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1.  Salt and blood pressure in Belgium. 
Blood pressure, pulse rate, body weight, and height were measured on two occasions in the inhabitants of a random 10% sample of households in a Belgian village. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of creatinine, sodium, and potassium was also determined. In subjects over the age of 19 there was a significant correlation for both systolic and diastolic pressure with age and body weight and, in women, also with pulse rate. After adjusting for these three variables, the systolic blood pressure in men was negatively correlated with the daily urinary potassium excretion, and the diastolic blood pressure in women negatively with the urinary sodium: creatinine ratio. The present data, obtained within one society, do not support a role for dietary sodium in the distribution of blood pressure within this population. Comparison of the present results with data from other countries does not refute the salt-genetic hypothesis but suggests also that a high potassium intake may lower blood pressure.
PMCID: PMC1052173  PMID: 7338700
2.  Control of blood pressure in Scotland: the rule of halves. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1990;300(6730):981-983.
OBJECTIVE--Audit of detection, treatment, and control of hypertension in adults in Scotland. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with random population sampling. SETTING--General practice centres in 22 Scottish districts. SUBJECTS--5123 Men and 5236 women aged 40-59 in the Scottish heart health study, randomly selected from 22 districts throughout Scotland, of whom 1262 men and 1061 women had hypertension (defined as receiving antihypertensive treatment or with blood pressure above defined cut off points). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Hypertension (assessed by standardised recording, questionnaire on diagnosis, and antihypertensive drug treatment) according to criteria of the World Health Organisation (receiving antihypertensive treatment or blood pressure greater than or equal to 160/95 mm Hg, or both) and to modified criteria of the British Hypertension Society. RESULTS--In half the men with blood pressure greater than or equal to 160/95 mm Hg hypertension was undetected (670/1262, 53%), in half of those in whom it had been detected it was untreated (250/592, 42%), and in half of those receiving treatment it was not controlled (172/342, 50%). In women the numbers were: 486/1061, 46%; 188/575, 33%; and 155/387, 40% respectively. Assessment of blood pressure according to the British Hypertension Society's recommendations showed an improvement, but in only a quarter of men and 42% of women was hypertension detected and treated satisfactorily (142/561, 215/514 respectively). IMPLICATIONS--The detection and control of hypertension in Scotland is unsatisfactory, affecting management of this and other conditions, such as high blood cholesterol concentration, whose measurement is opportunistic and selective and depends on recognition of other risk factors.
PMCID: PMC1662684  PMID: 2344507
3.  Sodium and potassium intake and blood pressure. 
British Medical Journal  1980;281(6239):537-539.
Sodium and potassium intakes were increased in normotensive volunteers to assess the effects on their blood pressures. An approximately threefold increase in sodium intake for eight days had no effect on the blood pressures of seven volunteers, while a two-stage increase in potassium intake, by about 40% for eight days and a further 55% for 14 days, had no effect on the blood pressures of 21 volunteers. Renal electrolyte excretions and the blood pressures of all 28 subjects showed no statistically significant correlations between either sodium or potassium excretion and blood pressure. A weak negative correlation was found between the sodium: potassium ratio and systolic pressure. The small reductions in sodium intake and increases in potassium intake that might be achieved through propaganda and changes in food processing are unlikely to lower mean blood pressure in Western societies.
PMCID: PMC1713428  PMID: 7427359
4.  Geographical clustering of risk factors and lifestyle for coronary heart disease in the Scottish Heart Health Study. 
British Heart Journal  1990;64(3):199-203.
A large cross sectional study, the Scottish Heart Health Study, of 10,359 men and women from 22 districts of Scotland was undertaken to try to explain the geographical variation of coronary heart disease mortality. Analysis by district showed that of the classic risk factors only cigarette smoking was strongly associated with heart disease mortality among both men and women. Mean diastolic blood pressure was weakly associated with rates among men and high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed a strong negative association among women. Total cholesterol showed a weak negative association with heart disease mortality, but, because the serum concentrations of cholesterol were uniformly high in all districts, a strong association with mortality would not be expected. In both men and women many dietary factors showed moderate or strong associations with mortality from coronary heart disease in a district--of these a low consumption of vitamin C was most notable. Other factors associated with heart disease included alcohol consumption and serum triglycerides among men, and obesity, physical activity, and serum triglycerides among women. Many factors associated with heart disease showed strong intercorrelations. Clustering of risk factors (including smoking, alcohol, and diet among men, and smoking, diet, and obesity among women) was associated with much of the regional variation in heart disease mortality in Scotland.
PMCID: PMC1024372  PMID: 2206712
5.  Haemodynamic response in soccer spectators: is Scottish football exciting? 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1991;303(6817):1609-1610.
OBJECTIVE--To determine the effect of watching a game of Scottish football on heart rate and blood pressure. DESIGN--Prospective study. SETTING--Two Scottish Premier League football grounds. SUBJECTS--10 healthy men, each a supporter of one of two clubs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate at home, while walking, and during the match. RESULTS--Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly higher when the men were watching the match than when they were at home. While they were watching the match, heart rate was maximal immediately after a goal had been scored by the supported team. CONCLUSION--The emotional stress invoked by Scottish football is associated with significant increases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure.
PMCID: PMC1676237  PMID: 1773191
6.  Alcohol and blood pressure: the INTERSALT study. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;308(6939):1263-1267.
OBJECTIVES--To assess the relation between alcohol intake and blood pressure in men and women and in men at younger and older ages; to examine the influence of amount and pattern of alcohol consumption, as well as of acute effects, taking into account body mass index, smoking, and urinary sodium and potassium excretion. DESIGN--Subjects reported alcohol consumption for each of seven days before standardised blood pressure measurement, and whether they had consumed any alcohol in the 24 hours before measurement. SETTING--50 centres worldwide. SUBJECTS--4844 men and 4837 women aged 20-59. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Effect of alcohol on blood pressure estimated by taking a weighted average of regression coefficients from centres. Acute effect assessed by examining mean differences in blood pressure of non-drinkers and of heavy drinkers who had and had not consumed alcohol in the 24 hours before measurement. Effect of pattern of consumption assessed by examining mean differences in blood pressure of non-drinkers compared with drinkers (i) whose intake was concentrated in fewer days or who were drinking more frequently, and (ii) whose alcohol intake varied little over the seven days or varied more substantially, as indicated by the standard deviation of daily consumption. RESULTS--Of the 48 centres in which some people reported consuming at least 300 ml/week of alcohol, 35 had positive regression coefficients linking heavy alcohol consumption to blood pressure. Overall, alcohol consumption was associated with blood pressure, significantly at the highest intake. After account was taken of key confounders, men who drank 300-499 ml alcohol/week had systolic/diastolic blood pressure on average 2.7/1.6 mmHg higher than non-drinkers, and men who drank > or = 500 ml alcohol/week had pressures of 4.6/3.0 mmHg higher. For women, heavy drinkers (> or = 300 ml/week) had blood pressures higher by 3.9/3.1 mmHg than non-drinkers. Heavy drinking and blood pressure were strongly associated in both sexes, and in men at both younger (20-39 years) and older (40-59 years) ages. In men who were heavy drinkers, episodic drinkers (those with great variation in daily alcohol consumption) had greater differences in blood pressure compared with non-drinkers than did regular drinkers of relatively constant amounts. CONCLUSION--The significant relation of heavy drinking (3-4 or more drinks/day) to blood pressure, observed in both men and women, and in younger and older men, was independent of and added to the effect on blood pressure of body mass index and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium. The findings indicate the usefulness of targeting those at high risk as well as the general population to reduce the adverse effects of alcohol on blood pressure.
PMCID: PMC2540174  PMID: 7802765
7.  The relationship between blood lead, blood pressure, stroke, and heart attacks in middle-aged British men. 
The relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure is examined in a survey of 7371 men aged 40 to 59 from 24 British towns. After allowance for relevant confounding variables, including town of residence and alcohol consumption, there exists a very weak but statistically significant positive association between blood lead and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These cross-sectional data indicate that an estimated mean increase of 1.45 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure occurs for every doubling of blood lead concentration with a 95% confidence interval of 0.47 to 2.43 mm Hg. After 6 years of follow-up, 316 of these men had major ischemic heart disease, and 66 had a stroke. After allowance for the confounding effects of cigarette smoking and town of residence there is no evidence that blood lead is a risk factor for these cardiovascular events. However, as the blood lead-blood pressure association is so weak, it is unlikely that any consequent association between lead and cardiovascular disease could be demonstrated from prospective epidemiological studies. An overview of data from this and other large epidemiological surveys provides reasonably consistent evidence on lead and blood pressure. While NHANES II data on 2254 U.S. men indicate a slightly stronger association between blood lead and systolic blood pressure, data from two Welsh studies on over 2000 men did not show a statistically significant association. However, the overlapping confidence limits for all these studies suggest that there may be a weak positive statistical association whereby systolic blood pressure is increased by about 1 mm Hg for every doubling of blood lead concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1474625  PMID: 3203640
8.  Prevalence of coronary heart disease in Scotland: Scottish Heart Health Study. 
British Heart Journal  1990;64(5):295-298.
Data from 10,359 men and women aged 40-59 years from 22 districts in the Scottish Heart Health Study were used to describe the prevalence rates of coronary heart disease in Scotland in 1984-1986 and their relation to the geographical variation in mortality in these districts. Prevalence was measured by previous history, Rose chest pain questionnaire, and the Minnesota code of a 12 lead resting electrocardiogram. The prevalence of coronary heart disease in Scotland was high compared with studies from other countries that used the same standardised methods. A history of angina was more common in men (5.5%) than in women (3.9%), though in response to the Rose questionnaire 8.5% of women and 6.3% of men reported chest pain. A history of myocardial infarction was three times more common in men than women, as was a Q/QS pattern on the electrocardiogram. There were significant correlations between the different measures of coronary prevalence. District measures of angina correlated well with mortality from coronary heart disease, and these correlations tended to be stronger in women than in men. There was no significant correlation between mortality from coronary heart disease and measures of myocardial infarction. The study provides data on the prevalence of coronary heart disease in men and women that are valuable for the planning of cardiological services.
PMCID: PMC1216805  PMID: 2245107
9.  Low Pulse Pressure as a Predictor of Death in Patients with Mild to Advanced Heart Failure 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2010;37(3):284-290.
The prognostic value of pulse pressure has been investigated in heart-failure patients. Low pulse pressure in advanced heart failure and high pulse pressure in mild heart failure have been separately linked to increased mortality rates. We prospectively investigated an association between pulse pressure and 2-year cardiovascular death in an entire heart-failure population.
We prospectively enrolled 225 heart-failure patients (New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class, I–IV; mean age, 56.5 ± 12.3 yr; 188 men). The patients' blood pressures were measured in accordance with recommended guidelines. Pulse pressures were calculated as the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure values. The patients were monitored for a mean period of 670 ± 42 days for the occurrence of cardiovascular death.
All patients were divided into quartiles according to their pulse pressures (<35, 35–45, 46–55, and >55 mmHg). Pulse pressure decreased as NYHA class worsened (P <0.001). Patients in the <35-mmHg quartile had the lowest plasma sodium concentrations, left ventricular ejection fractions, and systolic myocardial velocities upon echocardiography; and the highest left ventricular dimensions, early diastolic/late diastolic filling velocity ratios, and peak early/peak late diastolic myocardial velocity ratios. Pulse pressure independently predicted death in the patients with advanced heart failure and in the entire population. Upon receiver operating characteristic analysis, a 30-mmHg cutoff value for pulse pressure predicted death with 83.7% sensitivity and 79.7% specificity.
Pulse pressure is easily calculated and enables the prediction of cardiovascular death in patients with mild to advanced heart failure. Pulse pressure can be used reliably as a prognostic marker in clinical practice.
PMCID: PMC2879196  PMID: 20548803
Blood pressure/physiology; cardiovascular diseases/mortality/physiopathology; epidemiologic methods; heart failure/epidemiology/etiology/physiopathology; multivariate analysis; predictive value of tests; prospective studies; pulse/physiology; reference values; risk factors
10.  Effect of beer consumption on plasma magnesium: randomized comparison with mineral water. 
Moderate consumption of ethanol lowers mortality from coronary artery disease, and one of the possible mechanisms is an antiarrhythmic action. We therefore investigated the effect of a small daily dose of beer on plasma electrolytes. 52 men who seldom drank alcohol, clinically stable more than one year after coronary bypass surgery, were randomized to drink either 330 mL beer (containing about 20 g ethanol) or mineral water with similar potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium content daily for 30 days. Plasma electrolytes and liver function indices, and also heart rate, blood pressure and weight, were measured before and after the trial period. The only significant before-and-after difference was in the group consuming beer, whose plasma magnesium rose from 0.89 (SD 0.01) to 0.98 (SD 0.02) mmol/L (P < 0.0025). This level of beer consumption did no obvious harm to liver function and its possibly beneficial effect on plasma magnesium deserves further investigation.
PMCID: PMC1296981  PMID: 10730110
11.  Blood pressure reduction due to hemoglobin glycosylation in type 2 diabetic patients 
To test the hypothesis that glycosylation of hemoglobin constitutes a risk factor for hypertension.
A total of 129 relative uniform diabetic subjects (86 women and 42 men) were enrolled in a cross sectional study. Exclusion criteria included alcohol consumption, smoking, ischemic heart disease, stroke, neoplasia, renal, hepatic, and chronic inflammatory disease. Systolic and diastolic pressures were recorded in subsequent days and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was determined. Hemoglobin glycosylation was measured by determining the percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by means of the automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay test.
MAP was found to be independent of the concentration of HbA1c; however, correcting MAP for the variability in hematocrit, to evidence the level of vasoconstriction (or vasodilatation) showed that MAP is negatively correlated with the concentration of HbA1c (p for trend <0.05), when patients treated for hypertension are excluded from the analysis. Patients treated for hypertension showed the opposite trend with increasing MAP as HbA1c increased (p for the difference in trends <0.05).
Glycosylation per se appears to lead to blood pressure reduction in type 2 diabetic patients untreated for hypertension. Treatment for hypertension may be associated with a level of endothelial dysfunction that interferes with the antihypertensive effect of HbA1c.
PMCID: PMC2597772  PMID: 19066010
diabetes; hemoglobin glycosylation; hypertension; hematocrit; nitric oxide
12.  Blood pressure centiles for Great Britain 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2006;92(4):298-303.
To produce representative cross‐sectional blood pressure reference centiles for children and young people living in Great Britain.
Analysis of blood pressure data from seven nationally representative surveys: Health Surveys for England 1995–8, Scottish Health Surveys 1995 and 1998, and National Diet & Nutrition Survey 1997.
Blood pressure was measured using the Dinamap 8100 with the same protocol throughout. Weight and height were also measured. Data for 11 364 males and 11 537 females aged 4–23 years were included in the analysis, after excluding 0.3% missing or outlying data. Centiles were derived for systolic, diastolic, mean arterial and pulse pressure using the latent moderated structural (LMS) equations method.
Blood pressure in the two sexes was similar in childhood, rising progressively with age and more rapidly during puberty. Systolic pressure rose faster and was appreciably higher in adult men than in adult women. After adjustment for age, blood pressure was related more to weight than height, the effect being stronger for systolic blood pressure. Pulse pressure peaked at 18 years in males and 16 years in females.
These centiles increase our knowledge of blood pressure norms in contemporary British children and young people. High blood pressure for age should be defined as blood pressure above the 98th centile, and high‐normal blood pressure for age as blood pressure between the 91st and 98th centiles. The centiles identify children and young people with increased blood pressure, and will be of benefit to both clinical practice and research.
PMCID: PMC2083671  PMID: 16905566
13.  Blood pressure centiles for Great Britain 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2006;92(4):298-303.
To produce representative cross-sectional blood pressure reference centiles for children and young people living in Great Britain.
Analysis of blood pressure data from seven nationally representative surveys: Health Surveys for England 1995–8, Scottish Health Surveys 1995 and 1998, and National Diet & Nutrition Survey 1997.
Blood pressure was measured using the Dinamap 8100 with the same protocol throughout. Weight and height were also measured. Data for 11 364 males and 11 537 females aged 4–23 years were included in the analysis, after excluding 0.3% missing or outlying data. Centiles were derived for systolic, diastolic, mean arterial and pulse pressure using the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) equations method.
Blood pressure in the two sexes was similar in childhood, rising progressively with age and more rapidly during puberty. Systolic pressure rose faster and was appreciably higher in adult men than in adult women. After adjustment for age, blood pressure was related more to weight than height, the effect being stronger for systolic blood pressure. Pulse pressure peaked at 18 years in males and 16 years in females.
These centiles increase our knowledge of blood pressure norms in contemporary British children and young people. High blood pressure for age should be defined as blood pressure above the 98th centile, and high-normal blood pressure for age as blood pressure between the 91st and 98th centiles. The centiles identify children and young people with increased blood pressure, and will be of benefit to both clinical practice and research.
PMCID: PMC2083671  PMID: 16905566
14.  Increased blood pressure in schoolchildren related to high sodium levels in drinking water. 
The relationship between sodium in drinking water and blood pressure was examined in 348 schoolchildren aged 7.7 to 11.7 years. They were born and living in three areas with different levels of sodium in the public drinking water. Sodium content of the water was either long-term low, long-term high, or short-term high. The three communities are closely comparable according to demographic characteristics. The mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the high sodium areas. After adjustment for dissimilarities in distributions of weight, height, pulse rate, age, family history of hypertension, and time of blood pressure measurement, these differences remained constant, ranging from 1.8 to 4.0 mm Hg. Girls and boys showed essentially the same differences. Mean 24-hour sodium excretion was somewhat higher in the long-term low area; no differences were found in sodium-creatinine ratio. The regression coefficients between sodium excretion and blood pressure were not significant. The findings from this retrospective follow-up study support the hypothesis that sodium intake influences blood pressure. The association seems to be of a relatively short-term nature, as no differences in blood pressure levels were found between the long-term and short-term high areas.
PMCID: PMC1052072  PMID: 7441137
15.  The Relationship between Menopausal Symptoms and Heart Rate Variability in Middle Aged Women 
Korean Journal of Family Medicine  2011;32(5):299-305.
The study of the correlation of menopausal symptoms with heart rate variability (HRV) has not been adequate. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between postmenopausal symptoms measured by the menopause rating scale (MRS) and HRV.
We assessed postmenopausal symptoms (using MRS) with age, BMI, educational status, occupation, marital status, alcohol and caffeine consumption, smoking history, exercise, duration of sleep and amenorrhea, degree of anxiety and depression, menarcheal age, and heart rate variability. For evaluation of HRV, the record of electrocardiogram for 5 minutes in the resting state was divided into temporal categories and frequency categories, and analyzed.
No significant differences in age, BMI, duration of amenorrhea, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein were observed between two groups, which were divided according to menopausal symptoms. Low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio was significantly higher in symptomatic women, compared with asymptomatic women (P < 0.05). No significant differences of HRV index by the severity of postmenopausal symptoms were observed. LF/HF ratio of HRV parameters showed a significant increase in moderate or severe degree of "hot flashes" and "sleep problem" score (P < 0.05). Anxiety scale in symptomatic women was significantly higher than in asymptomatic women (P < 0.05).
The above data suggest that postmenopausal symptoms are associated with altered autonomic control of heart rate. In particular, hot flashes and sleep problems in moderate or severe degree are related to increase of sympathetic nerve activity.
PMCID: PMC3383141  PMID: 22745867
Postmenopausal Symptoms; Menopause Rating Scale; Heart Rate Variability
16.  Renal toxicity and arterial hypertension in rats chronically exposed to vanadate. 
The effects of 1, 10, or 40 micrograms/ml of vanadium, given for six or seven months as sodium metavanadate in drinking water on cardiovascular and biochemical variables and the electrolyte metabolism of male Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated. At the end of the exposure period, all animals exposed to vanadate had increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. This effect was not dose dependent and heart rate and cardiac inotropism were not affected. The role of defective renal function and electrolyte metabolism in such effects was supported, in the rats exposed to 10 and 40 ppm of vanadium, by the following changes: (a) decreased Na, + K(+)-ATPase activity in the distal tubules of nephrons; (b) increased urinary excretion of potassium; (c) increase in plasma renin activity and urinary kallikrein, kininase I, and kininase II activities; (d) increased plasma aldosterone (only in the rats treated with 10 ppm of vanadium). The alterations in the rats exposed to 1 ppm of vanadium were: (a) reduced urinary calcium excretion; (b) reduced urinary kallikrein activity; (c) reduced plasma aldosterone. These results suggest that blood hypertension in rats exposed to vanadate depends on specific mechanisms of renal toxicity related to the levels of exposure.
PMCID: PMC1128021  PMID: 8044251
17.  Relation between systemic hypertension and sleep hypoxaemia or snoring: analysis in 748 men drawn from general practice. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1990;300(6717):75-78.
OBJECTIVE--To establish whether a history of snoring or the degree of overnight hypoxaemia is an important independent predictor of systemic blood pressure. DESIGN--Prospective community based study of blood pressure in relation to overnight oxygen saturation, height, weight, and a questionnaire assessment of snoring, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Analysis was by multiple linear regression techniques and analysis of variance. SETTING--Small town outside Oxford, served by one group general practice of four partners. All measurements were made at home. SUBJECTS--The names of 836 men aged 35-65 were drawn at random from the general practitioners' age and sex register and the men then asked to participate; 752 (90%) agreed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Systolic, mean, and diastolic blood pressures and their association with age, obesity, alcohol consumption, cigarette consumption, snoring, and overnight hypoxaemia. RESULTS--Though systemic blood pressure correlated significantly with overnight hypoxaemia, this was due to the cross correlation with age, obesity, and alcohol consumption. No independent predictive effect of overnight hypoxaemia was found. Snoring was correlated with systemic blood pressure but not significantly so and also was not an independent predictor once age, obesity, and alcohol consumption had been allowed for. CONCLUSIONS--It is unlikely that snoring and sleep hypoxaemia from occult sleep apnoea are important causes of diurnal systemic hypertension when compared with age, obesity, and alcohol consumption. The increased prevalence of cardiovascular complications reported in snorers may be due to the confounding variable of obesity or to nocturnal rises in blood pressure that are not reflected in the daytime figures.
PMCID: PMC1661980  PMID: 2105777
18.  Type A behaviour and prevalent heart disease in the Caerphilly study: increase in risk or symptom reporting? 
Type A behaviour was assessed by modified Framingham scale in a total sample of 1956 employed men in the Caerphilly study. Prevalent heart disease was measured by cardiovascular questionnaire to obtain evidence of myocardial infarction and angina, and by electrocardiogram (ECG) for evidence of ischaemia. Type A was inversely related to age and systolic blood pressure and was positively related to social class and height. It was not related to serum cholesterol or alcohol consumption. After control for age, systolic blood pressure, height, smoking and social class, type A was found to be independent of angina but positively associated with an increased risk of possible myocardial infarction (MI). Type A was also associated with increased risk of confirmed MI. An inverse association was found between type A and asymptomatic ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The association between type A and symptomatic IHD could be due to symptom reporting.
PMCID: PMC1052730  PMID: 3251003
19.  Anthropometric Indices Associated with Variation in Cardiovascular Parameters among Primary School Pupils in Ile-Ife 
Purpose. This study investigated the anthropometric indices associated with variations in cardiovascular parameters among primary school pupils in Ile-Ife. Method. One thousand and twenty-six pupils (age range 6–14 years, mean age 10.12 years) from ten schools were recruited with parents' informed consent. Anthropometric (Height (Ht), Weight (Wt), Abdominal Circumference (AC)) and cardiovascular (Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Heart Rate (HR)) parameters were measured using standard instruments and procedures. Blood pressure (BP) was measured after ten minutes of quiet sitting. Body Mass Index (BMI), Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Pulse Pressure (PP) were estimated. Results. Age, Ht, Wt, BMI, and AC correlated significantly (P < .01) with BP and PP. AC and BMI were predictors of BP, HR, RPP, and PP. Conclusion. Significant correlations exist between age, Ht, Wt, BMI, AC, and BP with weight being a more viable predictor of SBP and age a more viable predictor of DBP.
PMCID: PMC3124286  PMID: 21747972
20.  Body concentration of caesium-137 in patients from Western Isles of Scotland. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1991;302(6792):1568-1571.
OBJECTIVES--To compare caesium-137 concentrations in patients from the Western Isles Health Board, Glasgow area, and other parts of the Scottish mainland, and to investigate the source of 137Cs in patients from the Western Isles. DESIGN--Study of hypertensive patients having electrolyte concentrations measured, including 137Cs. Interview by questionnaire of island subjects about intake of foods likely to contain radiocaesium and the source of these foods. Measurement of 137Cs and 134Cs in food, urine, and vegetation. SETTING--Scottish mainland and Western Isles, 1979-86. All measurements before Chernobyl nuclear accident. PATIENTS--413 consecutive patients referred to the blood pressure unit for investigation of hypertension. 60 from the Western Isles, including 44 from North Uist; 32 from North Uist participated in the dietary analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Concentration of radiocaesium in the body, urine, food, and vegetation. Islanders' consumption of local produce. RESULTS--Patients from the Western Isles had five times higher body concentrations of 137Cs (median 2.54 (interquartile range 1.25-3.73)) Bq/gK) than did patients from around Glasgow (0.47 (0.26-0.66) Bq/gK) and other parts of the Scottish mainland (0.42 (0.24-0.71) Bq/gK). Islanders often consumed local milk and mutton, but ate local fish rarely. 137Cs and 134Cs were present in coastal (21.6 Bq/kg 137Cs, 0.25 Bq/kg 134Cs) and moorland (135.9, 0.65 Bq/kg) grasses and in islanders' urine (2.01, 0.013 Bq/l). Lower concentrations (0.336, 0.004 Bq/l), were found in the urine of Glasgow controls (p less than 0.001 for both isotopes). CONCLUSIONS--Islanders have excess body 137Cs concentrations, most of which probably comes from local milk and lamb. The radioactivity is not above the recommended safety limit. The presence of 134Cs suggests that nuclear reprocessing is the source of some of the radiocaesium.
PMCID: PMC1670349  PMID: 1906765
21.  Renal function in diabetes mellitus. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1985;60(4):299-304.
Glomerular filtration rate, day and night-time albumin excretion, and blood pressure were estimated in 83 children with diabetes mellitus and compared with measures of glycaemic control, age, and duration of disease. Careful attention was paid to definition of normal values in age matched controls. The glomerular filtration rate was greater than normal, and correlated with duration of disease, but not with albumin excretion or blood pressure. Daytime albumin excretion correlated with duration of disease and glycosylated haemoglobin, but not with age, glomerular filtration rate, or blood pressure. Night-time albumin excretion was significantly raised and correlated with duration of disease, glycosylated haemoglobin, mean blood sugar concentration, and M value but not with age, glomerular filtration rate, or blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly raised but was not correlated with any other measured variable. We have confirmed abnormalities of renal function in a children's diabetic clinic. The measurement of overnight albumin excretion rates may provide a sensitive early indicator of renal damage.
PMCID: PMC1777238  PMID: 3873913
22.  Coronary heart disease: prevalence and dietary sugars in Scotland. 
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary intakes of different types of sugars (extrinsic, intrinsic, and lactose) and the dietary fat to sugar ratio on prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD). DESIGN--This was a baseline cross sectional survey of CHD risk factors. SETTING--Twenty two Scottish health districts were surveyed between 1984 and 1986. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 10,359 men and women aged 40-59 years were screened as part of the Scottish Heart Health Study, and a further 1267 men and women aged 25-39 and 60-64 years were screened as part of the Scottish MONICA (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) Study. The response rates were 74% and 64% respectively. METHODS--Subjects completed a questionnaire which included sociodemographic, health, and food frequency information. Medical history, response to the Rose chest pain questionnaire, and results of a 12 lead ECG recording were used to categorize subjects into CHD diagnosed, previously CHD undiagnosed, or no CHD groups. The chi 2 statistic was used to determine whether the CHD groups differed in their sugar consumption, and multiple logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for other potential coronary risk factors, was used to calculate odds ratios for prevalent CHD by intake fifths of dietary sugars. MAIN RESULTS--Men, but not women, differed in their sugar consumption by CHD group. The odds ratios showed a tendency for a U shaped relationship for extrinsic sugar intake with CHD prevalence, but no significant effect of the fat to sugar ratio (possible marker of obesity) on CHD was seen. CONCLUSIONS--The results suggest that neither extrinsic sugar, intrinsic sugar, nor the fat to sugar ratio are significant independent predictors of prevalent CHD in the Scottish population, when the other major risk factors such as cigarette smoking, blood cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant vitamins intake are accounted for. These new data for different sugar types agree with the consensus view that total sugar intake is not a major marker of coronary heart disease.
PMCID: PMC1059918  PMID: 8189163
23.  Gene-alcohol interactions identify several novel blood pressure loci including a promising locus near SLC16A9 
Frontiers in Genetics  2013;4:277.
Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for hypertension, with recent candidate studies implicating gene-alcohol interactions in blood pressure (BP) regulation. We used 6882 (predominantly) Caucasian participants aged 20–80 years from the Framingham SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) to perform a genome-wide analysis of SNP-alcohol interactions on BP traits. We used a two-step approach in the ABEL suite to examine genetic interactions with three alcohol measures (ounces of alcohol consumed per week, drinks consumed per week, and the number of days drinking alcohol per week) on four BP traits [systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial (MAP), and pulse (PP) pressure]. In the first step, we fit a linear mixed model of each BP trait onto age, sex, BMI, and antihypertensive medication while accounting for the phenotypic correlation among relatives. In the second step, we conducted 1 degree-of-freedom (df) score tests of the SNP main effect, alcohol main effect, and SNP-alcohol interaction using the maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) of the parameters from the first step. We then calculated the joint 2 df score test of the SNP main effect and SNP-alcohol interaction using MixABEL. The effect of SNP rs10826334 (near SLC16A9) on SBP was significantly modulated by both the number of alcoholic drinks and the ounces of alcohol consumed per week (p-values of 1.27E-08 and 3.92E-08, respectively). Each copy of the G-allele decreased SBP by 3.79 mmHg in those consuming 14 drinks per week vs. a 0.461 mmHg decrease in non-drinkers. Index SNPs in 20 other loci exhibited suggestive (p-value ≤ 1E-06) associations with BP traits by the 1 df interaction test or joint 2 df test, including 3 rare variants, one low-frequency variant, and SNPs near/in genes ESRRG, FAM179A, CRIPT-SOCS5, KAT2B, ADCY2, GLI3, ZNF716, SLIT1, PDE3A, KERA-LUM, RNF219-AS1, CLEC3A, FBXO15, and IGSF5. SNP-alcohol interactions may enhance discovery of novel variants with large effects that can be targeted with lifestyle modifications.
PMCID: PMC3860258  PMID: 24376456
blood pressure; hypertension; alcohol; genome-wide; gene-alcohol interactions; gene-lifestyle interactions; interaction; GWAS
24.  Relation between blood pressure, weight, and plasma sugar and serum insulin levels in schoolchildren aged 9-12 years in Westland, Holland. 
British Medical Journal  1976;1(6022):1368-1371.
In 2388 schoolchildren aged 9-12 years who took part in a study of cardiovascular risk factors in Westland, Holland, plasma sugar concentrations were found to be positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, independently of weight. Serum cholesterol levels were also related to systolic blood pressure in boys, but much less strongly than plasma sugar levels. The relation between serum insulin and blood pressure, independent of plasma sugar, was weak. The relation between plasma sugar and systolic pressure existed for both sexes and regardless of whether measurements were made in the morning or afternoon; its association with diastolic pressure was weaker, and was not so consistent over all groups. These findings suggest that the relations between risk factors for coronary heart disease that exist in adults are already evident in childhood.
PMCID: PMC1640120  PMID: 1276694
25.  Selenium and vitamin E in relation to risk factors for coronary heart disease. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1984;37(2):200-206.
Fasting blood samples taken from 116 apparently healthy men aged 30-50 years were assayed for selenium, glutathione peroxidase activity, vitamin E, cadmium, lead, glucose, lipids, and albumin. Blood pressure was measured in each subject, and details of height, weight, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption were recorded. Multivariate analysis of the data showed that the decrease in blood and serum concentrations of selenium and the increase in whole blood cadmium concentrations in the cigarette smokers was independent of alcohol consumption. There was no correlation between blood selenium concentrations or glutathione peroxidase activities and the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Neither alcohol consumption nor smoking had an effect on the vitamin E concentrations. There was a strong association, however, between vitamin E and serum lipid concentrations, although the increase in triglyceride concentrations in the smokers was not matched by a comparable increase in vitamin E. The possible role of selenium in the aetiology of heart disease remains unresolved.
PMCID: PMC498678  PMID: 6693579

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