This paper describes the formulation of a biodegradable microparticulate drug delivery system containing clodronate, a bisphosphonate intended for the treatment of bone diseases. Microspheres were prepared with several poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) copolymers of various molecular weights and molar compositions and 1 poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) homopolymer by a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion solvent evaporation procedure. Critical process parameters and formulation variables (ie, addition of stabilizing agents) were evaluated for their effect on drug encapsulation efficiency and clodronate release rate from microparticles Well-formed clodronate-loaded microspheres were obtained for all polymers by selecting suitable process parameters (inner water/oil volume ratio 1∶16, temperature-raising rate in the solvent evaporation step 1°C/min, 2% wt/vol NaCl in the external aqueous phase). Good yields were obtained in all batches of clodronate microspheres (above 60%); drug encapsulation efficiencies ranged between 49% and 75% depending on the polymer used. Clodronate release from all copolymer microspheres was completed in about 48 hours, while those from PDLLA microspheres required about 20 days. The change of microsphere composition by adding a surfactant such as Span 20 or a viscosing agent such as carboxymethylcellulose extended the long-term release up to 3 months. Clodronate was successfully entrapped in PLGA and PDLLA microspheres, and drug release could be modulated from 48 hours up to 3 months by suitable selection of polymer, composition, additives, and manufacturing conditions.
PLGA microspheres; solvent evaporation method; long-term release; Clodronate
The objective of this research was to optimize the processing parameters for poly(D,L-lactide-coglycolide) (PLGA) microspheres of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and to mathematically relate the process parameters and properties of microspheres. Microspheres were prepared by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique. A 32 factorial design was employed to study the effect of the volume of the internal phase of the primary emulsion and the volume of the external phase of the secondary emulsion on yield, particle size, and encapsulation efficiency of microspheres. An increase in the volume of the internal phase of the primary emulsion resulted in a decrease in yield and encapsulation efficiency and an increase in particle size of microspheres. When the volume of the external phase of the secondary emulsion was increased, a decrease in yield, particle size, and encapsulation efficiency was observed. Microspheres with good batch-to-batch reproducibility could be produced. Scanning electron microscopic study indicated that microspheres existed as aggregates.
5-fluorouracil; microspheres; PLGA microspheres; optimization
Amlodipine besylate microspheres for intranasal administration were prepared with an aim to avoid first-pass metabolism, to achieve controlled blood level profiles and to improve therapeutic efficacy. Hydroxypropyl Guar, a biodegradable polymer, was used in the preparation of microspheres by employing water in oil emulsification solvent evaporation technique. The formulation variables were drug concentration, emulsifier concentration, temperature, agitation speed and polymer concentration. All the formulations were evaluated for particle size, particle shape and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy, percentage yield, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro mucoadhesion test, degree of swelling and in vitro drug diffusion through sheep nasal mucosa. The microspheres obtained were free flowing, spherical and the particles ranged in size from 13.4±2.38 μm to 43.4±1.92 μm very much suitable for nasal delivery. Increasing polymer concentration resulted in increased drug entrapment efficiency and increased particle size. Amlodipine besylate was entrapped into the microspheres with an efficiency of 67.2±1.18 % to 81.8±0.64 %. The prepared microspheres showed good mucoadhesion properties, swellability and sustained the release of the drug over a period of 8 h. The data obtained were analysed by fitment into various kinetic models; it was observed that the drug release was matrix diffusion controlled and the release mechanism was found to be non-Fickian. Stability studies were carried out on selected formulations at 5±3°, 25±2°/60±5% RH and 40±2°/75±5% RH for 90 days. The drug content was observed to be within permissible limits and there were no significant deviations in the in vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug diffusion characteristics.
Amlodipine besylate; degree of swelling; drug entrapment efficiency; in vitro mucoadhesion studies; mucoadhesive microspheres; nasal drug delivery; water in oil emulsification solvent evaporation technique
This study aimed at preparation of a sustained-release steroidal treatment for chronic inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis. To achieve such a goal, biodegradable poly-lactide-co-glycolide prednisolone-loaded microspheres were prepared using o/w emulsion solvent evaporation method. Formulation parameters were adjusted so as to optimize the microsphere characteristics. The prepared microspheres exhibited smooth and intact surfaces, with average size range not exceeding 65 µm. The encapsulation efficiency percent of most microsphere formulations fell within the range of 25–68%. Drug release from these microspheres took place over 4 weeks, with near-to-zero-order patterns. Two successful formulations were chosen for the treatment of unilateral arthritis, induced in mice using Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Inflammatory signs of adjuvant arthritis included severe swelling of the FCA-injected limbs, in addition to many histopathological lesions. These included inflammatory cell infiltration, synovial hyperplasia, cartilage, and bone erosion. Parenteral administration of the selected formulae dramatically reduced the swelling of the FCA-injected limbs. In addition, histological examination revealed that the microsphere treatment protocol efficiently protected cartilages and bones of mice, injected with FCA initial and booster doses, from erosion. These results could not be achieved by a single prednisolone dose of 5 mg/kg.
adjuvant arthritis; histological investigation; microspheres; PLGA; prednisolone
Uniform, porous poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) beads with controllable pore sizes were prepared using an unstable water-in-oil (W-O) emulsion and a simple fluidic device. Optical micrographs revealed that the unstable emulsion phase-separated into two phases: the top layer rich in large water droplets and the bottom layer rich in small water droplets. When a syringe with a luer tip offset from the barrel was used, we could selectively introduce each layer of the phase-separated emulsion as a discontinuous phase into the fluidic device while a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution was used as the continuous phase. The resultant water-in-oil-in-water (W-O-W) droplets evolved into PLGA beads with pores both in the interior and on the surface after the organic solvent had evaporated. Porous beads prepared using the top layer exhibited larger pores and windows interconnecting the pores than the beads obtained from the bottom layer. To show the effect of pore size on cell growth, we cultured fibroblasts in the beads with small and large pores. Fluorescence micrographs and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay confirmed a high density of viable cells in the beads with large pores. These results suggest that the beads with large pores could provide a more favorable environment for cells and thus be potentially useful for tissue engineering and cell delivery applications.
fluidic device; porous bead; phase-separated emulsion; cell viability
The hypothesis of this research was that implants of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and distributed in a freeze-dried carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) matrix would produce more new bone than would matrix implants of non-protein-loaded microspheres or matrix implants of only CMC. To test this hypothesis it was necessary to fashion microsphere-loaded CMC implants that were simple to insert, fit precisely into a defect, and would not elicit swelling. Microspheres were produced via a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion system and were loaded with rhBMP-2 by soaking them in a buffered solution of the protein at a concentration of 5.4 mg protein per gram of PLGA. Following recovery of the loaded microspheres by lyophilization matrices for implantation were prepared by lyophilizing a suspension of the microspheres in 2% CMC in flat-bottom tissue culture plates. Similar matrices were made with 2% CMC and with 2% CMC containing blank microspheres. A full-thickness calvarial defect model in New Zealand white rabbits was used to assess bone growth. Implants fit the defect well allowing for direct application. Six weeks postsurgery, defects were collected and processed for undecalcified histology. In vitro, 60% of the loaded rhBMP-2 released from devices or microspheres in 5 to 7 days. With the unembedded microspheres releasing faster than those embedded in CMC In vivo. the rhBMP-2 microspheres greatly enhanced bone healing, whereas nonloaded PLGA microspheres in the CMC implants had little effect. The results showed that a lyophilized device of rhBMP-2 PLGA microspheres in CMC was an effective implantable protein-delivery system for the use in bone repair.
bone morphogenetic protein-2; PLGA microspheres; controlled delivery; protein delivery; in vitro; in vivo; bone repair
The stability, in vitro release, and in vitro cell transfection efficiency of plasmid DNA (pDNA) poly (D,L.-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere formulations were investigated. PLGA microspheres containing free and polylysine (PLL)-complexed pDNA were prepared by a water-oil-water solvent extraction/evaporation technique. Encapsulation enhanced the retention of the supereoiled structure of pDNA as determined by gel electrophoresis. PLL complexation of pDNA prior to encapsulation increased both the stability of the supercoiled form and the encapsulation efficiency. Free pDNA was completely degraded after exposure to DNase while encapsulation protected the pDNA from enzymatic degradation. Rapid initial in vitro release of pDNA was obtained from microspheres containing free pDNA. while the release from microspheres containing PLL-complexed pDNA was sustained for more than 42 days. Bioactivity of encapsulated pDNA determined by in vitro cell transfection using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) showed that the bioactivity of encapsulated pDNA was retained in both formulations but to a greater extent with PLL-complexed pDNA microspheres. These results demonstrated that PLGA microspheres could be used to formulate a controlledrelease delivery system for pDNA that can protect the pDNA from DNase degradation without loss of functional activity.
PLGA; Microspheres; Plasmid DNA; Controlled Release
The purpose of this research was to investigate whether Eudragit S100 microspheres have the potential to serve as an oral carrier for peptide drugs like insulin. Microspheres were prepared using water-in oil-in water emulsion solvent evaporation technique with polysorbate 20 as a dispersing agent in the internal aqueous phase and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a stabilizer in the external aqueous phase. The use of smaller internal aqueous-phase volume (50 μL) and external aqueous-phase volume (25 mL) containing PVA in the manufacturing process resulted in maximum encapsulation efficiency (81.8%±0.9%). PVA-stabilized microspheres having maximum drug encapsulation released 2.5% insulin at pH 1.0 in 2 hours. In phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), microspheres showed an initial burst release of 22% in 1 hour with an additional 28% release in the next 5 hours. The smaller the volumes of internal and external aqueous phase, the lower the initial burst release. The release of drug from microspheres followed Higuchi kinetics. Scanning electron microscopy of PVA-stabilized microspheres demonstrated spherical particles with smooth surface, and laser diffractometry revealed a mena particle size of 32.51±20 μm. Oral administration of PVA stabilized microspheres in normal albino rabbits (equivalent to 6.6 IU insulin/kg of animal weight) demonstrated a 24% reduction in blood glucose level, with maximum plasma glucose reduction of 76±3.0% in 2 hours and effect continuing up to 6 hours. The area under the percentage glucose reduction-time curve was 93.75%. Thus, our results indicate that Eudragit S100 microspheres on oral administration can protect insulin from proteolytic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract and produce hypoglycemic effect.
insulin; oral; Eudragit S100; microspheres; hypoglycaemic
In this study, ethylcellulose (EC)-based microsphere formulations were prepared without and with triethyl citrate (TEC) content of 10% and 30% by water-in-oil emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Diltiazem hydrochloride (DH) was chosen as a hydrophilic model drug and used at different drug/polymer ratios in the microspheres. The aim of the work was to evaluate the influence of plasticizer ratio on the drug release rate and physicochemical characteristics of EC-based matrix-type microspheres. The resulting microspheres were evaluated for encapsulation efficiency, particle size and size distribution, surface morphology, total pore volume, thermal characteristics, drug release rates, and release mechanism. Results indicated that the physicochemical properties of microspheres were strongly affected by the drug/polymer ratio investigated and the concentration of TEC used in the production technique. The surface morphology and pore volume of microspheres significantly varied based on the plasticizer content in the formulation. DH release rate from EC-based matrix-type microspheres can be controlled by varying the DH to polymer and plasticizer ratios. Glass transition temperature values tended to decrease in conjunction with increasing amounts of TEC. Consequently, the various characteristics of the EC microspheres could be modified based on the plasticized ratio of TEC.
diltiazem hydrochloride; ethylcellulose; microspheres; plasticizer; triethyl citrate
The purpose of this research was to study the chemical reactivity of a somatostatin analogue octreotide acetate, formulated in microspheres with polymers of varying molecular weight and co-monomer ratio under in vitro testing conditions. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) microspheres were prepared by a solvent extraction/evaporation method. The microspheres were characterized for drug load, impurity content, and particle size. Further, the microspheres were subjected to in vitro release testing in acetate buffer (pH 4.0) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (pH 7.2). In acetate buffer, 3 microsphere batches composed of low molecular weight PLGA 50∶50, PLGA 85∶15, and PLA polymers (≤10 kDa) showed 100% release with minimal impurity formation (<10%). The high molecular weight PLGA 50∶50 microspheres (28 kDa) displayed only 70% cumulative release in acetate buffer with significant impurity formation (∼24%). In PBS (pH 7.4), on the other hand, only 50% release was observed with the same low molecular weight batches (PLGA 50∶50, PLGA 85∶15, and PLA) with higher percentages of hydrophobic impurity formation (ie, 40%, 26%, and 10%, respectively). In addition, in PBS, the high molecular weight PLGA 50∶50 microspheres showed only 20% drug release with ∼60% mean impurity content. The chemically modified peptide impurities inside microspheres were structurally confirmed through Fourier transform-mass spectrometry (FT-MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses after extraction procedures. The adduct compounds were identified as covalently modified conjugates of octreotide with lactic and glycolic acid monomers within polymeric microspheres. The data suggest that due to steric hindrance factors, polymers with greater lactide content were less amenable to the formation of adduct impurities compared with PLGA 50∶50 copolymers.
somatostatin analogues; octreotide acetate; peptide acylation; peptide stability; poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres
Biodegradable, superparamagnetic micro- and nanoparticles of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and cellulose were designed, fabricated and characterized for magnetic cell labeling. Monodisperse nanocrystals of magnetite were incorporated into micro- and nanoparticles of PLGA and cellulose with high efficiency using an oil-in-water single emulsion technique. Superparamagnetic cores had high magnetization (72.1 emu/g). The resulting polymeric particles had smooth surface morphology and high magnetite content (43.3 wt% for PLGA and 69.6 wt% for cellulose). While PLGA and cellulose nanoparticles displayed highest r2* values per millimole of iron (399 s-1mM-1 for cellulose and 505 s-1mM-1 for PLGA), micron-sized PLGA particles had a much higher r2* per particle than either. After incubation for a month in citrate buffer (pH 5.5), magnetic PLGA particles lost close to 50% of their initial r2* molar relaxivity, while magnetic cellulose particles remained intact, preserving over 85% of their initial r2* molar relaxivity. Lastly, mesenchymal stem cells and human breast adenocarcinoma cells were magnetically labeled using these particles with no detectable cytotoxicity. These particles are ideally suited for non-invasive cell tracking in vivo via MRI and due to their vastly different degradation properties, offer unique potential for dedicated use for either short (PLGA-based particles) or long term (cellulose-based particles) experiments.
Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microbeads with a hollow interior and porous wall are prepared using a simple fluidic device fabricated with PVC tubes, glass capillaries, and a needle. Using the fluidic device with three flow channels, uniform water-in-oil-in-water (W-O-W) emulsions with a single inner water droplet can be achieved with controllable dimensions by varying the flow rate of each phase. The resultant W-O-W emulsions evolve into PLGA microbeads with a hollow interior and porous wall after the organic solvent in the middle oil phase evaporates. Two approaches are employed for developing a porous structure in the wall: emulsion templating and fast solvent evaporation. For emulsion templating, a homogenized, water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion is introduced as the middle phase instead of the pure oil phase. Low-molecular-weight fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and high-molecular-weight fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran conjugate (FITC-DEX) is added to the inner water phase to elucidate both the pore size and their interconnectivity in the wall of the microbeads. From optical fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images, it is confirmed that the emulsion-templated microbeads (W-W/O-W) have larger and better interconnected pores than the W-O-W microbeads. These microstructured microbeads can potentially be employed for cell encapsulation and tissue engineering, as well as protection of active agents.
The purpose of this study was to develop a single-dose insulin delivery system based on poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres to provide basal insulin level for a prolonged period. Insulin-loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared by water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion (batch A) and solid-in0oil-in-water emulsion (batch B) methods. Microspheres were characterized for physical characteristics and in vitro release. In vivo absorption of insulin and biocompatibility of insulin-loaded PLGA microspheres were performed in diabetic New Zealand white rabbits. Light and transmission electron microscopy were performed on the skin tissues excised from microspheres injected sites in order to study the biocompatibility. The burst release of insulin was high (47%) from batch B and low (5%) from batch A. Therefore, we mixed microspheres of batch A and B in ratio of 3∶ w/w, which produced desirable in vitro release profile. In vivo absorption study showed that insulin-loaded microspheres provided a serum insulin level of 20–40 μU/ml up to 40 days. Biocompatibility study provided evidence of normal inflammatory and foreign body reactions, which were characterized by the presence of macrophages, fibroblasts and foreign body giant cells. Neither necrosis nor tissue damage was identified. At the end of 12 weeks, no distinct histological differences were observed in comparison to the control tissue samples. In conclusion, insulin-loaded PLGA microspheres controlled the in vivo absorption of insulin to maintain the basal insulin level for longer period and the delivery system was biocompatible.
PLGA; microspheres; insulin; in vivo absorption; biocompatibility
The study reports on the drug release behavior of a potent synthetic somatostatin analogue, octreotide acetate, from biocompatible and biodegradable microspheres composed of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) following a single intramuscular depot injection. The serum octreotide levels of three Oakwood Laboratories formulations and one Sandostatin LAR® formulation were compared. Three formulations of octreotide acetate-loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared by a solvent extraction and evaporation procedure using PLGA polymers with different molecular weights. The in vivo drug release study was conducted in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Blood samples were taken at predetermined time points for up to 70 days. Drug serum concentrations were quantified using a radioimmunoassay procedure consisting of radiolabeled octreotide. The three octreotide PLGA microsphere formulations and Sandostatin LAR® all showed a two-phase drug release profile (i.e., bimodal). The peak serum drug concentration of octreotide was reached in 30 min for all formulations followed by a decline after 6 h. Following this initial burst and decline, a second-release phase occurred after 3 days. This second-release phase exhibited sustained-release behavior, as the drug serum levels were discernible between days 7 and 42. Using pharmacokinetic computer simulations, it was estimated that the steady-state octreotide serum drug levels would be predicted to fall in the range of 40–130 pg/10 μL and 20–100 pg/10 μL following repeat dosing of the Oakwood formulations and Sandostatin LAR® every 28 days and every 42 days at a dose of 3 mg/rat, respectively.
in vivo drug release; pharmacokinetic simulation; PLGA microspheres; polypeptide/protein drug delivery; single depot injection
The purpose of this research was to encapsulate superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in biodegradable microspheres (MS) to obtain suitable sustained protein delivery. A modified water/oil/water double emulsion method was used for poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(D,L-lactide) PLA MS preparation co-encapsulating mannitol, trehalose, and PEG400 for protein stabilization. Size, morphology, porosity, mass loss, mass balance, in vitro release and in vitro activity were assessed by using BCA protein assay, scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area, and particle-sizing techniques. In vitro activity retention within MS was evaluated by nicotinammide adenine dinucleotide oxidation and H2O2 consumption assays. SOD encapsulation efficiency resulted in 30% to 34% for PLAMS and up to 51% for PLGA MS, whereas CAT encapsulation was 34% and 45% for PLGA and PLAMS, respectively. All MS were spherical with a smooth surface and low porosity. Particle mean diameters ranged from 10 to 17 μm. CAT release was prolonged, but the results were incomplete for both PLA and PLGA MS, whereas SOD was completely released from PLGA MS in a sustained manner after 2 months. CAT results were less stable and showed a stronger interaction than SOD with the polymers. Mass loss and mass balance correlated well with the release profiles. SOD and CAT in vitro activity was preserved in all the preparations, and SOD was better stabilized in PLGA MS. PLGA MS can be useful for SOD delivery in its native form and is promising as a new depot system.
superoxide dismutase; catalase; microspheres; protein delivery; in vitro activity
Mineral-coated microspheres were prepared via a bioinspired, heterogeneous nucleation process at physiological temperature. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microspheres were fabricated via a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion method and were mineral-coated via incubation in a modified simulated body fluid (mSBF). X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with associated energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the presence of a continuous mineral coating on the microspheres. The mineral grown on the PLG microsphere surface has characteristics analogous to bone mineral (termed ‘bone-like’ mineral), with a carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite phase and a porous structure of plate-like crystals at the nanometer scale. Assembly of mineral-coated microspheres into aggregates was observed when microsphere concentrations above 0.50 mg/mL were incubated in mSBF for 7 days, and the size of aggregates was dependent on the microsphere concentration in solution. In vitro mineral dissolution studies performed in tris-buffered saline confirmed that the mineral formed was resorbable. A surfactant additive (Tween 20™) was incorporated into mSBF to gain insight into the mineral growth process, and Tween 20™ not only prevented aggregation, but also significantly inhibited mineral formation and influenced the characteristics of the mineral formed on the surface of PLG microspheres. Taken together, these findings indicate that mineral-coated PLG microspheres or mineral-coated microsphere aggregates can be synthesized in a controllable manner using a bioinspired process. These materials may be useful in a range of applications, including controlled drug delivery and biomolecule purification.
mineralization; PLG microsphere; bioinspired; drug delivery; HAP chromatography
The purpose of this study was to develop poly(d,1-lactic-coglycolic acid) (PLGA)-based anastrozole microparticles for treatment of breast cancer. An emulsion/extraction method was used to prepare anastrozole sustained-release PLGA-based biodegradable microspheres. Gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy detection was used for the quantitation of the drug throughout the studies. Microparticles were formulated and characterized in terms of encapsulation efficiency, particle size distribution, surface morphology, and drug release profile. Preparative variables such as concentrations of stabilizer, drug-polymer ratio polymer viscosity, stirring rate, and ratio of internal to external phases were found to be important factors for the preparation of anastrozole-loaded PLGA microparticles. Fourier transform infrared with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were employed to determine any interactions between drug and polymer. An attempt was made to fit the data to various dissolution kinetics models for multiparticulate systems, including the zero order, first order, square root of time kinetics, and biphasic models. The FTIR-ATR studies revealed no chemical interaction between the drug and the polymer. DSC results indicated that the anastrozole trapped in the microspheres existed in an amorphous or disordered-crystalline status in the polymer matrix. The highest correlation coefficients were obtained for the Higuchi model, suggesting a diffusion mechanism for the drug release. The results demonstrated that anastrozole microparticles with PLGA could be an alternative delivery method for the long-term treatment of breast cancer.
Breast cancer; microencapsulation; biodegradation; anastrozole; PLGA
The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize a microparticulate system of progestin-only contraceptive. Another objective was to evaluate the effect of gamma radio-sterilization on in vitro and in vivo drug release characteristics. Levonorgestrel (LNG) microspheres were fabricated using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) by a novel solvent evaporation technique. The formulation was optimized for drug/polymer ratio, emulsifier concentration, and process variables like speed of agitation and evaporation method. The drug to polymer ratio of 1:5 gave the optimum encapsulation efficiency. Speed of agitation influenced the spherical shape of the microparticles, lower speeds yielding less spherical particles. The speed did not have a significant influence on the drug payloads. A combination of stabilizers viz. methyl cellulose and poly vinyl alcohol with in-water solvent evaporation technique yielded microparticles without any free drug crystals on the surface. This aspect significantly eliminated the in vitro dissolution “burst effect”. The residual solvent content was well within the regulatory limits. The microparticles passed the test for sterility and absence of pyrogens. In vitro dissolution conducted on the product before and after gamma radiation sterilization at 2.5 Mrad indicated no significant difference in the drug release patterns. The drug release followed zero-order kinetics in both static and agitation conditions of dissolution testing. The in vivo studies conducted in rabbits exhibited LNG release up to 1 month duration with drug levels maintained within the effective therapeutic window.
contraceptive; gamma radiation; in vivo; levonorgestrel; poly(lactide-co-glycolide)
The aim of this work was to understand the influence of different formulation variables on the optimization of pH-dependent, colon-targeted, sustained-release mesalamine microspheres prepared by O/O emulsion solvent evaporation method, employing pH-dependent Eudragit S and hydrophobic pH-independent ethylcellulose polymers. Formulation variables studied included concentration of Eudragit S in the internal phase and the ratios between; internal to external phase, drug to Eudragit S and Eudragit S to ethylcellulose to mesalamine. Prepared microspheres were evaluated by carrying out in vitro release studies and determination of particle size, production yield, and encapsulation efficiency. In addition, morphology of microspheres was examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Emulsion solvent evaporation method was found to be sensitive to the studied formulation variables. Particle size and encapsulation efficiency increased by increasing Eudragit S concentration in the internal phase, ratio of internal to external phase, and ratio of Eudragit S to the drug. Employing Eudragit S alone in preparation of the microspheres is only successful in forming acid-resistant microspheres with pulsatile release pattern at high pH. Eudragit S and ethylcellulose blend microspheres were able to control release under acidic condition and to extend drug release at high pH. The stability studies carried out at 40°C/75% RH for 6 months proved the stability of the optimized formulation. From the results of this investigation, microencapsulation of mesalamine in microspheres using blend of Eudragit S and ethylcellulose could constitute a promising approach for site-specific and controlled delivery of drug in colon.
colon; ethylcellulose; eudragit; mesalamine; sustained release
The purpose of this research was to assess the physicochemical properties of a controlled release formulation of recombinant human growth hormone (rHGH) encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) composite microspheres. rHGH was loaded in poly(acryloyl hydroxyethyl) starch (acHES) microparticles, and then the protein-containing microparticles were encapsulated in the PLGA matrix by a solvent extraction/evaporation method. rHGH-loaded PLGA microspheres were also prepared using mannitol without the starch hydrogel microparticle microspheres for comparison. The detection of secondary structure changes in protein was investigated by using a Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR) technique. The composite microspheres were spherical in shape (44.6±2.47 μm), and the PLGA-mannitol microspheres were 39.7±2.50 μm. Drug-loading efficiency varied from 93.2% to 104%. The composite microspheres showed higher overall drug release than the PLGA/mannitol microspheres. FTIR analyses indicated good stability and structural integrity of HGH localized in the microspheres. The PLGA-acHES composite microsphere system could be useful for the controlled delivery of protein drugs.
Microspheres; human growth hormone; protein delivery; composite microspheres
An increasing number of drugs are needing improved formulations to optimize patient compliance because of their short half-lives in blood. Sustained-release formulations of drugs are often required for long-term efficacy, and microspheres are among the most popular ones. When drugs are encapsulated into microsphere formulations, different methods of preparation need to be used according to specific clinical requirements and the differing physicochemical characteristics of individual drugs. In this work, we developed a novel method for sustained-release drug delivery using a water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (w/o/oh/w) emulsion to encapsulate a drug into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres. Different effects were achieved by varying the proportions and concentrations of hydrophilic oil and PLGA. Scanning electron and optical microscopic images showed the surfaces of the microspheres to be smooth and that their morphology was spherical. Microspheres prepared using the w/o/oh/w emulsion were able to load protein efficiently and had sustained-release properties. These results indicate that the above-mentioned method might be useful for developing sustained-release microsphere formulations in the future.
protein; microspheres; water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water emulsion; sustained-release
An objective of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate Eudragit-coated pectin microspheres for colon targeting of 5-fluorouracil (FU). Pectin microspheres were prepared by emulsion dehydration method using different ratios of FU and pectin (1:3 to 1:6), stirring speeds (500–2000 rpm) and emulsifier concentrations (0.75%–1.5% wt/vol). The yield of preparation and the encapsulation efficiencies were high for all pectin microspheres. Microspheres prepared by using drug:polymer ratio 1:4, stirring speed 1000 rpm, and 1.25% wt/vol concentration of emulsifying agent were selected as an optimized formulation. Eudragit-coating of pectin microspheres was performed by oil-in-oil solvent evaporation method using coat: core ratio (5:1). Pectin microspheres and Eudragit-coated pectin microspheres were evaluated for surface morphology, particle size and size distribution, swellability, percentage drug entrapment, and in vitro drug release in simulated gastrointestinal fluids (SGF). The in vitro drug release study of optimized formulation was also performed in simulated colonic fluid in the presence of 2% rat cecal content. Organ distribution study in albino rats was performed to establish the targeting potential of optimized formulation in the colon. The release profile of FU from Eudragit-coated pectin microspheres was pH dependent. In acidic medium, the release rate was much slower; however, the drug was released quickly at pH 7.4. It is concluded from the present investigation that Eudragit-coated pectin microspheres are promising controlled release carriers for colon-targeted delivery of FU.
5-Fluorouracil; pectin; microspheres; Eudragit coating; colon targeting
Present study aims to prepare and evaluate niacin microspheres. Niacin-ethyl cellulose microspheres were prepared by water-in-oil-in-oil double emulsion solvent diffusion method. Spherical, free flowing microspheres having an entrapment efficiency of 72% were obtained. The effect of polymer-drug ratio, surfactant concentration for secondary emulsion process and stirring speed of emulsification process were evaluated with respect to entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release behavior and particle size. FT-IR and DSC analyses confirmed the absence of drug-polymer interaction. The in vitro release profile could be altered significantly by changing various processing and formulation parameters to give a controlled release of drug from the microspheres. The percentage yield was 85%, particle size range was 405 to 560 μm. The drug release was controlled for 10 h. The in vitro release profiles from optimized formulations were applied on various kinetic models. The best fit with the highest correlation coefficient was observed in Higuchi model, indicating diffusion controlled principle. The in vitro release profiles of optimized formulation was studied and compared with commercially available niacin extended release formulation.
Encapsulation; ethyl cellulose; in vitro; microspheres; niacin; w/o/o double emulsion
A biodegradable polymeric system is proposed for formulating peptides and proteins. The systems were assembled through the adsorption of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles onto porous, biodegradable microspheres by an adsorption/infiltration process with the use of an immersion method. The peptide drug is not involved in the manufacturing of the nanoparticles or in obtaining the microspheres; thus, contact with the organic solvent, interfaces, and shear forces required for the process are prevented during drug loading. Leuprolide acetate was used as the model peptide, and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was used as the biodegradable polymer. Leuprolide was adsorbed onto different amounts of PLGA nanoparticles (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 75 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL) in a first stage; then, these were infiltrated into porous PLGA microspheres (100 mg) by dipping the structures into a microsphere suspension. In this way, the leuprolide was adsorbed onto both surfaces (ie, nanoparticles and microspheres). Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of a nanoparticle film on the porous microsphere surface that becomes more continuous as the amount of infiltrated nanoparticles increases. The adsorption efficiency and release rate are dependent on the amount of adsorbed nanoparticles. As expected, a greater adsorption efficiency (~95%) and a slower release rate were seen (~20% of released leuprolide in 12 hours) when a larger amount of nanoparticles was adsorbed (100 mg/mL of nanoparticles). Leuprolide acetate begins to be released immediately when there are no infiltrated nanoparticles, and 90% of the peptide is released in the first 12 hours. In contrast, the systems assembled in this study released less than 44% of the loaded drug during the same period of time. The observed release profiles denoted a Fickian diffusion that fit Higuchi’s model (t1/2). The manufacturing process presented here may be useful as a potential alternative for formulating injectable depots for sensitive hydrophilic drugs such as peptides and proteins, among others.
adsorption; biodegradable polymers; controlled release; nanoparticles; porous microspheres; peptide delivery
In order to address preserved protein bioactivities and protein sustained-release problems, a method for preparing double-walled microspheres with a core (protein-loaded nanoparticles with a polymer-suspended granule system-formed core) and a second shell (a polymer-formed shell) for controlled drug release and preserved protein bioactivities has been developed using (solid-in-oil phase-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (S/O/Oh/W)) phases. The method, based on our previous microsphere preparation method (solid-in-oil phase-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (S/O/Oh/W), employs different concentric poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), poly(D,L-lactide), and protein-loaded nanoparticles to produce a suspended liquid which then self-assembles to form shell-core microspheres in the hydrophilic oil phase, which are then solidified in the water phase. Variations in the preparation parameters allowed complete encapsulation by the shell phase, including the efficient formation of a poly(D,L-lactide) shell encapsulating a protein-loaded nanoparticle-based poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) core. This method produces core-shell double-walled microspheres that show controlled protein release and preserved protein bioactivities for 60 days. Based upon these results, we concluded that the core-shell double-walled microspheres might be applied for tissue engineering and therapy for chronic diseases, etc.
protein delivery; protein stability; core-shell microspheres; dextran nanoparticles