes in the nasal cavity. The serum albumin level was significant, increased from pre-enteral feeding (2.49±0.42 g dl−1) to the post-enteral feeding (3.58±0.47 g dl−1) via the feeding tube (p<0.001). The duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 49 months (mean 19 months).
The insertion of nose tube drainage and a nasojejunum feeding tube under fluoroscopic guidance is safe, and it provides effective relief from mediastinal abscesses in GEAL after oesophagectomy. Moreover, our findings indicate that two-tube insertion may be used as a selective procedure to treat mediastinal abscesses in post-operative GEAL.
Advances in knowledge
Directive drainage of mediastinal abscesses in post-operative GEAL may be an effective treatment.
BACKGROUND--Vascular access for cardiac catheterisation of children and young adults who have had previous catheter procedures is often difficult. OBJECTIVE--To assess the influence of age at and type and technique of previous cardiac catheterisation on the ease of vascular access for subsequent study of paediatric and adolescent patients. SETTING--Tertiary referral centre for paediatric cardiology. PATIENTS--478 Consecutive patients aged 1 day to 19 years undergoing cardiac catheterisation over a 12 month period, including 131 patients who had had previous catheterisation(s). METHODS--Prospective study, recording for each patient the age, weight, diagnosis, vascular access (artery, vein, or both), vessels eventually catheterised, access time, total duration of the procedure, and details of any previous catheter studies. RESULTS--Of 131 patients who had had previous catheterisations, 80 (61%) had been studied once previously, 38 (29%) twice, and 13 (10%) on three or more occasions. The right femoral vessels were cannulated without difficulty in 72 cases (55%). Elective cannulation of left femoral vessels (because of scar tissue on the right side) or upper body vessels was undertaken in 18 cases (14%). Problems cannulating the right femoral vessels were encountered in 41 cases (31%); the vein was blocked in 29, the artery in six and the femoral veins were blocked bilaterally in six cases. The mean (SD) access time was significantly prolonged in these 41 children (41(18) v 21(13) minutes, p < 0.001) as was total duration of the procedure (116(31) v 94(34) minutes, p < 0.001). Children who had had a saphenous vein cut down as neonates subsequently had a blocked ipsilateral femoral vein in 10/15 cases (67%). Risk factors for problematic cannulation also included a higher number of previous catheterisation procedures. CONCLUSIONS--Difficulties with vascular access are common in children and adolescents who have had previous cardiac catheterisations. In those who have had cut down or multiple previous studies, elective entry to the left femoral vessels should be undertaken and procedure time may be prolonged. Such cases should therefore be performed under general anaesthesia.