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1.  Report of the Committee on the Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Diabetes Mellitus 
Concept of Diabetes Mellitus:
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases associated with various metabolic disorders, the main feature of which is chronic hyperglycemia due to insufficient insulin action. Its pathogenesis involves both genetic and environmental factors. The long‐term persistence of metabolic disorders can cause susceptibility to specific complications and also foster arteriosclerosis. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a broad range of clinical presentations, from being asymptomatic to ketoacidosis or coma, depending on the degree of metabolic disorder.
Classification (Tables 1 and 2, and Figure 1):
 Etiological classification of diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolism disorders
Note: Those that cannot at present be classified as any of the above are called unclassifiable.
The occurrence of diabetes‐specific complications has not been confirmed in some of these conditions.
 Diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolism disorders due to other specific mechanisms and diseases
The occurrence of diabetes‐specific complications has not been confirmed in some of these conditions.
 A scheme of the relationship between etiology (mechanism) and patho‐physiological stages (states) of diabetes mellitus. Arrows pointing right represent worsening of glucose metabolism disorders (including onset of diabetes mellitus). Among the arrow lines, indicates the condition classified as ‘diabetes mellitus’. Arrows pointing left represent improvement in the glucose metabolism disorder. The broken lines indicate events of low frequency. For example, in type 2 diabetes mellitus, infection can lead to ketoacidosis and require temporary insulin treatment for survival. Also, once diabetes mellitus has developed, it is treated as diabetes mellitus regardless of improvement in glucose metabolism, therefore, the arrow lines pointing left are filled in black. In such cases, a broken line is used, because complete normalization of glucose metabolism is rare.
The classification of glucose metabolism disorders is principally derived from etiology, and includes staging of pathophysiology based on the degree of deficiency of insulin action. These disorders are classified into four groups: (i) type 1 diabetes mellitus; (ii) type 2 diabetes mellitus; (iii) diabetes mellitus due to other specific mechanisms or diseases; and (iv) gestational diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by destruction of pancreatic β‐cells. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by combinations of decreased insulin secretion and decreased insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance). Glucose metabolism disorders in category (iii) are divided into two subgroups; subgroup A is diabetes in which a genetic abnormality has been identified, and subgroup B is diabetes associated with other pathologic disorders or clinical conditions. The staging of glucose metabolism includes normal, borderline and diabetic stages depending on the degree of hyperglycemia occurring as a result of the lack of insulin action or clinical condition. The diabetic stage is then subdivided into three substages: non‐insulin‐ requiring, insulin‐requiring for glycemic control, and insulin‐dependent for survival. The two former conditions are called non‐insulin‐dependent diabetes and the latter is known as insulin‐dependent diabetes. In each individual, these stages may vary according to the deterioration or the improvement of the metabolic state, either spontaneously or by treatment.
Diagnosis (Tables 3–7 and Figure 2):
 Criteria of fasting plasma glucose levels and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test 2‐h value
*Casual plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL (≥11.1 mmol/L) and HbA1c≥6.5% are also regarded as to indicate diabetic type.
Even for normal type, if 1‐h value is 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L), the risk of progression to diabetes mellitus is greater than for <180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L) and should be treated as with borderline type (follow‐up observation, etc.). Fasting plasma glucose level of 100–109 mg/dL (5.5–6.0 mmol/L) is called ‘high‐normal’: within the range of normal fasting plasma glucose.
Plasma glucose level after glucose load in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is not included in casual plasma glucose levels. The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%).
 Procedures for diagnosing diabetes mellitus
*The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%). **Hyperglycemia must be confirmed in a non‐stressful condition. OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.
 Disorders and conditions associated with low HbA1c values
 Situations where a 75‐g oral glucose tolerance test is recommended
*The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%).
 Definition and diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus
(IADPSG Consensus Panel, Reference 42, partly modified with permission of Diabetes Care).
 Flow chart outlining steps in the clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. *The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%).
Categories of the State of Glycemia:  Confirmation of chronic hyperglycemia is essential for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. When plasma glucose levels are used to determine the categories of glycemia, patients are classified as having a diabetic type if they meet one of the following criteria: (i) fasting plasma glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL (≥7.0 mmol/L); (ii) 2‐h value of ≥200 mg/dL (≥11.1 mmol/L) in 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); or (iii) casual plasma glucose level of ≥200 mg/dL (≥11.1 mmol/L). Normal type is defined as fasting plasma glucose level of <110 mg/dL (<6.1 mmol/L) and 2‐h value of <140 mg/dL (<7.8 mmol/L) in OGTT. Borderline type (neither diabetic nor normal type) is defined as falling between the diabetic and normal values. According to the current revision, in addition to the earlier listed plasma glucose values, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been given a more prominent position as one of the diagnostic criteria. That is, (iv) HbA1c≥6.5% is now also considered to indicate diabetic type. The value of HbA1c, which is equivalent to the internationally used HbA1c (%) (HbA1c [NGSP]) defined by the NGSP (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program), is expressed by adding 0.4% to the HbA1c (JDS) (%) defined by the Japan Diabetes Society (JDS).
Subjects with borderline type have a high rate of developing diabetes mellitus, and correspond to the combination of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) noted by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and WHO. Although borderline cases show few of the specific complications of diabetes mellitus, the risk of arteriosclerosis is higher than those of normal type. When HbA1c is 6.0–6.4%, suspected diabetes mellitus cannot be excluded, and when HbA1c of 5.6–5.9% is included, it forms a group with a high risk for developing diabetes mellitus in the future, even if they do not have it currently.
Clinical Diagnosis:  1 If any of the criteria for diabetic type (i) through to (iv) is observed at the initial examination, the patient is judged to be ‘diabetic type’. Re‐examination is conducted on another day, and if ‘diabetic type’ is reconfirmed, diabetes mellitus is diagnosed. However, a diagnosis cannot be made only by the re‐examination of HbA1c alone. Moreover, if the plasma glucose values (any of criteria [i], [ii], or [iii]) and the HbA1c (criterion [iv]) in the same blood sample both indicate diabetic type, diabetes mellitus is diagnosed based on the initial examination alone. If HbA1c is used, it is essential that the plasma glucose level (criteria [i], [ii] or [iii]) also indicates diabetic type for a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. When diabetes mellitus is suspected, HbA1c should be measured at the same time as examination for plasma glucose.2 If the plasma glucose level indicates diabetic type (any of [i], [ii], or [iii]) and either of the following conditions exists, diabetes mellitus can be diagnosed immediately at the initial examination.• The presence of typical symptoms of diabetes mellitus (thirst, polydipsia, polyuria, weight loss)• The presence of definite diabetic retinopathy3 If it can be confirmed that the above conditions 1 or 2 existed in the past, diabetes mellitus can be diagnosed or suspected regardless of the current test results.4 If the diagnosis of diabetes cannot be established by these procedures, the patient is followed up and re‐examined after an appropriate interval.5 The physician should assess not only the presence or absence of diabetes, but also its etiology and glycemic stage, and the presence and absence of diabetic complications or associated conditions.
Epidemiological Study:  For the purpose of estimating the frequency of diabetes mellitus, ‘diabetes mellitus’ can be substituted for the determination of ‘diabetic type’ from a single examination. In this case, HbA1c≥6.5% alone can be defined as ‘diabetes mellitus’.
Health Screening:  It is important not to misdiagnose diabetes mellitus, and thus clinical information such as family history and obesity should be referred to at the time of screening in addition to an index for plasma glucose level.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus:  There are two hyperglycemic disorders in pregnancy: (i) gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); and (ii) diabetes mellitus. GDM is diagnosed if one or more of the following criteria is met in a 75 g OGTT during pregnancy:
1 Fasting plasma glucose level of ≥92 mg/dL (5.1 mmol/L)2 1‐h value of ≥180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L)3 2‐h value of ≥153 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L)
However, diabetes mellitus that is diagnosed by the clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus defined earlier is excluded from GDM. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2010.00074.x, 2010)
PMCID: PMC4020724  PMID: 24843435
Diabetes mellitus; Clinical diagnosis; HbA1c
2.  Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging and acute low back pain: a pilot study to characterize lumbar muscle activity asymmetries and examine the effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment 
Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) measures transverse relaxation time (T2), and allows for determination of the spatial pattern of muscle activation. The purposes of this pilot study were to examine whether MRI-derived T2 or side-to-side differences in T2 (asymmetries) differ in low back muscles between subjects with acute low back pain (LBP) compared to asymptomatic controls, and to determine if a single osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) session alters these T2 properties immediately and 48-hours after treatment.
Subjects with non-specific acute LBP (mean score on 1-10 visual analog score = 3.02 ± 2.81) and asymptomatic controls (n = 9/group) underwent an MRI, and subsequently the LBP subjects received OMT and then underwent another MRI. The LBP subjects reported back for an additional MRI 48-hours following their initial visit. T2 and T2 asymmetry were calculated from regions of interest for the psoas, quadratus lumborum (QL), multifidus, and iliocostalis lumborum/longissimus thoracis (IL/LT) muscles.
No differences were observed between the groups when T2 was averaged for the left and right side muscles. However, the QL displayed a significantly greater T2 asymmetry in LBP subjects when compared to controls (29.1 ± 4.3 vs. 15.9 ± 4.1%; p = 0.05). The psoas muscle also displayed a relatively large, albeit non-significant, mean difference (22.7 ± 6.9 vs. 9.5 ± 2.8%; p = 0.11). In the subjects with LBP, psoas T2 asymmetry was significantly reduced immediately following OMT (25.3 ± 6.9 to 6.1 ± 1.8%, p = 0.05), and the change in LBP immediately following OMT was correlated with the change in psoas T2 asymmetry (r = 0.75, p = 0.02).
Collectively, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility of mfMRI for quantification and localization of muscle abnormalities in patients with acute low back pain. Additionally, this pilot work provides insight into the mechanistic actions of OMT during acute LBP, as it suggests that it may attenuate muscle activity asymmetries of some of the intrinsic low back muscles.
PMCID: PMC2744922  PMID: 19712459
3.  Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment as a Useful Adjunctive Tool for Pneumonia 
Pneumonia, the inflammatory state of lung tissue primarily due to microbial infection, claimed 52,306 lives in the United States in 20071 and resulted in the hospitalization of 1.1 million patients2. With an average length of in-patient hospital stay of five days2, pneumonia and influenza comprise significant financial burden costing the United States $40.2 billion in 20053. Under the current Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines, standard-of-care recommendations include the rapid administration of an appropriate antibiotic regiment, fluid replacement, and ventilation (if necessary). Non-standard therapies include the use of corticosteroids and statins; however, these therapies lack conclusive supporting evidence4. (Figure 1)
Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) is a cost-effective adjunctive treatment of pneumonia that has been shown to reduce patients’ length of hospital stay, duration of intravenous antibiotics, and incidence of respiratory failure or death when compared to subjects who received conventional care alone5. The use of manual manipulation techniques for pneumonia was first recorded as early as the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918, when patients treated with standard medical care had an estimated mortality rate of 33%, compared to a 10% mortality rate in patients treated by osteopathic physicians6. When applied to the management of pneumonia, manual manipulation techniques bolster lymphatic flow, respiratory function, and immunological defense by targeting anatomical structures involved in the these systems7,8, 9, 10.
The objective of this review video-article is three-fold: a) summarize the findings of randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of OMT in adult patients with diagnosed pneumonia, b) demonstrate established protocols utilized by osteopathic physicians treating pneumonia, c) elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind manual manipulation of the respiratory and lymphatic systems. Specifically, we will discuss and demonstrate four routine techniques that address autonomics, lymph drainage, and rib cage mobility: 1) Rib Raising, 2) Thoracic Pump, 3) Doming of the Thoracic Diaphragm, and 4) Muscle Energy for Rib 1.5,11
PMCID: PMC4173698  PMID: 24836893
Medicine; Issue 87; Pneumonia; osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) and techniques (OMT); lymphatic; rib raising; thoracic pump; muscle energy; doming diaphragm; alternative treatment
4.  Brain structural changes and their correlation with vascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a voxel-based morphometric study 
Neural Regeneration Research  2014;9(16):1548-1556.
Voxel-based morphometry has been used in the study of alterations in brain structure in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. These changes are associated with clinical indices. The age at onset, pathogenesis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus are different from those for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus may have different impacts on brain structure. Only a few studies of the alterations in brain structure in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using voxel-based morphometry have been conducted, with inconsistent results. We detected subtle changes in the brain structure of 23 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the total volume of gray and white matter of the brain of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and that in controls. Regional atrophy of gray matter mainly occurred in the right temporal and left occipital cortex, while regional atrophy of white matter involved the right temporal lobe and the right cerebellar hemisphere. The ankle-brachial index in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus strongly correlated with the volume of brain regions in the default mode network. The ankle-brachial index, followed by the level of glycosylated hemoglobin, most strongly correlated with the volume of gray matter in the right temporal lobe. These data suggest that voxel-based morphometry could detect small structural changes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Early macrovascular atherosclerosis may play a crucial role in subtle brain atrophy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, with chronic hyperglycemia playing a lesser role.
PMCID: PMC4192973  PMID: 25317173
nerve regeneration; diabetes mellitus; ankle-brachial index; albuminuria; neural regeneration
5.  Patterns of Diabetic Complications at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia 
Diabetes Mellitus is common metabolic disease worldwide. Its complications in the Ethiopian care setup has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to assess the pattern and distribution of diabetic complications among patients having follow-up at Jimma University specialized Hospital diabetic clinic.
A cross sectional study based on record review of 305 patients, selected using systematic sampling with replacement was carried out in October 2008. The data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 13.0.
Larger proportion, 189 (62.0%), of patients had type II diabetes and 163 (53.4%) of them were diabetic for less than 5 years. Seventy three of the 76 (96.1%) patients with type II diabetes mellitus had hypertension. Acute complications were observed in 93 (30.5%) of the patients of which Diabetic Ketoacidosis was documented in 66(71.0%).
Forty eight (45.7%) of patients had proteinuria, 90 (29.5%) had peripheral neuropathy, 13(6.8%) had impotence. Diabetic foot ulcer, skin and/or subcutaneous tissue infection, dental problems and tuberculosis were documented in 14(4.5%), 31(10.0%), 31(10.0%), and 17(5.6%) patients, respectively. Any of the chronic complications were not different by sex of the patient but age had statistically significant association with hypertension, visual disturbance and neuropathy (p< 0.05). Type of diabetes had statistically significant association with all the tested complications except infection (P<0.05) where most of the complications occurred in type II diabetics. Statistically significant association was observed between the duration of the diabetes and impotence and visual disturbances (p < 0.05).
The majority of patients were type II diabetics. Acute complications were observed more commonly among type I diabetics and DKA was the commonest acute complication. The frequency of chronic complications was high. Increased occurrence of retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, hypertension and nephropathy was observed with longer duration of illness. Impotence and diabetic nephropathy were more common in type II diabetics. The study showed that age, sex, type of diabetes mellitus and duration of diabetes were significantly associated with the development of diabetic complications.
PMCID: PMC3275895  PMID: 22434958
Diabetes mellitus; chronic complications; Southwest Ethiopia
6.  Muscle Mitochondrial ATP Synthesis and Glucose Transport/Phosphorylation in Type 2 Diabetes 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(5):e154.
Muscular insulin resistance is frequently characterized by blunted increases in glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) reflecting impaired glucose transport/phosphorylation. These abnormalities likely relate to excessive intramyocellular lipids and mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesized that alterations in insulin action and mitochondrial function should be present even in nonobese patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods and Findings
We measured G-6-P, ATP synthetic flux (i.e., synthesis) and lipid contents of skeletal muscle with 31P/1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in ten patients with T2DM and in two control groups: ten sex-, age-, and body mass-matched elderly people; and 11 younger healthy individuals. Although insulin sensitivity was lower in patients with T2DM, muscle lipid contents were comparable and hyperinsulinemia increased G-6-P by 50% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39%–99%) in all groups. Patients with diabetes had 27% lower fasting ATP synthetic flux compared to younger controls (p = 0.031). Insulin stimulation increased ATP synthetic flux only in controls (younger: 26%, 95% CI 13%–42%; older: 11%, 95% CI 2%–25%), but failed to increase even during hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemia in patients with T2DM. Fasting free fatty acids and waist-to-hip ratios explained 44% of basal ATP synthetic flux. Insulin sensitivity explained 30% of insulin-stimulated ATP synthetic flux.
Patients with well-controlled T2DM feature slightly lower flux through muscle ATP synthesis, which occurs independently of glucose transport /phosphorylation and lipid deposition but is determined by lipid availability and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal despite normal glucose transport/phosphorylation suggests further abnormalities mainly in glycogen synthesis in these patients.
Michael Roden and colleagues report that even patients with well-controlled insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes have altered mitochondrial function.
Editors' Summary
Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly common chronic disease characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels. In normal individuals, blood sugar levels are maintained by the hormone insulin. Insulin is released by the pancreas when blood glucose levels rise after eating (glucose is produced by the digestion of food) and “instructs” insulin-responsive muscle and fat cells to take up glucose from the bloodstream. The cells then use glucose as a fuel or convert it into glycogen, a storage form of glucose. In type 2 diabetes, the commonest type of diabetes, the muscle and fat cells become nonresponsive to insulin (a condition called insulin resistance) and consequently blood glucose levels rise. Over time, this hyperglycemia increases the risk of heart attacks, kidney failure, and other life-threatening complications.
Why Was This Study Done?
Insulin resistance is often an early sign of type 2 diabetes, sometimes predating its development by many years, so understanding its causes might provide clues about how to stop the global diabetes epidemic. One theory is that mitochondria—cellular structures that produce the energy (in the form of a molecule called ATP) needed to keep cells functioning—do not work properly in people with insulin resistance. Mitochondria change (metabolize) fatty acids into energy, and recent studies have revealed that fat accumulation caused by poorly regulated fatty acid metabolism blocks insulin signaling, thus causing insulin resistance. Other studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to study mitochondrial function noninvasively in human muscle indicate that mitochondria are dysfunctional in people with insulin resistance by showing that ATP synthesis is impaired in such individuals. In this study, the researchers have examined both baseline and insulin-stimulated mitochondrial function in nonobese patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes and in normal controls to discover more about the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers determined the insulin sensitivity of people with type 2 diabetes and two sets of people (the “controls”) who did not have diabetes: one in which the volunteers were age-matched to the people with diabetes, and the other containing younger individuals (insulin resistance increases with age). To study insulin sensitivity in all three groups, the researchers used a “hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp.” For this, after an overnight fast, the participants' insulin levels were kept high with a continuous insulin infusion while blood glucose levels were kept normal using a variable glucose infusion. In this situation, the glucose infusion rate equals glucose uptake by the body and therefore measures tissue sensitivity to insulin. Before and during the clamp, the researchers used MRS to measure glucose-6-phosphate (an indicator of how effectively glucose is taken into cells and phosphorylated), ATP synthesis, and the fat content of the participants' muscle cells. Insulin sensitivity was lower in the patients with diabetes than in the controls, but muscle lipid content was comparable and hyperinsulinemia increased glucose-6-phosphate levels similarly in all the groups. Patients with diabetes and the older controls had lower fasting ATP synthesis rates than the young controls and, whereas insulin stimulation increased ATP synthesis in all the controls, it had no effect in the patients with diabetes. In addition, fasting blood fatty acid levels were inversely related to basal ATP synthesis, whereas insulin sensitivity was directly related to insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that the impairment of muscle mitochondrial ATP synthesis in fasting conditions and after insulin stimulation in people with diabetes is not due to impaired glucose transport/phosphorylation or fat deposition in the muscles. Instead, it seems to be determined by lipid availability and insulin sensitivity. These results add to the evidence suggesting that mitochondrial function is disrupted in type 2 diabetes and in insulin resistance, but also suggest that there may be abnormalities in glycogen synthesis. More work is needed to determine the exact nature of these abnormalities and to discover whether they can be modulated to prevent the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. For now, though, these findings re-emphasize the need for people with type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance to reduce their food intake to compensate for the reduced energy needs of their muscles and to exercise to increase the ATP-generating capacity of their muscles. Both lifestyle changes could improve their overall health and life expectancy.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The MedlinePlus encyclopedia has pages on diabetes
The US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases provides information for patients on diabetes and insulin resistance
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has information on diabetes for patients and professionals
American Diabetes Association provides information for patients on diabetes and insulin resistance
Diabetes UK has information for patients and professionals on diabetes
PMCID: PMC1858707  PMID: 17472434
7.  Adiponectin is a Good Marker for Metabolic State among Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patients 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2013;23(3):295-301.
Adiponectin is secreted from adipose tissue. This hormone has a fundamental role in pathogenesis of insulin resistance, and has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects. The objectives of this study were to compare serum adiponectin level between type 1 diabetics and healthy people and to assess its related factors, and also to determine the relationship between adiponectin and metabolic state.
This was a case control study involving 60 diabetics (25 good and 35 poor metabolic controlled) and 28 healthy persons (younger than 18 years old). The data about demographic (age and sex), clinical and paraclinical characteristics [body mass index (BMI), duration of disease, puberty state, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and adiponectin level in serum] were collected. Determinants of adiponectin were assessed using univariate and multiple linear regression analyses.
Mean (±SD) serum adiponectin level in healthy persons, good-controlled and poor-controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus patients were 9.16 (±4.2) µg/cc, 10.89 (±4.48)µg/cc, and 15.92 (±8.26)µg/cc, respectively. Post hoc analysis revealed that differences of adiponectin between poor- and good-controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus patients (P=0.01) and between healthy persons and poor controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus (P<0.0001) were statistically significant. Adiponectin level was associated with puberty state and BMI in healthy persons. It was associated with puberty state and HbA1c in type 1 diabetic persons.
Serum level of adiponectin was higher in type 1 diabetics than in healthy persons and it can be used as a good marker for metabolic control state among diabetics.
PMCID: PMC3684474  PMID: 23795252
Cytokines; Adiponectin; Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus; Glycosylated Hemoglobin; Puberty
8.  Vitamin D and glycemic control in diabetes mellitus type 2 
The extraskeletal effects of vitamin D have attracted considerable interest. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and the metabolic syndrome. Vitamin D may affect glucose homeostasis, vitamin D levels having been found to be inversely related to glycosylated hemoglobin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus. In addition, vitamin D appears to protect from the development of gestational diabetes mellitus. The aim was to study levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and the relationship between 25(OH)D3 levels and glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and 25(OH)D3 levels were measured in a group of 120 diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. The same measurements were performed in a group of 120 control subjects of the same age and sex. 25(OH)D3 was measured by radioimmunoassay and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography.
25(OH)D3 levels were lower in the diabetes mellitus type 2 patients than in the control group, being 19.26 ± 0.95 ng/ml and 25.49 ± 1.02 ng/ml, in the patient and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001, Student’s t-test). 25(OH)D3 levels were found to be inversely associated with HbA1c levels in the diabetic patients (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.058, linear regression). 25(OH)D3 levels were found to be inversely associated with HbA1c when the patient and control groups were analysed together (p < 0.001, r2 = 0.086).
Vitamin D levels appeared to be lower in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients than in the control group, vitamin D levels being related to glycemic control in diabetes mellitus type 2. These findings may have therapeutic implications as cautious vitamin D supplementation may improve glycemic control in diabetes mellitus type 2.
PMCID: PMC3755528  PMID: 23997931
diabetes mellitus type 2; glycemic control; vitamin D
9.  Glycemic control and anti-osteopathic effect of propolis in diabetic rats 
The aim of the study was to explore the possibility that propolis can control diabetes mellitus and prevent diabetic osteopathy in rats. The study compared 60 streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, with ten nondiabetic rats used as a negative control. The experimental design comprised seven groups (n = 10 rats per group): (1) nondiabetic, used as a negative control; (2) nontreated, used as a positive control; (3) treated with insulin alone; (4) treated with a single dose of propolis alone; (5) treated with a double dose of propolis; (6) treated with insulin and a single dose of propolis; and (7) treated with insulin and a double dose of propolis. After 6 weeks of treatment, the rats were sacrificed. Ratios of femur ash to femur weight and of femur weight to body weight (FW/BW) were calculated and calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in femur ash were estimated and analyzed. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma insulin and glucagon, serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcitonin levels were also estimated and analyzed. There was significant reduction in FBG in all diabetic treated rats. Similarly, higher plasma insulin levels were observed in diabetic rats treated with propolis and insulin than in nontreated diabetic rats, although plasma insulin was not comparatively higher in diabetic rats treated with insulin alone. Serum TBARS was significantly lower in the propolis treated rats than the diabetic nontreated rats. No differences in PTH and calcitonin levels were observed among treatment groups. The FW/BW ratio was significantly higher in diabetic treated groups than in control groups. Furthermore, diabetic rats treated with propolis and insulin had significantly higher Ca, P, and Mg concentrations in femoral ash than nontreated diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with insulin alone. In conclusion, propolis has a remarkable effect on glucose homeostasis and bone mineralization.
PMCID: PMC3257965  PMID: 22253535
diabetes mellitus; osteopathy; streptozotocin; insulin
10.  Risk factors for coronary artery disease in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: United Kingdom prospective diabetes study (UKPDS: 23) 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1998;316(7134):823-828.
Objective: To evaluate baseline risk factors for coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Design: A stepwise selection procedure, adjusting for age and sex, was used in 2693 subjects with complete data to determine which risk factors for coronary artery disease should be included in a Cox proportional hazards model.
Subjects: 3055 white patients (mean age 52) with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and without evidence of disease related to atheroma. Median duration of follow up was 7.9 years. 335 patients developed coronary artery disease within 10 years.
Outcome measures: Angina with confirmatory abnormal electrocardiogram; non-fatal and fatal myocardial infarction.
Results: Coronary artery disease was significantly associated with increased concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, decreased concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased triglyceride concentration, haemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose concentration, and a history of smoking. The estimated hazard ratios for the upper third relative to the lower third were 2.26 (95% confidence interval 1.70 to 3.00) for low density lipoprotein cholesterol, 0.55 (0.41 to 0.73) for high density lipoprotein cholesterol, 1.52 (1.15 to 2.01) for haemoglobin A1c, and 1.82 (1.34 to 2.47) for systolic blood pressure. The estimated hazard ratio for smokers was 1.41(1.06 to 1.88).
Conclusion: A quintet of potentially modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease exists in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These risk factors are increased concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, decreased concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, and smoking.
Key messages Coronary artery disease is the major cause of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Patients without evidence of disease related to atheroma at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus had an increased standardised mortality ratio compared with the population of the United Kingdom 11% of patients in this study had a myocardial infarction or developed angina over a median of 8 years’ follow up The potentially modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease were increased concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, decreased concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, and smoking; these are also risk factors for coronary artery disease in the general population Evidence is needed on whether modifying these risk factors will reduce coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
PMCID: PMC28484  PMID: 9549452
11.  The relation of experience in osteopathic palpation and object identification 
To determine whether osteopathic medical students, fellows, residents, and practicing physicians differ in their ability to identify inanimate objects and if these skills relate to palpatory experience.
Fifteen commonly known objects were fixed to a board and blinded with a cotton cloth. In Part I of testing, participants were asked to identify 9 objects, with choices provided. In Part II participants were asked to identify 6 objects using one word only. Part III consisted of identifying the shape of an object in Part II.
Eighty-nine osteopathic medical students, fellows, residents, and practicing physicians participated in the study. Overall, correct identification of objects was higher in Part I with choices than in Part II without choices available. No statistically significant difference was found among osteopathic medical students, fellows, residents, and practicing physicians in the correct identification of the objects.
Accuracy in tactile identification of objects among varying levels of palpatory experience was not found. Correlation with clinical palpation cannot be made as it requires a subset of palpatory skills not tested in this study. Accuracy and measurement of palpation should be studied further to demonstrate if palpatory experience improves palpatory accuracy.
PMCID: PMC3843593  PMID: 24499607
Palpation; Experience; Osteopathy; Manual Medicine
12.  Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and its influence on microvascular complications in the Indian population with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular Genetic Study (SN-DREAMS, report 14) 
The Metabolic syndrome (MS) consists of central obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, low high density lipoproteins, high triglycerides and hypertension. Different studies have observed that MS causes microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of MS in the Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus in relation to gender, duration of diabetes, and to evaluate the influence of MS and its individual components on microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic neuropathy.
A population-based cross sectional survey was conducted with 1414 patients having type 2 diabetes mellitus. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were used to identify the metabolic syndrome. Diabetic retinopathy was graded using the stereoscopic digital fundus photography. Neuropathy was assessed by measuring the vibration perception threshold through a sensitometer. Nephropathy was diagnosed by the presence of microalbuminuria in the first morning urine sample.
The age and gender adjusted prevalence of MS, using the IDF criteria, in the South Indian population was 73.3%. The prevalence was higher in women (83.3%), compared to men (65.3%). In subjects with diabetes mellitus, without and with MS, the prevalence of retinopathy was 21.3% and 16.9% (p = 0.057); prevalence of nephropathy was 20.5% and 18.0% (p = 0.296), and prevalence of neuropathy was17.2% and 19.4% (p = 0.353) respectively. Overall and in women, the clustering of MS components led to an increase in the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. The prevalence of retinopathy and neuropathy in MS subjects, who had diabetes for < 10 years, was more in both men and women; it was more in women but not in men when the duration of diabetes varied from 11-20 years.
The association of MS with microangiopathies decreased with an increase in the duration of diabetes. MS behaved differently in men and women. It may need to be managed differently in the two groups.
PMCID: PMC2993661  PMID: 21067623
13.  TXNIP Regulates Peripheral Glucose Metabolism in Humans  
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(5):e158.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by defects in insulin secretion and action. Impaired glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is believed to be one of the earliest features in the natural history of T2DM, although underlying mechanisms remain obscure.
Methods and Findings
We combined human insulin/glucose clamp physiological studies with genome-wide expression profiling to identify thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) as a gene whose expression is powerfully suppressed by insulin yet stimulated by glucose. In healthy individuals, its expression was inversely correlated to total body measures of glucose uptake. Forced expression of TXNIP in cultured adipocytes significantly reduced glucose uptake, while silencing with RNA interference in adipocytes and in skeletal muscle enhanced glucose uptake, confirming that the gene product is also a regulator of glucose uptake. TXNIP expression is consistently elevated in the muscle of prediabetics and diabetics, although in a panel of 4,450 Scandinavian individuals, we found no evidence for association between common genetic variation in the TXNIP gene and T2DM.
TXNIP regulates both insulin-dependent and insulin-independent pathways of glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle. Combined with recent studies that have implicated TXNIP in pancreatic β-cell glucose toxicity, our data suggest that TXNIP might play a key role in defective glucose homeostasis preceding overt T2DM.
Vamsi Mootha, Leif Groop, and colleagues report that TXNIP regulates insulin-dependent and -independent pathways of glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle and that its expression is elevated in individuals with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Editors' Summary
An epidemic of diabetes mellitus is threatening world health. 246 million people (6% of the world's population) already have diabetes and it is estimated that within 20 years, 380 million people will have this chronic disease, most of them in developing countries. Diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels. It arises when the pancreas does not make enough insulin (type 1 diabetes) or when the body responds poorly to insulin (type 2 diabetes). Insulin, which is released in response to high blood glucose levels, instructs muscle, fat, and liver cells to take glucose (a product of food digestion) out of the bloodstream; cells use glucose as a fuel. Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for 90% of all cases of diabetes, is characterized by impaired glucose uptake by target tissues in response to insulin (this “insulin resistance” is one of the first signs of type 2 diabetes) and inappropriate glucose release from liver cells. Over time, the pancreas may also make less insulin. These changes result in poor glucose homeostasis (inadequate control of blood sugar levels), which can cause life-threatening complications such as kidney failure and heart attacks.
Why Was This Study Done?
If the world diabetes epidemic is to be halted, researchers need a better understanding of glucose homeostasis and need to identify which parts of this complex control system go awry in type 2 diabetes. This information might suggest ways to prevent type 2 diabetes developing in the first place and might reveal targets for drugs that could slow or reverse the disease process. In this study, the researchers have used multiple approaches to identify a new mediator of glucose homeostasis and to investigate whether this mediator is causally involved in the development of type 2 diabetes.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers took small muscle samples from people who did not have diabetes before and after increasing their blood insulin levels and used a technique called “microarray expression profiling” to identify genes whose expression was induced or suppressed by insulin. One of the latter genes was thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), a gene whose expression is strongly induced by glucose yet suppressed by insulin. They next used previously published microarray expression data to show that TXNIP expression was consistently higher in the muscles of patients with diabetes or prediabetes (a condition in which blood glucose levels are slightly raised) than in normal individuals. The researchers then examined whether TXNIP expression was correlated with glucose uptake, again using previously published data. In people with no diabetes and those with prediabetes, as glucose uptake rates increased, TXNIP expression decreased but this inverse correlation was missing in people with diabetes. Finally, by manipulating TXNIP expression levels in insulin-responsive cells grown in the laboratory, the researchers found that TXNIP overexpression reduced basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake but that reduced TXNIP expression had the opposite effect.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These results provide strong evidence that TXNIP is a regulator of glucose homeostasis in people. Specifically, the researchers propose that TXNIP regulates glucose uptake in the periphery of the human body by acting as a glucose- and insulin-sensitive switch. They also suggest how it might be involved in the development of type 2 diabetes. Early in the disease process, a small insulin deficiency or slightly raised blood sugar levels would increase TXNIP expression in muscles and suppress glucose uptake by these cells. Initially, the pancreas would compensate for this by producing more insulin, but this compensation would eventually fail, allowing blood sugar levels to rise sufficiently to increase TXNIP expression in the pancreas. Previously published results suggest that this would induce the loss of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, thus further reducing insulin production and glucose uptake in the periphery and, ultimately, resulting in type 2 diabetes. Although there are many unanswered questions about the exact role of TXNIP in glucose homeostasis, these results help to explain many of the changes in glucose control that occur early in the development of diabetes. Furthermore, they suggest that interventions designed to modulate the activity of TXNIP might break the vicious cycle that eventually leads to type 2 diabetes.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The MedlinePlus encyclopedia has pages on diabetes
The US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases has information for patients on diabetes
Information on diabetes is available for patients and professionals from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The American Diabetes Association provides information on diabetes for patients
International Diabetes Federation has information on diabetes and a recent press release on the global diabetes epidemic
PMCID: PMC1858708  PMID: 17472435
14.  Osteopathic manipulative treatment and its relationship to autonomic nervous system activity as demonstrated by heart rate variability: a repeated measures study 
The relationship between osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) and the autonomic nervous system has long been acknowledged, but is poorly understood. In an effort to define this relationship, cervical myofascial release was used as the OMT technique with heart rate variability (HRV) as a surrogate for autonomic activity. This study quantifies that relationship and demonstrates a cause and effect.
Seventeen healthy subjects, nine males and eight females aged 19–50 years from the faculty, staff, and students at Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine, acted as their own controls and received interventions, administered in separate sessions at least 24 hours apart, of cervical myofascial OMT, touch-only sham OMT, and no-touch control while at a 50-degree head-up tilt. Each group was dichotomized into extremes of autonomic activity using a tilt table. Comparisons were made between measurements taken at tilt and those taken at pre- and post-intervention in the horizontal.
The variance of the spectral components of HRV, expressed as frequencies, measured the response to change in position of the subjects. Normalized low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) values, including LF/HF ratio, were calculated and used to determine the effect of position change on HRV.
Predominantly parasympathetic responses were observed with subjects in the horizontal position, while a 50-degree tilt provided a significantly different measure of maximum sympathetic tone (p < 0.001). Heart rate changed in all subjects with change in position; respirations remained constant. When OMT was performed in a sympathetic environment (tilt), a vagal response was produced that was strong enough to overcome the sympathetic tone. There was no HRV difference between sham and control in either the horizontal or tilt positions.
The vagal response produced by the myofascial release procedure in the maximally stimulated sympathetic environment could only have come from the application of the OMT. This demonstrates the association between OMT and the autonomic nervous system. The lack of significance between control and sham in all positions indicates that HRV may be a useful method of developing sham controls in future studies of OMT.
Trial registration NCT00516984.
PMCID: PMC2442110  PMID: 18534024
15.  Development, Implementation, and Outcomes of an Initiative to Integrate Evidence-Based Medicine Into an Osteopathic Curriculum 
In response to the American Osteopathic Association’s Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation (COCA) standards set forth in 2008, osteopathic medical schools are restructuring curricula to demonstrate they are teaching the seven core competencies and integrating evidence-based medicine (EBM) throughout all 4 years of training.
To describe and evaluate the efforts of a college of osteopathic medicine to integrate EBM concepts into its curriculum while maintaining existing course content and faculty contact hours.
One-group pre- and posttest study.
Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine-A.T. Still University (KCOM) in Missouri.
KCOM course directors in workshop series I (n=20) and KCOM faculty workshop series II (n=14).
A faculty development workshop series based on the diffusion of innovations model was instituted to facilitate cultural change, gain faculty support, and accelerate the implementation of EBM throughout KCOM’s curriculum.
Outcome measures
Faculty attitudes, confidence levels, and the number of courses that included instruction of EBM concepts were measured in August 2007 and May 2008.
Faculty attitudes about integrating EBM into the curriculum and confidence levels measured pre- and postworkshop series found that 21 of 26 participants believed they improved their ability to locate primary EBM resources using the Internet; 21 of 28 improved their ability to teach EBM concepts to students. Fifteen of 16 faculty course directors agreed to find ways to incorporate EBM into their classes. Review of KCOM’s course syllabi in April 2009 demonstrated a statistically significant difference (P<.001) in the number of faculty teaching EBM concepts after the faculty development workshop series concluded in March 2008 compared to before the series commenced in March 2006. An unexpected outcome was the implementation of a faculty-conceived, standalone EBM course in fall 2007.
A workshop series based on the diffusion of innovations model is effective in garnering faculty support for the implementation of a change in curriculum that emphasizes EBM content without increasing faculty contact hours or eliminating existing curricular content. A faculty development model emphasizing a “bottom-to-top” approach is effective in achieving workplace culture changes and seamless curricular transitions. Results have shown that a consensus building model is conducive to engaging faculty and garnering its support to effect curricular change, which, ultimately, ensures success.
PMCID: PMC3142697  PMID: 21068224
16.  Osteopathic manipulative treatment for pneumonia 
The pneumonias due to infection continue to be a meaningful threat to the health and viability of persons, particularly those in high risk groups: children, the aged and the debilitated. Noll and colleagues provide us with the results of a well-designed and well-executed multi-institutional controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in the treatment of pneumonia. The data obtained indicate that by intention-to-treat analysis, the addition of OMT to conventional care did not improve the designated outcomes when compared to conventional care only. A disappointing but important finding. However, by per-protocol analysis, the addition of OMT or of light touch decreased length of hospital stay, the duration of intravenous antibiotics and the incidence of respiratory failure and death relative to conventional care only. Further study is called for to explain these surprising results.
Meeting the need for randomized clinical trials of the role and efficacy of OMT is a responsibility of high priority for the osteopathic profession in this age of evidence-based medicine. The American Osteopathic Association (AOA) needs to consider reinstating a dues-generated financial set-aside both to increase its support of osteopathic research and to initiate a program of physician-investigator career development awards to recruit and help establish osteopathic clinical investigators in a career in translational and clinical research.
PMCID: PMC2845139  PMID: 20302620
17.  Effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment on length of stay in a population of preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Pediatrics  2013;13:65.
The use of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in preterm infants has been documented and results from previous studies suggest the association between OMT and length of stay (LOS) reduction, as well as significant improvements in several clinical outcomes. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of OMT on LOS in premature infants.
A randomized controlled trial was conducted on preterm newborns admitted to a single NICU between 2008-2009. N=110 subjects free of medical complications and with gestational age >28 and < 38 weeks were enrolled and randomized in two groups: study group (N=55) and control group (N=55). All subjects received routine pediatric care and OMT was performed to the study group for the entire period of hospitalization. Endpoints of the study included differences in LOS and daily weight gain.
Results showed a significant association between OMT and LOS reduction (mean difference between treated and control group: -5.906; 95% C.I. -7.944, -3.869; p<0.001). OMT was not associated to any change in daily weight gain.
The present study suggests that OMT may have an important role in the management of preterm infants hospitalization.
Trial registration, NCT01544257.
PMCID: PMC3648440  PMID: 23622070
Osteopathic manipulative treatment; Newborns; Preterm infants; Length of stay; Costs; Weight gain
18.  Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus diagnosed after the age of 70 years 
AIMS/BACKGROUND—A hospital based prevalence study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus after the age of 70 years. The prevalence of visually threatening retinopathy at the time of diagnosis of diabetes was also determined. The association between prevalence of DR and duration of diabetes mellitus, mode of treatment, HbA1c levels, presence of hypertension, and sex of patient was examined and a comparison was drawn between this study and earlier prevalence studies of DR in older type II diabetics.
METHODS—Using data on the Irish Diabetic Retinopathy Register located in the Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin, all patients who were diagnosed as having type II diabetes mellitus after the age of 70 years were invited to attend for ophthalmic review. Medical records were examined to determine the duration of diabetes mellitus, mode of treatment, recent HbA1c levels, and the presence of systemic hypertension.
RESULTS—Of the 150 patients examined, 21 (14%) had some form of DR and 10 of these patients (6.6%) had visually threatening retinopathy or previously treated visually threatening retinopathy. Five patients (3.3%) presented with visually threatening retinopathy at the time of diagnosis of diabetes. Those patients with DR had a significantly higher median duration of diabetes (5.0 years) compared with those patients without DR (3.5 years). A significantly higher proportion of patients with DR required treatment with insulin and a correspondingly lower proportion of patients without DR were controlled on diet alone. There was no significant association between prevalence of DR and HbA1c levels, systemic hypertension, or sex of patient. There was a lower overall prevalence of DR in comparison with earlier studies.
CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of DR in these elderly type II diabetics is lower than that previously reported in patients with type II disease but a small percentage of patients had visually threatening retinopathy at presentation. Longer duration of diabetes and insulin use were associated with a significantly increased prevalence of DR. All elderly type II diabetic patients require thorough ophthalmic examination near to the time of first presentation and thereafter at regular intervals.

PMCID: PMC1722137  PMID: 9135386
19.  Changes in brainstem auditory evoked potentials among North Indian females with Type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder whose detrimental effects on various organ systems, including the nervous system are well known.
This study was conducted to determine the changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Materials and Methods:
In this case-control study, 116 females with type 2 diabetes and 100 age matched, healthy female volunteers were selected. The brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were recorded with RMS EMG EP Marc-II Channel machine. The measures included latencies of waves I, II, III, IV, V and Interpeak latencies (IPL) I-III, III-V and I-V separately for both ears. Data was analysed statistically with SPSS software v13.0.
It was found that IPL I-III was significantly delayed (P = 0.028) only in the right ear, while the latency of wave V and IPL I-V showed a significant delay bilaterally (P values for right ear being 0.021 and 0.0381 respectively while those for left ear being 0.028 and 0.016 respectively), in diabetic females. However, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was found between diabetic and control subjects as regards to the latencies of waves I, II, III, IV and IPL III-V bilaterally and IPL I-III unilaterally in the left ear. Also, none of the BAEP latencies were significantly correlated with either the duration of disease or with fasting blood glucose levels in diabetics.
Therefore, it could be concluded that diabetes patients have an early involvement of central auditory pathway, which can be detected quite accurately with the help of auditory evoked potential studies.
PMCID: PMC3872679  PMID: 24381878
Auditory evoked potentials; brainstem dysfunction; diabetes mellitus; interpeak latency; sensorineural hearing loss
20.  Obvious or Subclinical Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Diabetes Mellitus (Type II): An Echocardiographic Tissue Deformation Study 
Diabetes mellitus is capable of impairing the myocardial function. Several studies have documented the influential impact of diabetes mellitus on the left ventricular function. The right ventricular function plays a significant role in the overall myocardial contractility; hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus type II on the right ventricular function.
Twenty-two diabetic patients without any coronary artery disease, hypertension, or left ventricular dysfunction were studied. The right ventricular end diastolic diameter, tricuspid plane systolic excursion, right ventricular inflow Doppler parameters, longitudinal myocardial velocities, and deformation indices from the basal and apical segments of the right ventricular free wall of the case group were measured. The control group consisted of 22 healthy individuals.
The tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and tricuspid peak early to peak late diastolic flow velocities ratio (E/A) in the diabetic patients were significantly lower than those of the control group patients (18.9 vs. 23.2, p value < 0.001 and 0.96 vs. 1.21, p value = 0.012), but there were no significant differences in the right ventricular end diastolic diameter and the right ventricular Tei index between the two groups (p value = 0.72). The right ventricular basal peak myocardial systolic velocity (SM) (12 cm/sec vs. 13.4 cm/sec; p value = 0.03), basal and apical right ventricular free wall systolic strain (−13.3% and −18.7% vs. −20.2% and −25.7%; p value = 0.001), and apical strain rate (−1.2 1/s vs. −1.6 1/s; p value = 0.008 ) were significantly lower in the study group. There was a weak correlation between the right ventricular function and HbA1c as well as the duration of diabetes mellitus and C-reactive protein.
Our results suggest that diabetes mellitus type II can influence the right ventricular function in the absence of coronary artery disease, diastolic dysfunction, and pulmonary hypertension.
PMCID: PMC3537202  PMID: 23323079
Echocardiography; Diabetes mellitus; Ventricular function, right
21.  Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in rural India. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study III (SN-DREAMS III), report no 2 
The study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in a rural population of South India.
A population-based cross-sectional study.
13 079 participants were enumerated.
A multistage cluster sampling method was used. All eligible participants underwent comprehensive eye examination. The fundi of all patients were photographed using 45°, four-field stereoscopic digital photography, and an additional 30° seven-field stereo digital pairs were taken for participants with diabetic retinopathy. The diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy was based on Klein's classification.
Main outcome measures
Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors.
The prevalence of diabetes in the rural Indian population was 10.4% (95% CI 10.39% to 10.42%); the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, among patients with diabetes mellitus, was 10.3% (95% CI 8.53% to 11.97%). Statistically significant variables, on multivariate analysis, associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy were: gender (men at greater risk; OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.29), use of insulin (OR 3.59; 95% CI 1.41 to 9.14), longer duration of diabetes (15 years; OR 6.01; 95% CI 2.63 to 13.75), systolic hypertension (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.20 to 3.82), and participants with poor glycemic control (OR 3.37; 95% CI 2.13 to 5.34).
Nearly 1 of 10 individuals in rural South India, above the age of 40 years, showed evidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Likewise, among participants with diabetes, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was around 10%; the strongest predictor being the duration of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC4212556  PMID: 25452856
Retinopathy; Incidence
22.  New-onset diabetes and antihypertensive treatment 
Chronic diseases substantially contribute to the continuous increase in health care expenditures, including type-2 diabetes mellitus as one of the most expensive chronic diseases.
Arterial hypertension presents a risk factor for the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus.
Numerous analyses have demonstrated that antihypertensive therapies promote the development of type-2-diabetes mellitus. Studies indicate, that the application of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor-blockers (ARB) lead to less new-onset diabetes compared to beta-blockers, diuretics and placebo. Given that beta-blockers and diuretics impair the glucose metabolism, the metabolic effects of different antihypertensive drugs should be regarded; otherwise not only the disease itself, but also antihypertensive therapies may promote the development of new-onset diabetes. Even though, the cost of ACE inhibitors and ARB are higher, the use in patients with metabolic disorders could be cost-effective in the long-term if new-onset diabetes is avoided.
To evaluate which class of antihypertensive agents promote the development or the manifestation of type-2 diabetes mellitus. How high is the incidence of new-onset diabetes during antihypertensive therapy and how is treatment-induced type-2 diabetes mellitus evaluated clinically? Which agents are therefore cost-effective in the long term? Which ethical, social or legal aspects should be regarded?
A systematic literature review was conducted including clinical trials with at least ten participants which reported new-onset diabetes in the course of antihypertensive treatment. The trials had to be published after 1966 (after 2003 for economic publications) in English or German.
A total of 34 clinical publications meet the inclusion criteria. Of these, eight publications focus on the development of diabetes mellitus under treatment with diuretic and/or beta-blockers, six publications focused on ACE inhibitors alone or in combination with calcium-channel-blockers, ten publications on ARB and/or ACE inhibitors with respect to their effects on new-onset diabetes or their preventive aspects. Furthermore, five publications investigate the role of calcium-channel-antagonists in the development of diabetes, and five publications indicate the development of new-onset diabetes with different antihypertensive agents amongst each other or in comparison to no antihypertensive treatment. The clinical trials show a significant difference in the development of new-onset diabetes. Therapies with diuretics and/or beta-blockers result in a higher incidence of new-onset diabetes. ARB as well as ACE inhibitors have a preventive effect and calcium-channel-blockers show a neutral position regarding the development of new-onset diabetes.
Two publications report on economic results. The first one evaluates the cost-effectiveness of ARB alone or in combination with calcium-channel-blockers in comparison to diuretics alone or in combination with beta-blockers. The second publication compares economic outcomes of calcium-channel-blockers and beta-blockers considering the development of new-onset diabetes. Treatment with the ARB candesartan lead to savings in total costs of 549 US-Dollar per patient and in incremental costs of 30,000 US-Dollar per diabetes mellitus avoided. In the second publication, costs to the amount of 18,965 Euro in Great Britain and 13,210 Euro in Sweden are quoted for an avoided event. The treatment with calcium-channel-blockers compared to beta-blockers is proven to be more cost-effective.
No publications were identified regarding ethical, social and legal aspects.
The available meta-analyses allow for a high clinical evidence level. A few studies vary in terms of diabetes definition and study duration. In most of the trials, the incidence of new-onset diabetes is not an endpoint. The evaluation of treatment-induced diabetes mellitus cannot be conducted, due to the lack of sufficient results in the identified literature. The two economic studies do not address all the objectives sufficiently. Ethical, social and legal aspects are discussed but not analysed systematically.
Based on these studies, sufficient evidence to confirm the presumption that diuretics and/or beta-blockers promote the development of new-onset diabetes compared to other antihypertensive agents, especially in patients who are predisposed, is presented with this report. Trials reflecting the clinical relevance of treatment-induced diabetes mellitus compared to existing diabetes mellitus regarding cardiovascular outcomes are required. Also health economic evaluations considering the development of new-onset diabetes should be conducted for the different classes of antihypertensive agents.
PMCID: PMC3010880  PMID: 21289876
diabetes mellitus, type 2; hypertension; Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; Angiotensin II type receptor blockers; calcium channel blockers; diuretics
23.  Defective Awakening Response to Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(2):e69.
Nocturnal hypoglycemia frequently occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). It can be fatal and is believed to promote the development of the hypoglycemia-unawareness syndrome. Whether hypoglycemia normally provokes awakening from sleep in individuals who do not have diabetes, and whether this awakening response is impaired in T1DM patients, is unknown.
Methods and Findings
We tested two groups of 16 T1DM patients and 16 healthy control participants, respectively, with comparable distributions of gender, age, and body mass index. In one night, a linear fall in plasma glucose to nadir levels of 2.2 mmol/l was induced by infusing insulin over a 1-h period starting as soon as polysomnographic recordings indicated that stage 2 sleep had been reached. In another night (control), euglycemia was maintained.
Only one of the 16 T1DM patients, as compared to ten healthy control participants, awakened upon hypoglycemia (p = 0.001). In the control nights, none of the study participants in either of the two groups awakened during the corresponding time. Awakening during hypoglycemia was associated with increased hormonal counterregulation. In all the study participants (from both groups) who woke up, and in five of the study participants who did not awaken (three T1DM patients and two healthy control participants), plasma epinephrine concentration increased with hypoglycemia by at least 100% (p < 0.001). A temporal pattern was revealed such that increases in epinephrine in all participants who awakened started always before polysomnographic signs of wakefulness (mean ± standard error of the mean: 7.5 ± 1.6 min).
A fall in plasma glucose to 2.2 mmol/l provokes an awakening response in most healthy control participants, but this response is impaired in T1DM patients. The counterregulatory increase in plasma epinephrine that we observed to precede awakening suggests that awakening forms part of a central nervous system response launched in parallel with hormonal counterregulation. Failure to awaken increases the risk for T1DM patients to suffer prolonged and potentially fatal hypoglycemia.
A study of 16 patients with type 1 diabetes and 16 healthy participants showed that the normal awakening response provoked by a fall in plasma glucose was impaired in diabetic individuals.
Editors' Summary
Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) is a frequent complication of insulin-treated diabetes, affecting patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in particular. In individuals who do not have diabetes, insulin secretion is modified naturally and continuously by the body's own regulatory systems, depending on the blood sugar. However, in diabetes patients there is a lack of natural insulin and so manufactured insulin has to be given by injection after blood sugar testing. Hence, it is not possible for patients with diabetes to modify insulin secretion naturally in response to a change in glucose levels, and so blood glucose levels can rise and fall beyond healthy levels. In individuals who have intensive insulin therapy, hypoglycemia can be a particular problem; each year about 25% of patients on intensive insulin therapy have at least one episode of severe hypoglycemia—which requires the assistance of another person.
When hypoglycemia occurs during the day, diabetes patients can recognize it by a variety of symptoms, e.g., feeling sweaty and lightheaded, and they may either seek help from another person or treat themselves with sugar. Hypoglycemia during sleep may be very common—it has been observed to occur in up to half of the nights when patients with diabetes were monitored. The particular problem with hypoglycemia occurring during sleep is that diabetes patients may not be aware of it and hence may not be able to treat themselves or to seek assistance. It is believed to contribute to some instances of sudden death during sleep in patients with diabetes.
Why Was This Study Done?
It has not been clear whether there is a certain level of blood glucose below which a signal is triggered that provokes awakening from sleep in either diabetes patients or in individuals who do not have diabetes. The authors of this study wanted to compare responses to lowered blood glucose in diabetes patients and in individuals who do not have diabetes and to see whether the responses differed. They also wanted to look at whether there were any other hormonal changes that preceded or followed awakening after hypoglycemia.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
They treated two groups; 16 type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and 16 healthy control participants. With careful monitoring, on one night once stage 2 sleep (as measured by a method known as polysomnography) had been reached, they gave insulin to lower the blood glucose to a specific level (2.2 mmol/l), which would when awake give symptoms of hypoglycemia. On another night (the control night) normal blood sugar levels were maintained.
They found that only one of the 16 diabetes patients, as compared to ten healthy control participants, woke when hypoglycemia occurred. In the control nights, none of the study participants in either of the two groups awakened during the corresponding time. Awakening during hypoglycemia was associated with substantial hormonal changes, especially with an increase in one hormone, epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), and the increases in this hormone occurred before polysomnographic signs of wakefulness.
What Do These Findings Mean?
It appears that patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus do not awake at a level of hypoglycemia that triggers waking in normal individuals. The hormonal responses that were seen in individuals who awoke may be part of a crucial response system to hypoglycemia. These results help us to understand how diabetes patients respond to hypoglycemia, but further work will need to be done to determine whether it is possible to improve the response. It should be noted, however, that the results are probably not generalizable to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who represent the majority of patients with diabetes.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
A related PLoS Medicine Perspective article by Ilan Gabriely and Harry Shamoon discusses this study and more about hypoglycemia in T1DM
MedlinePlus, the encyclopedia of health information from the US National Library of Medicine, has a collection of pages on hypoglycemia
Wikipedia pages on hypoglycemia (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit)
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, a service of the US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, has information on hypoglycemia
PMCID: PMC1808097  PMID: 17326710
24.  Primary Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Large-for-Gestational-Age Newborns by Lifestyle Counseling: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS Medicine  2011;8(5):e1001036.
In a cluster-randomized trial, Riitta Luoto and colleagues find that counseling on diet and activity can reduce the birthweight of babies born to women at risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but fail to find an effect on GDM.
Our objective was to examine whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or newborns' high birthweight can be prevented by lifestyle counseling in pregnant women at high risk of GDM.
Method and Findings
We conducted a cluster-randomized trial, the NELLI study, in 14 municipalities in Finland, where 2,271 women were screened by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 8–12 wk gestation. Euglycemic (n = 399) women with at least one GDM risk factor (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2, glucose intolerance or newborn's macrosomia (≥4,500 g) in any earlier pregnancy, family history of diabetes, age ≥40 y) were included. The intervention included individual intensified counseling on physical activity and diet and weight gain at five antenatal visits. Primary outcomes were incidence of GDM as assessed by OGTT (maternal outcome) and newborns' birthweight adjusted for gestational age (neonatal outcome). Secondary outcomes were maternal weight gain and the need for insulin treatment during pregnancy. Adherence to the intervention was evaluated on the basis of changes in physical activity (weekly metabolic equivalent task (MET) minutes) and diet (intake of total fat, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, saccharose, and fiber). Multilevel analyses took into account cluster, maternity clinic, and nurse level influences in addition to age, education, parity, and prepregnancy BMI. 15.8% (34/216) of women in the intervention group and 12.4% (22/179) in the usual care group developed GDM (absolute effect size 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–2.62, p = 0.36). Neonatal birthweight was lower in the intervention than in the usual care group (absolute effect size −133 g, 95% CI −231 to −35, p = 0.008) as was proportion of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns (26/216, 12.1% versus 34/179, 19.7%, p = 0.042). Women in the intervention group increased their intake of dietary fiber (adjusted coefficient 1.83, 95% CI 0.30–3.25, p = 0.023) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (adjusted coefficient 0.37, 95% CI 0.16–0.57, p<0.001), decreased their intake of saturated fatty acids (adjusted coefficient −0.63, 95% CI −1.12 to −0.15, p = 0.01) and intake of saccharose (adjusted coefficient −0.83, 95% CI −1.55 to −0.11, p  =  0.023), and had a tendency to a smaller decrease in MET minutes/week for at least moderate intensity activity (adjusted coefficient 91, 95% CI −37 to 219, p = 0.17) than women in the usual care group. In subgroup analysis, adherent women in the intervention group (n = 55/229) had decreased risk of GDM (27.3% versus 33.0%, p = 0.43) and LGA newborns (7.3% versus 19.5%, p = 0.03) compared to women in the usual care group.
The intervention was effective in controlling birthweight of the newborns, but failed to have an effect on maternal GDM.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN33885819
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is diabetes that is first diagnosed during pregnancy. Like other types of diabetes, it is characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Blood-sugar levels are normally controlled by insulin, a hormone that the pancreas releases when blood-sugar levels rise after meals. Hormonal changes during pregnancy and the baby's growth demands increase a pregnant woman's insulin needs and, if her pancreas cannot make enough insulin, GDM develops. Risk factors for GDM, which occurs in 2%–14% of pregnant women, include a high body-mass index (a measure of body fat), excessive weight gain or low physical activity during pregnancy, high dietary intake of polyunsaturated fats, glucose intolerance (an indicator of diabetes) or the birth of a large baby in a previous pregnancy, and a family history of diabetes. GDM is associated with an increased rate of cesarean sections, induced deliveries, birth complications, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) babies (gestation is the time during which the baby develops within the mother). GDM, which can often be controlled by diet and exercise, usually disappears after pregnancy but increases a woman's subsequent risk of developing diabetes.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although lifestyle changes can be used to control GDM, it is not known whether similar changes can prevent GDM developing (“primary prevention”). In this cluster-randomized controlled trial, the researchers investigate whether individual intensified counseling on physical activity, diet, and weight gain integrated into routine maternity care visits can prevent the development of GDM and the occurrence of LGA babies among newborns. In a cluster-randomized controlled trial, groups of patients rather than individual patients are randomly assigned to receive alternative interventions, and the outcomes in different “clusters” are compared. In this trial, each cluster is a municipality in the Pirkanmaa region of Finland.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers enrolled 399 women, each of whom had a normal blood glucose level at 8–12 weeks gestation but at least one risk factor for GDM. Women in the intervention municipalities received intensified counseling on physical activity at 8–12 weeks' gestation, dietary counseling at 16–18 weeks' gestation, and further physical activity and dietary counseling at each subsequent antenatal visits. Women in the control municipalities received some dietary but little physical activity counseling as part of their usual care. 23.3% and 20.2% of women in the intervention and usual care groups, respectively, developed GDM, a nonstatistically significant difference (that is, a difference that could have occurred by chance). However, the average birthweight and the proportion of LGA babies were both significantly lower in the intervention group than in the usual care group. Food frequency questionnaires completed by the women indicated that, on average, those in the intervention group increased their intake of dietary fiber and polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased their intake of saturated fatty acids and sucrose as instructed during counseling, The amount of moderate physical activity also tended to decrease less as pregnancy proceeded in the intervention group than in usual care group. Finally, compared to the usual care group, significantly fewer of the 24% of women in the intervention group who actually met dietary and physical activity targets (“adherent” women) developed GDM.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that intensified counseling on diet and physical activity is effective in controlling the birthweight of babies born to women at risk of developing GDM and encourages at least some of them to alter their lifestyle. However, the findings fail to show that the intervention reduces the risk of GDM because of the limited power of the study. The power of a study—the probability that it will achieve a statistically significant result—depends on the study's size and on the likely effect size of the intervention. Before starting this study, the researchers calculated that they would need 420 participants to see a statistically significant difference between the groups if their intervention reduced GDM incidence by 40%. This estimated effect size was probably optimistic and therefore the study lacked power. Nevertheless, the analyses performed among adherent women suggest that lifestyle changes might be a way to prevent GDM and so larger studies should now be undertaken to test this potential primary prevention intervention.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases provides information for patients on diabetes and on gestational diabetes (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Choices website also provides information for patients on diabetes and on gestational diabetes, including links to other useful resources
The MedlinePlus Encyclopedia has pages on diabetes and on gestational diabetes; MedlinePlus provides links to additional resources on diabetes and on gestational diabetes (in English and Spanish)
More information on this trial of primary prevention of GDM is available
PMCID: PMC3096610  PMID: 21610860
25.  Maculopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2: associations with risk factors 
AIM—To examine possible relation between diabetic maculopathy and various risk factors for diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2.
METHODS—Cross sectional study of two cohorts of diabetic patients, comprising 1796 patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 47 years, mean duration of diabetes 24 years) and 1563 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 62 years, mean duration of diabetes 16 years). Retinopathy levels (R0-RV) and maculopathy were assessed by fluorescence angiography and fundus photography and binocular biomicroscopy. Diabetic neuropathy was assessed by means of computer assisted electrocardiography and by thermal and vibratory sensory examination. Patients were classified as normoalbuminuric (<20 µg/min) or microalbuminuric (20-200 µg/min) according to their albumin excretion rates measured in urine collected overnight. Using univariate analyses, the effects of selected patient characteristics on the presence of maculopathy were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine independent effects of risk variables on diabetic maculopathy.
RESULTS—Background retinopathy (RII) was found to be present in 28% of type 1 diabetic patients and in 38% of type 2 diabetic patients. The prevalence of maculopathy in these patients was remarkably high (42% in type 1 and 53% in type 2 diabetic patients). Patients with maculopathy had significantly impaired visual acuity. Multiple logistic correlation analysis revealed that in both types of diabetes maculopathy exhibited independent associations with duration of diabetes and with neuropathy (p <0.01); in type 1 diabetic patients there were significant associations with age at diabetes onset, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels (p <0.05); in type 2 diabetes with serum creatinine levels and with hypertension (p <0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—Irrespective of the type of diabetes, diabetic patients with long standing diabetes have a high risk for the development of diabetic maculopathy. Diabetic maculopathy is closely associated with diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy and with several atherosclerotic risk factors which suggests that these factors might have an important role in the pathogenesis of maculopathy. However, prospective trials are necessary to evaluate the predictive value of such factors. The findings of the present cross sectional study reinforce the arguments of previous studies by others for tight control of hypertension and hyperglycaemia.

PMCID: PMC1723591  PMID: 10906094

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