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1.  Importance of occult haematuria found at screening. 
A retrospective study of the results of dipstick testing and microscopical examination of urine from 10 050 men undergoing health screening showed a prevalence of occult haematuria of 2.5%. Those patients with occult haematuria who were resident in the United Kingdom and registered with a general practitioner were identified and a questionnaire sent to their general practitioners asking what further investigations had been performed. The response rate was 92% (152/165 inquiries). Fifty nine general practitioners (39%) had not instigated any investigations. Among the 76 patients who underwent some further investigations abnormalities were found in 21 (28%); and among those fully investigated by examination of midstream urine, intravenous urography, and cystoscopy abnormalities were found in 12(50%). These included bladder neoplasms (two; one in a patient aged 37), epithelial dysplasia (one), staghorn calculi (one), and chronic reflux nephropathy (one). It is proposed that occult haematuria should be fully investigated regardless of the age of the patient.
PMCID: PMC1339660  PMID: 3081223
2.  Community-based study on CKD subjects and the associated risk factors 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2009;24(7):2117-2123.
Background. The study was performed to investigate the prevalence, awareness and the risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the community population in Shanghai, China.
Methods. A total of 2596 residents were randomly recruited from the community population in Shanghai, China. All were screened for albuminuria, haematuria, morning spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and renal function. Serum creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, triglyceride and haemoglobin were assessed. A simplified MDRD equation was used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). All studied subjects were screened by kidney ultrasound. Haematuria, if present in the morning spot urine dipstick test, was confirmed by microscopy. The associations among the demographic characteristics, health characteristics and indicators of kidney damage were examined.
Results. Two thousand five hundred and fifty-four residents (n = 2554), after giving informed consent and with complete data, were entered into this study. Albuminuria and haematuria were detected in 6.3% and 1.2% of all the studied subjects, respectively, whereas decreased kidney function was found in 5.8% of all studied subjects. Approximately 11.8% of subjects had at least one indicator of kidney damage. The rate of awareness of CKD was 8.2%. The logistic regression model showed that age, central obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anaemia, hyperuricaemia and nephrolithiasis each contributed to the development of CKD.
Conclusion. This is the first Shanghai community-based epidemiological study data on Chinese CKD patients. The prevalence of CKD in the community population in Shanghai is 11.8%, and the rate of awareness of CKD is 8.2%. All the factors including age, central obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anaemia, hyperuricaemia and nephrolithiasis are positively correlated with the development of CKD in our studied subjects.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfn767
PMCID: PMC2698090  PMID: 19193736
awareness; chronic kidney disease; epidemiology; prevalence; risk factors
3.  Management of macroscopic haematuria in the emergency department 
Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ  2007;24(6):385-390.
Macroscopic haematuria is a commonly seen condition in the emergency department (ED), which has a variety of causes. However, most importantly, macroscopic haematuria has a high diagnostic yield for urological malignancy. 30% of patients presenting with painless haematuria are found to have a malignancy. The majority of these patients can be managed in the outpatient setting. This review of current literature suggests a management pathway that can be used in the ED. A literature search was done using Medline, PubMed and Google. In men aged >60 years, the positive predictive value of macroscopic haematuria for urological malignancy is 22.1%, and in women of the same age it is 8.3%. In terms of the need for follow‐up investigation, a single episode of haematuria is equally important as recurrent episodes. Baseline investigation in the ED includes full blood count, urea and electrolyte levels, midstream urine dipstick, β human chorionic gonadotrophin, and formal microscopy, culture and sensitivities. Treatment of macroscopic haematuria aims at RESP—Resuscitation, Ensuring, Safe and Prompt. Indications for admission include clot retention, cardiovascular instability, uncontrolled pain, sepsis, acute renal failure, coagulopathy, severe comorbidity, heavy haematuria or social restrictions. Discharged patients should drink plenty of clear fluids and return for further medical attention if the following occur: clot retention, worsening haematuria despite adequate fluid intake, uncontrolled pain or fever, or inability to cope at home. Follow‐up by a urological team should be promptly arranged, ideally within the 2‐week cancer referral target.
doi:10.1136/emj.2006.042457
PMCID: PMC2658267  PMID: 17513531
4.  Microhaematuria in general practice: is urine microscopy misleading? 
During a health centre screening programme for men aged 60 years and over, the urinary dipstick results of 58 patients found to have microscopic haematuria were compared with the results of immediate microscopy at the health centre and routine microscopy by a hospital laboratory. There was agreement between a positive dipstick test for haematuria and the presence of red cells at routine microscopy reported by the hospital laboratory in only 18 cases (31%). Routine urine microscopy results requested from general practice should not be taken as the criterion for deciding whether further investigation is needed in cases of microscopic haematuria.
PMCID: PMC1371144  PMID: 2107855
5.  High prevalence of trichomoniasis in rural men in Mwanza, Tanzania: results from a population based study 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2000;76(5):355-362.
Objectives: To measure the prevalence of urethral infections including trichomoniasis in rural Tanzanian men, to assess the prevalence of symptoms and signs among men with Trichomonas vaginalis, and to analyse the risk factors for trichomoniasis.
Design: A cross sectional study of 1004 men aged 15–54 years in a rural community in north west Tanzania.
Methods: Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviour and symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases. First fraction urine samples and urethral swabs were collected and used to test for T vaginalis by wet preparation and culture, Neisseria gonorrhoeae by culture, Chlamydia trachomatis by ligase chain reaction and non-specific urethritis by Gram stain. Urine was also tested for the presence of leucocytes using a leucocyte esterase dipstick. Men were re-interviewed 2 weeks later to document new symptoms and signs of urethritis.
Results: Complete laboratory results were available on 980 men. One in four men had laboratory evidence of urethritis. T vaginalis was found in 109 individuals (11%), gonorrhoea in eight (0.8%), and chlamydial infection in 15 (1.5%). Over 50% of men with urethritis were asymptomatic. The prevalence of signs and symptoms was similar among men with T vaginalis alone compared with men with other urethral infections. The sensitivity and specificity of the leucocyte esterase dipstick (LED) test for detecting T vaginalis were 80% and 48% respectively in symptomatic men and 60% and 68% in asymptomatic men. Factors associated with trichomoniasis included religion, type of employment, and marital status.
Conclusions: A high prevalence of urethritis was found in men in this community based study. More than half of the urethral infections detected were asymptomatic. The most prevalent pathogen was T vaginalis. Studies are needed on the prevalence of trichomoniasis in men presenting to health services with complaints suggestive of urethritis since treatment for T vaginalis is not included in the syndromic management of urethritis in most countries. The performance of the LED test as a screening test for trichomoniasis was unsatisfactory in both symptomatic and asymptomatic men. Improved screening tests are urgently needed to identify urethral infections that are asymptomatic and which are not covered by current syndromic management algorithms.
Key Words: urethritis; Tanzania; Trichomonas vaginalis
doi:10.1136/sti.76.5.355
PMCID: PMC1744211  PMID: 11141851
6.  Haematuria. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1997;73(857):129-136.
Many serious and potentially treatable diseases of the urinary tract may have haematuria as their only manifestation. However, asymptomatic microscopic haematuria detected by dipstick testing may be seen in up to 16% of screening populations. The great majority of such cases will have no sinister underlying cause, particularly in those under 40 years of age, and so the schedule of further investigations, some of which may be invasive, time-consuming and expensive, needs to be rationalised. In addition, the increasing popularity of 'fast track' clinics for the investigation of haematuria enhances the need for a clear strategy of investigation. Analysis of the epidemiology of asymptomatic haematuria and its causes combined with a consideration of the risk-benefit profile of the available investigations, makes it possible to set out an algorithm for the initial management of this common finding. Careful clinical assessment and basic laboratory tests for renal function, analysis of the urinary sediment and cytological examination of the urine are followed by ultrasound and plain radiography of the urinary tract. Flexible cystoscopy under local anaesthetic is central to the algorithm in patients of all ages. The importance of a nephrological opinion and consideration of renal biopsy, especially in younger patients with other evidence of glomerular disease, is stressed. The role of intravenous urography in excluding pathology of the upper urinary tract, especially in patients over the age of 40, is also considered.
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PMCID: PMC2431247  PMID: 9135826
7.  Meta-analysis of Urine Heme Dipstick Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium Infection, Including Low-Prevalence and Previously-Treated Populations 
Background
Urogenital schistosomiasis remains highly endemic in Africa. Current control is based on drug administration, targeted either to school-age children or to high-risk communities at-large. Urine dipsticks for detection of microhematuria offer an inexpensive means for estimating infection prevalence. However, their diagnostic performance has not been systematically evaluated after community treatment, or in areas with continuing low prevalence. The objective of the present study was to perform meta-analysis of dipstick accuracy for S. haematobium infection in endemic regions, with special attention to performance where infection intensity or prevalence was low.
Methodology/Principal Findings
This review was registered at inception with PROSPERO (CRD42012002165). Included studies were identified by computerized search of online databases and hand search of bibliographies and existing study archives. Eligible studies included published or unpublished population surveys irrespective of date, location, or language that compared dipstick diagnosis of S. haematobium infection to standard egg-count parasitology. For 95 included surveys, variation in dipstick sensitivity and specificity were evaluated according to study size, age- and sex-specific participation, region, local prevalence, treatment status, and other factors potentially affecting test performance. Independent of prevalence, accuracy was greater in surveys of school-age children (vs. adults), whereas performance was less good in North Africa, as compared to other regions. By hierarchical ROC analysis, overall dipstick sensitivity and specificity for detection of egg-positive urine were estimated at 81% and 89%, respectively. Sensitivity was lower among treated populations (72%) and in population subgroups having lower intensity infection (65%). When the insensitivity of egg count testing was considered (and diagnosis inferred instead from combined hematuria and egg-count findings), overall dipstick sensitivity/specificity were 82%/97%, with significantly better sensitivity (92%) in high prevalence settings.
Conclusions/Significance
This analysis suggests that dipsticks will continue to serve as very useful adjuncts for monitoring community prevalence following implementation of population-based control of urogenital schistosomiasis.
Author Summary
Schistosomiasis is a chronic human disease caused by infection with multicellular trematode parasites of Schistosoma species. In particular, Schistosoma haematobium colonizes the veins in the pelvis, in and around the urinary tract, and causes inflammation that leads to ulceration and bleeding into the urine. One low-tech, inexpensive means of quickly identifying blood in the urine (hematuria) is to use a chemical reagent strip (dipstick) to test a patient's urine. While many studies have confirmed the usefulness of dipstick-detected hematuria as a proxy for infection in diagnosing infected people before treatment is given, their diagnostic performance after treatment has been uncertain. The current study systematically reviewed 95 available reports of dipstick performance in S. haematobium-endemic areas of Africa and determined, based on a meta-analysis of the primary data, that dipsticks appear to retain their diagnostic accuracy in low prevalence areas and after one or more rounds of treatment. This suggests that dipsticks will continue to be very useful tools in tracking and targeting regional requirements for treatment and prevention of S. haematobium infection as current school- and community-based programs go forward.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002431
PMCID: PMC3772022  PMID: 24069486
8.  Efficacy of Praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium in Dulshatalo village, western Ethiopia 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:392.
Background
Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for treatment of all human schistosomes. It is used in population based targeted or mass deworming strategies in several countries. The effect of PZQ on S. hematobium has not been studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of PZQ against S. haematobium in Dulshatalo village, western Ethiopia.
Methods
A prospective study was conducted from October to December, 2007. Urine samples from 341 residents were collected and screened for haematuria and proteinuria using urinalysis dipstick. S. haematobium eggs were detected and quantified using filtration techniques. The participants who were positive for haematuria were treated with a standard dose of PZQ (40 mg/kg). Data on pre and 24 hours post treatment symptoms were collected via questionnaire. Urine samples were also collected 7 weeks after treatment and examined to assess the cure and the egg reduction rates.
Results
The prevalence of S. haematobium among the study participants was 57.8% (197/341). Haematuria was detected in 234 (68.6%) of the study participants. For PZQ efficacy asessment, 152 of the treated participants were considered. The presence of S. haemetaobium eggs showed statistically significant association (p < 0.05) with haematuria and proteinuria. Seven weeks post treatment, the extent of haematuria and proteinuria decreased from 100% to 40.8% and 94.07% to 48.7%, respectively. The cure and the parasitological egg reduction rates seven weeks post treatment were 86% and 85%, respectively. Post treatment symptoms revealed a wide range of side effects including straining, abdominal pain, nausea and headache.
Conclusions
There were marked cure and egg reduction rates, together with mild and short lived side effects of PZQ for treatment of S. haematobium, in this study.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-392
PMCID: PMC3849756  PMID: 24073761
Efficacy; Praziquantel; S. haematobium
9.  Epidemiological urinalysis of children from kindergartens of Can Gio, Ho Chi Minh City - Vietnam 
BMC Pediatrics  2013;13:183.
Background
Recent studies on Vietnamese children have shown that kidney diseases are not detected early enough to prevent chronic renal failure. The dipstick test is a simple and useful tool for detecting urinary abnormalities, especially in isolated or remote areas of Vietnam, where children have limited access to health care.
Methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 at seven kindergartens in Can Gio district, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Two thousand and twelve children, aged 3 to 5, were enrolled. Morning mid-stream urine samples were examined by dipstick. Children with abnormal findings were re-examined with a second dipstick and underwent further investigations.
Results
Urinalysis was available for 1,032 boys and 980 girls. Mean age was 4.4 ± 0.8 years. Urinary abnormalities were detected in 108 (5.5%) of the subjects. Among them, nitrituria and leucocyturia accounted for more than 50%. Positive fractions of proteinuria, hematuria, nitrituria, leucocyturia, and combined nitrituria and leucocyturia after two dipsticks were 0.1%, 0.1%, 2%, 1% and 0.3%, respectively. Abnormal findings were more common in girls than boys (p < 0.001), and higher in communes with very low (< 50 persons/km2) population density (14.3% vs 4.1%, p < 0.001). A renal ultrasound detected four cases of hydronephrosis and one case of duplication of ureter.
Conclusions
The prevalence of urinary abnormalities in asymptomatic children in South Vietnam demonstrates the need for hygiene education among parents. Training for dipstick usage for all medical staff at health stations, especially in remote areas and in places with very low population density, is also clearly necessary. Routine urinalysis can be set up if a close control is conducted at locations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-183
PMCID: PMC3829665  PMID: 24206763
Chronic kidney disease; Dipstick; Urinary screening; Can Gio; Vietnam
10.  Gender inequalities in the promptness of diagnosis of bladder and renal cancer after symptomatic presentation: evidence from secondary analysis of an English primary care audit survey 
BMJ Open  2013;3(6):e002861.
Objectives
To explore whether women experience greater delays in the diagnosis of bladder and renal cancer when first presenting to a general practitioner with symptoms caused by those cancers and potential reasons for such gender inequalities.
Design
Prospective national audit survey of cancer diagnosis.
Setting
English primary care (2009–2010).
Participants
920 patients with bladder and 398 patients with renal cancer (252 (27%) and 165 (42%), respectively, were women).
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Proportion of patients with three or more pre-referral consultations; number of days from first presentation to referral; proportion of patients who presented with haematuria and proportion of patients investigated in primary care.
Results
Women required three or more prereferral consultations more often than men (27% (95% CI 21% to 33%) vs 11% (9% to 14%) for bladder (p<0.001); and 30% (22% to 39%) vs 18% (13% to 25%) for renal cancer (p=0.025)) and had a greater number of days from presentation to referral. In multivariable analysis (adjusting for age, haematuria status and use of primary care-led investigations), being a woman was independently associated with higher odds of three or more pre-referral consultations (OR=3.29 (2.06 to 5.25, p<0.001) for bladder cancer; and OR=1.90 (1.06 to 3.42, p=0.031) for renal cancer). Although presentation with haematuria was associated with more timely diagnosis of bladder cancer, gender inequalities did not vary by haematuria status for either cancer (p=0.18 for bladder and p=0.27 for renal). Each year in the UK, approximately 700 women with either bladder or renal cancer experience a delayed diagnosis because of their gender, of whom more than a quarter (197, or 28%) present with haematuria.
Conclusions
There are notable gender inequalities in the timeliness of diagnosis of urological cancers. There is a need to both reinforce existing guidelines on haematuria investigation and develop new diagnostic decision aids and tests for patients who present without haematuria.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002861
PMCID: PMC3693425  PMID: 23798742
PUBLIC HEALTH; PRIMARY CARE
11.  Correlation between dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy in detecting haematuria among children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state in Ilorin, Nigeria 
Introduction
Haematuria is one of the clinical manifestations of sickle cell nephropathy. Although dipstick urinalysis detects haemoglobin and by extension haematuria; it does not confirm haematuria. Urine sediment microscopy confirms haematuria and constitutes a non-invasive “renal biopsy”. The need to correlate dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy findings becomes important because of the cheapness, quickness and simplicity of the former procedure.
Methods
Dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy were carried (both on first contact and a month after) among consecutive steady state sickle cell anaemia children attending sickle cell clinic at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital between October 2004 and July 2005.
Results
A total of 75 sickle cell anemia children aged between 1-17 years met the inclusion criteria. Haematuria was found in 12 children (16.0%) and persistent haematuria in 10 children 13.3%. Age and gender did not have significant relationship with haematuria both at first contact (p values 0.087 and 0.654 respectively) and at follow-up (p values 0.075 and 0.630 respectively). Eumorphic haematuria was confirmed in all the children with persistent haematuria with Pearson correlation +0.623 and significant p value of 0.000.
Conclusion
The study has revealed a direct significant correlation for haematuria detected on dipstick urinalysis and at urine sediment microscopy. It may therefore be inferred that dipstick urinalysis is an easy and readily available tool for the screening of haematuria among children with sickle cell anaemia and should therefore be done routinely at the sickle cell clinics.
doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.15.135.1854
PMCID: PMC3852513  PMID: 24319525
Sickle cell nephropathy; children; haematuria; dipstick urinalysis; urine sediment microscopy
12.  New Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups A, W135, C, and Y 
PLoS Medicine  2006;3(9):e337.
Background
Outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis (meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis) are a major public health concern in the African “meningitis belt,” which includes 21 countries from Senegal to Ethiopia. Of the several species that can cause meningitis, N. meningitidis is the most important cause of epidemics in this region. In choosing the appropriate vaccine, accurate N. meningitidis serogroup determination is key. To this end, we developed and evaluated two duplex rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for detecting N. meningitidis polysaccharide (PS) antigens of several important serogroups.
Methods and Findings
Mouse monoclonal IgG antibodies against N. meningitidis PS A, W135/Y, Y, and C were used to develop two immunochromatography duplex RDTs, RDT1 (to detect serogroups A and W135/Y) and RDT2 (to detect serogroups C and Y). Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy criteria were used to determine diagnostic accuracy of RDTs on reference strains and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples using culture and PCR, respectively, as reference tests. The cutoffs were 105 cfu/ml for reference strains and 1 ng/ml for PS. Sensitivities and specificities were 100% for reference strains, and 93.8%–100% for CSF serogroups A, W135, and Y in CSF. For CSF serogroup A, the positive and negative likelihood ratios (± 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were 31.867 (16.1–63.1) and 0.065 (0.04–0.104), respectively, and the diagnostic odds ratio (± 95% CI) was 492.9 (207.2–1,172.5). For CSF serogroups W135 and Y, the positive likelihood ratio was 159.6 (51.7–493.3) Both RDTs were equally reliable at 25 °C and 45 °C.
Conclusions
These RDTs are important new bedside diagnostic tools for surveillance of meningococcus serogroups A and W135, the two serogroups that are responsible for major epidemics in Africa.
There are several strains ofNeisseria meningitidis that can cause seasonal outbreaks of meningitis in Africa. Treatment of patients and containment of the epidemic through vaccination depends on which strain is responsible. The new dipstick tests described here are accurate and suitable for storage and use in resource-poor settings.
Editors' Summary
Background
Bacterial meningitis, a potentially deadly infection of tissues that line the brain and spinal cord, affects over 1 million people each year. Patients with bacterial meningitis usually have fever, headache, and stiff neck, and may become unconscious and die if the disease is not treated within hours. Most cases of bacterial meningitis occur in Africa, particularly in the arid savannah region south of the Sahara known as the Sahel, where epidemic outbreaks of meningitis occur periodically. This region, also called the “meningitis belt,” extends from Senegal and adjacent coastal countries in West Africa across the continent to Ethiopia. Although most outbreaks tend to occur in the dry season, they differ in frequency in different areas of the meningitis belt, and may involve any of several kinds of bacteria. One of the major causes of epidemic meningitis is Neisseria meningitidis, a meningococcus bacterium that exists in several different groups. Group A has been a common cause of epidemic meningitis in Africa, and some outbreaks were due to group C. More recently, group W135 has emerged as an epidemic strain. In addition to prompt diagnosis and treatment of individual cases, effective public health strategies for controlling meningococcal meningitis include rapid identification of outbreaks and determination of the type of bacteria involved, followed by mass vaccination of people in the surrounding area without delay. Vaccines are chosen on the basis of the responsible meningococcal serogroup: either the inexpensive bivalent vaccine A/C or the expensive, less readily available trivalent vaccine A/C/W135. Before the advent of W135 as an epidemic clone, bivalent vaccine was applied in the meningitis belt without identification of the serogroup. With the appearance of the W135 strain in 2003, however, the determination of serogroup before vaccination is important to select an effective vaccine and avoid misspending of limited funds.
Why Was This Study Done?
Because there are few laboratories in the affected countries and epidemiological surveillance systems are inadequate, it is difficult for health authorities to mount a rapid and effective vaccination campaign in response to an outbreak. In addition, because the two main bacteria (meningococcus and pneumococcus) that cause meningitis require different antibiotic treatments, it is important for doctors to find out quickly which bacteria is causing an individual case. The authors of this study wanted to develop a rapid and easy test that can tell whether meningococcus is the cause of a particular case of meningitis, and if so, which group of meningococcus is involved. As most outbreaks in the meningitis belt occur in rural areas that are distant from well-equipped medical laboratories, it was necessary to develop a test that can be carried out at the patient's bedside by nurses, does not require refrigeration or laboratory equipment, and is highly accurate in distinguishing among the different groups of meningococcus.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers have developed a rapid test to determine whether a patient's meningitis is caused by one of the four most common groups of meningococcus circulating in Africa. The test is done on the patient's spinal fluid, which is obtained by a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) as part of the usual evaluation of a patient thought to have meningitis. The test uses two paper strips, also called dipsticks (one for groups A and W135/Y, and the other for groups C and Y), that can be placed in two separate tubes of the patient's spinal fluid. After several minutes, the appearance of red lines on the dipsticks shows whether one of the four groups of meningococcus is present. The dipsticks can be produced in large quantities and relatively cheaply. The researchers showed that the test dipsticks are stable for weeks in hot weather, and are therefore practical for bedside use in resource-poor settings. They examined the test on stored spinal fluid from patients in Niger and found that the dipstick test was able to identify the correct group of meningococcus more than 95% of the time for the three groups represented in these specimens (the results were compared to a standard DNA test or culture that are highly accurate for identifying the type of bacteria present but much more complicated and expensive).
What Do These Findings Mean?
The new dipstick test for meningococcal meningitis represents a major advance for health-care workers in remote locations affected by meningitis epidemics. This test can be stored without refrigeration and used at bedside in the hot temperatures typical of the African savannah during the meningitis season. The dipsticks are easier to use than currently available test kits, give more rapid results, and are more accurate in telling the difference between group Y and the increasingly important group W135. Further research is needed to determine whether the test can be used with other clinical specimens (such as blood or urine), and whether the test is dependable for detecting group C meningococcus, which is common in Europe but rare in Africa. Nonetheless, the dipstick test promises to be an important tool for guiding individual treatment decisions as well as public health actions, including vaccine selection, against the perennial threat of epidemic meningitis.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030337.
World Health Organization fact sheet on meningococcal meningitis
PATH Meningitis Vaccine Project
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention page on meningococcal disease
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030337
PMCID: PMC1563501  PMID: 16953658
13.  Efficiency in the outpatient department: the lessons from urology. 
To determine the scope for improvements in efficiency in the outpatient management of urological patients, a retrospective analysis was undertaken of outpatient records from one consultant's practice in a regional teaching hospital. Two hundred consecutive patients referred between March and May 1992 were studied for 1 year after referral. Each outpatient visit was judged to be unavoidable or potentially avoidable. Of referrals, 72% were in one of four diagnostic categories (bladder outflow obstruction; haematuria; scrotal disorders; frequency/dysuria syndromes). Of these patients, 90% were seen only once or twice for each episode of illness. Of the visits, 150/347 (42%) were potentially avoidable. Patients with suspected bladder outflow obstruction, haematuria and scrotal disorders should undergo imaging of the relevant anatomy before referral. Patients with haematuria should be referred directly for a flexible cystoscopy after imaging. Urologists need to educate general practitioners more clearly about the indications for the treatment of scrotal swellings in elderly men and mild bladder outflow obstruction in middle-aged men. Patients need not be reviewed routinely after transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatic hypertrophy or after investigations for haematuria have revealed no serious abnormality.
PMCID: PMC2502341  PMID: 7574322
14.  The diagnostic value of macroscopic haematuria for the diagnosis of urological cancer in general practice. 
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic value and the impact of some signs and symptoms in most diseases in primary care have only been studied incompletely. AIM: To assess the diagnostic value of macroscopic haematuria for the idagnosis of urological cancer (bladder, kidney) in a general practice setting, as well the influence of age, sex, and some additional signs and symptoms. DESIGN OF STUDY: Diagnostic study. SETTING: The study was performed in a sentinel station network of general practices in Belgium, covering almost 1% of the population. SUBJECTS: All patients attending their general practitioner and complaining of haematuria during 1993 and 1994 were included for the prospective part of the study. Every patient diagnosed with a urological cancer in this period was registered for the retrospective part. METHOD: Mean outcome measures of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were used to assess diagnostic value. RESULTS: Within the registration year 1993-1994, patient-doctor encounters, related to 83,890 patient-years, were registered. The positive predictive value (PPV) for urological cancer was 10.3% (95% CI = 7.6% to 13.7%). Sensitivity was 59.5% (95% CI = 50.4% to 60.1%). The PPV of patients aged over 60 years was 22.1% (95% CI = 15.8% to 30.1%) for men and 8.3% (95% CI = 3.4% to 17.9%) for women. In the age group 40 to 59 years, the PPV was 3.6% (95% CI = 0.6% to 13.4%) for men and 6.4% (95% CI = 1.7% to 18.6%) for women. In the prospective part of the study, no urological cancer was found in the age group under 40 years. CONCLUSION: Men older than 60 years of age with macroscopic haematuria have a high positive predictive value for urological cancer. In these patients, a thorough investigation is indicated. In patients over 40 years of age of either sex, referral or watchful waiting can be justified.
PMCID: PMC1314489  PMID: 12564274
15.  An Audit of Urology Two-Week Wait Referrals in a Large Teaching Hospital in England 
INTRODUCTION
Two week wait referral guidelines have been published by the UK Department of Health for suspected urological cancers. Concordance to these guidelines is variable. Our objectives were to assess the incidence of urological malignancy and the proportion of inappropriate referrals in the two-week wait pathway.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Retrospective audit of all two-week wait referrals to the urology department over 6 months. Inappropriate referrals were those not satisfying the referral criteria, but referred under the two-week wait system. Detection rates were calculated for each referral criterion based on diagnosis obtained from histology, imaging reports and clinic letters.
RESULTS
Incidence of cancer was 90 of 400 two-week wait referrals (23%). The cancer-detection rate based on reasons for referral ranged from 50 of 122 (41%) for elevated prostate-specific antigen levels to 2 of 56 (4%) for scrotal lumps; 42 (11%) referrals were inappropriate.
CONCLUSIONS
The overall cancer-detection rate is acceptable. Most inappropriate referrals were for long-standing symptoms and non-specific testicular/scrotal symptoms. The testicular cancer detection rate raises questions about the two-week wait guidelines. Providing general practitioners with fast-track scrotal ultrasound and revising the guideline may reduce the disproportionately high number of patients referred with suspected testicular cancer. Other inappropriate referrals are a cause for concern as they add to the workload of the ‘urgent-referral’ pathway.
Urological cancers (those involving the prostate, testis, penis, urethra, bladder, ureters and kidneys) accounted for 15.4% of all new cancers in England,1 and 12.1% of deaths from cancer,2 in England and Wales, in 2004.
The two-week wait referral guidelines published by the UK Department of Health for suspected urological cancers3 are summarised in Table 1. NHS trusts and SHAs are encouraged to carry out clinical audits of suspected cancer referrals to generate further information.4 There is wide variation among various centres and regions in the concordance of general practitioner (GP) referrals based on these guidelines, and also the rate of cancers detected based on the two-week wait system.
Two-week wait referral guidelines for suspected urological cancers
Microscopic haematuria in adults over 50 years
Macroscopic haematuria in adults
Swellings in the body of the testis
Palpable renal masses
Solid renal masses found on imaging
Elevated age-specific prostate specific antigen in men with a 10-year life expectancy
A high prostate-specific antigen (> 20 ng/ml) in men
with a clinically malignant prostate or bone pain
Any suspected penile cancer
The objectives of this audit were to calculate: (i) the rate of detection of cancers among the two-week wait referrals; (ii) the rate of detection of cancers based on the reason for referral; and (iii) the proportion of inappropriate referrals.
doi:10.1308/003588409X391767
PMCID: PMC2749401  PMID: 19344552
Two-week wait; Urological cancer
16.  Dipstick haematuria: its association with smoking and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. 
Of 1015 men over the age of 60, 125 (12.3%) were found to have dipstick haematuria on a single test. Analysis of smoking history revealed a 1.6 fold increased incidence of dipstick haematuria in current smokers as compared with ex-smokers and non-smokers. The relationship with bladder cancer and smoking is discussed. Several commonly used drugs, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory preparations, have been implicated as a cause of urinary tract bleeding. In this study of 1015 men over the age of 60, no association was found between the presence of dipstick haematuria and the intake of aspirin, other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or warfarin.
PMCID: PMC1292557  PMID: 2325056
17.  A Risk Prediction Model for the Assessment and Triage of Women with Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy in Low-Resourced Settings: The miniPIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk) Multi-country Prospective Cohort Study 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(1):e1001589.
Beth Payne and colleagues use a risk prediction model, the Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk (miniPIERS) to help inform the clinical assessment and triage of women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in low-resourced settings.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia are leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). We developed the miniPIERS risk prediction model to provide a simple, evidence-based tool to identify pregnant women in LMICs at increased risk of death or major hypertensive-related complications.
Methods and Findings
From 1 July 2008 to 31 March 2012, in five LMICs, data were collected prospectively on 2,081 women with any hypertensive disorder of pregnancy admitted to a participating centre. Candidate predictors collected within 24 hours of admission were entered into a step-wise backward elimination logistic regression model to predict a composite adverse maternal outcome within 48 hours of admission. Model internal validation was accomplished by bootstrapping and external validation was completed using data from 1,300 women in the Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk (fullPIERS) dataset. Predictive performance was assessed for calibration, discrimination, and stratification capacity. The final miniPIERS model included: parity (nulliparous versus multiparous); gestational age on admission; headache/visual disturbances; chest pain/dyspnoea; vaginal bleeding with abdominal pain; systolic blood pressure; and dipstick proteinuria. The miniPIERS model was well-calibrated and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ROC) of 0.768 (95% CI 0.735–0.801) with an average optimism of 0.037. External validation AUC ROC was 0.713 (95% CI 0.658–0.768). A predicted probability ≥25% to define a positive test classified women with 85.5% accuracy. Limitations of this study include the composite outcome and the broad inclusion criteria of any hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. This broad approach was used to optimize model generalizability.
Conclusions
The miniPIERS model shows reasonable ability to identify women at increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes associated with the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. It could be used in LMICs to identify women who would benefit most from interventions such as magnesium sulphate, antihypertensives, or transportation to a higher level of care.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Each year, ten million women develop pre-eclampsia or a related hypertensive (high blood pressure) disorder of pregnancy and 76,000 women die as a result. Globally, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy cause around 12% of maternal deaths—deaths of women during or shortly after pregnancy. The mildest of these disorders is gestational hypertension, high blood pressure that develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Gestational hypertension does not usually harm the mother or her unborn child and resolves after delivery but up to a quarter of women with this condition develop pre-eclampsia, a combination of hypertension and protein in the urine (proteinuria). Women with mild pre-eclampsia may not have any symptoms—the condition is detected during antenatal checks—but more severe pre-eclampsia can cause headaches, blurred vision, and other symptoms, and can lead to eclampsia (fits), multiple organ failure, and death of the mother and/or her baby. The only “cure” for pre-eclampsia is to deliver the baby as soon as possible but women are sometimes given antihypertensive drugs to lower their blood pressure or magnesium sulfate to prevent seizures.
Why Was This Study Done?
Women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are more likely to develop complications of pre-eclampsia than women in high-income countries and most of the deaths associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy occur in LMICs. The high burden of illness and death in LMICs is thought to be primarily due to delays in triage (the identification of women who are or may become severely ill and who need specialist care) and delays in transporting these women to facilities where they can receive appropriate care. Because there is a shortage of health care workers who are adequately trained in the triage of suspected cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in many LMICs, one way to improve the situation might be to design a simple tool to identify women at increased risk of complications or death from hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Here, the researchers develop miniPIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk), a clinical risk prediction model for adverse outcomes among women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy suitable for use in community and primary health care facilities in LMICs.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers used data on candidate predictors of outcome that are easy to collect and/or measure in all health care settings and that are associated with pre-eclampsia from women admitted with any hypertensive disorder of pregnancy to participating centers in five LMICs to build a model to predict death or a serious complication such as organ damage within 48 hours of admission. The miniPIERS model included parity (whether the woman had been pregnant before), gestational age (length of pregnancy), headache/visual disturbances, chest pain/shortness of breath, vaginal bleeding with abdominal pain, systolic blood pressure, and proteinuria detected using a dipstick. The model was well-calibrated (the predicted risk of adverse outcomes agreed with the observed risk of adverse outcomes among the study participants), it had a good discriminatory ability (it could separate women who had a an adverse outcome from those who did not), and it designated women as being at high risk (25% or greater probability of an adverse outcome) with an accuracy of 85.5%. Importantly, external validation using data collected in fullPIERS, a study that developed a more complex clinical prediction model based on data from women attending tertiary hospitals in high-income countries, confirmed the predictive performance of miniPIERS.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that the miniPIERS model performs reasonably well as a tool to identify women at increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Because miniPIERS only includes simple-to-measure personal characteristics, symptoms, and signs, it could potentially be used in resource-constrained settings to identify the women who would benefit most from interventions such as transportation to a higher level of care. However, further external validation of miniPIERS is needed using data collected from women living in LMICs before the model can be used during routine antenatal care. Moreover, the value of miniPIERS needs to be confirmed in implementation projects that examine whether its potential translates into clinical improvements. For now, though, the model could provide the basis for an education program to increase the knowledge of women, families, and community health care workers in LMICs about the signs and symptoms of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001589.
The World Health Organization provides guidelines for the management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in low-resourced settings
The Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program provides information on pre-eclampsia and eclampsia targeted to low-resourced settings along with a tool-kit for LMIC providers
The US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute provides information about high blood pressure in pregnancy and a guide to lowering blood pressure in pregnancy
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information about pre-eclampsia
The US not-for profit organization Preeclampsia Foundation provides information about all aspects of pre-eclampsia; its website includes some personal stories
The UK charity Healthtalkonline also provides personal stories about hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
MedlinePlus provides links to further information about high blood pressure and pregnancy (in English and Spanish); the MedlinePlus Encyclopedia has a video about pre-eclampsia (also in English and Spanish)
More information about miniPIERS and about fullPIERS is available
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001589
PMCID: PMC3897359  PMID: 24465185
18.  Has the introduction of the ‘2 week rule’ in the UK led to an earlier diagnosis of urological malignancy? 
ecancermedicalscience  2011;5:215.
Introduction:
The ‘2 week wait’ target for haematuria assessment has been recommended for early diagnosis of urological cancer. We compare our cancer detection rates pre- and post-introduction of this target and its impact on stage at diagnosis.
Patients and methods:
A total of 1,740 patients were enrolled prospectively in the study at our units ‘one stop fast track haematuria clinic’ between April 2003 and March 2006. Evaluation consisted of basic demographics, history and examination, routine blood tests, urinalysis, urine culture and urine cytology. All patients underwent a renal ultrasound, IVU (intravenous urogram) and flexible cystoscopy. The detection rate of urological malignancy was compared to a previous cohort at our institution (April 1994 to March 1997).
Results:
A total of 1,067 males and 673 females with a mean age of 60.8 years (range 16–96) were included in the study. The overall cancer detection rate was 18%. With the introduction of the ‘2 week rule’ referrals, we noted a 57% increase in the detection of urological malignancies while comparing previous published data from our institution. There was no statistical significance in stage at presentation following the introduction of the ‘2 week rule’.
Conclusion:
Patients with haematuria need to be investigated promptly. The ‘2 week rule’ has increased the cancer detection rate in our institution.
doi:10.3332/ecancer.2011.215
PMCID: PMC3223942  PMID: 22276058
19.  Significance of microhaematuria in young adults. 
The medical records of 1000 asymptomatic male air force personnel were examined retrospectively for the results of 15 yearly examinations of urinary sediment. The study covered the period 1968-82, beginning with the subjects aged 18-33 years. The cumulative incidence of two to four or more red blood cells per high power field found at one or more examinations was 38.7% after an average of 12.2 yearly examinations per person. In 161 subjects two to four or more red blood cells per high power field were found at two or more yearly examinations within a five year period. Intravenous pyelography in 58 cases disclosed asymptomatic nephrolithiasis in six. Cystoscopy performed in 11 cases identified one patient with urethritis, one with a vesical calculus, and one with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Two years before diagnosis the patient with carcinoma had had a single transient finding of 10-12 red blood cells per high power field which was not investigated further. Cystoscopy was performed after an episode of macroscopic haematuria. Renal biopsy in one subject with recurrent microhaematuria and trace proteinuria disclosed focal glomerulonephritis. None of the remaining subjects with microhaematuria developed hypertension or proteinuria, and at the end of the study period all were active and free of urinary symptoms. The observed cumulative incidence of urological neoplasms at 15 years (0.1%) was consistent with that expected in Israeli men aged 18-40 (0.09%). Hence microhaematuria detected during a screening examination probably should not be regarded as a specific sign of a significant lesion and does not of itself warrant urological investigation in adults aged 40 or less.
PMCID: PMC1444134  PMID: 6418299
20.  Evaluation of dipstick analysis among elderly residents to detect bacteriuria: a cross-sectional study in 32 nursing homes 
BMC Geriatrics  2009;9:32.
Background
Few studies have evaluated dipstick urinalysis for elderly and practically none present confidence intervals. Furthermore, most previous studies combine all bacteria species in a "positive culture". Thus, their evaluation may be inappropriate due to Yule-Simpson's paradox. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of dipstick urinalysis for the elderly in nursing homes.
Methods
In this cross-sectional study voided urine specimens were collected from 651 elderly individuals in nursing homes. Dipstick urinalysis for nitrite, leukocyte esterase and urine culture were performed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Visual readings were compared to readings with a urine chemistry analyzer.
Results
207/651 (32%) of urine cultures showed growth of a potentially pathogenic bacterium. Combining the two dipsticks improved test characteristics slightly compared to using only one of the dipsticks. When both dipsticks are negative, presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria can be ruled out with a negative predictive value of 88 (84–92)%. Visual and analyzer readings had acceptable agreement.
Conclusion
When investigating for bacteriuria in elderly people at nursing homes we suggest nitrite and leukocyte esterase dipstick be combined. There are no clinically relevant differences between visual and analyzer dipstick readings. When dipstick urinalysis for nitrite and leukocyte esterase are both negative it is unlikely that the urine culture will show growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and in a patient with an uncomplicated illness further testing is unnecessary.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-9-32
PMCID: PMC2724370  PMID: 19635163
21.  Early Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease: Results of the PolNef Study 
American Journal of Nephrology  2008;29(3):264-273.
Background
Continuous increase in the number of patients with end-stage renal disease demands early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the present study was to diagnose CKD in its earliest stages in a randomly selected population using a diagnostic algorithm developed by the working group.
Methods
An algorithm for the diagnostic procedure was created to identify patients with CKD requiring further nephrological care. Randomly chosen adult inhabitants of a city with a population of 60,000 were invited to participate in this study. Screening procedures included a microalbuminuria dipstick test accompanied by blood pressure measurement and medical questionnaire. In further diagnosis of CKD, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin concentration in urine, urinalysis and ultrasound examination were used according to the algorithm. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify associations between participants’ characteristics and albuminuria.
Results
Out of 9,700 invited subjects, 2,471 individuals participated in the PolNef study. Albuminuria was detected in 15.6% of the investigated population using the dipstick test and thereafter confirmed in 11.9% by the turbidimetric method. The modeling of multivariate logistic regression indicated the following independent predictors of albuminuria: male sex, diabetes, nocturia and hypertension. For people without diabetes and without hypertension, nocturia independently predicted detection of albuminuria. 481 people received a consultation with a nephrologist, and 96% of them were recognized as having CKD. At least 9% of patients with CKD had eGFR by MDRD <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Six persons were referred for further treatment because of newly diagnosed kidney tumor.
Conclusions
CKD in early stages occurs frequently in the studied population. The proposed diagnostic algorithm seems to be a powerful tool to identify subjects at risk of CKD. The role of nocturia as an independent predictor of albuminuria, both in the general population and in people without diabetes or hypertension, should be further examined.
doi:10.1159/000158526
PMCID: PMC2786021  PMID: 18812692
Albuminuria; Chronic kidney disease; Diagnostic algorithm; Nocturia
22.  International Multicenter Evaluation of the Clinical Utility of a Dipstick Assay for Detection of Leptospira-Specific Immunoglobulin M Antibodies in Human Serum Specimens 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1999;37(9):2904-2909.
We performed a multicenter evaluation of a robust and easily performed dipstick assay for the serodiagnosis of human leptospirosis. The assay is aimed at the detection of Leptospira-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. The study involved 2,665 serum samples collected from 2,057 patients with suspected leptospirosis in 12 countries on five continents with different levels of endemicity and different surveillance systems. The patients were grouped as laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis case patients and noncase patients based on the results of culturing and the microscopic agglutination test. Paired samples from 27.7% of the subjects were tested. Of the 485 case patients, 87.4% had a positive dipstick result for one or more samples. Of the 1,513 noncase patients, only 7.2% had a positive result. Whereas most (88.4%) of the positive samples from the case patients showed moderate to strong (2+ to 4+) staining in the dipstick assay, most (68.1%) of the positive samples from the noncase patients showed weak (1+) staining. The sensitivity of the dipstick assay increased from 60.1% for acute-phase serum samples to 87.4% for convalescent-phase samples. The specificities for these two groups of samples were 94.1 and 92.7%, respectively. The dipstick assay detected a broad variety of serogroups. The results of the dipstick assay were concordant (observed agreement, 93.2%; kappa value, 0.76) with the results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of specific IgM antibodies, a test which is often used in the laboratory diagnosis of current or recent leptospirosis. This study demonstrated that this easily performed dipstick assay is a valuable and useful test for the quick screening for leptospirosis; has a wide applicability in different countries with different degrees of endemicity; can be used at all levels of the health care system, including the field; and will be useful for detecting and monitoring outbreaks of leptospirosis.
PMCID: PMC85409  PMID: 10449473
23.  Leukocyte esterase urine strips for the screening of men with urethritis--use in developing countries. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1994;70(1):3-6.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES--The leukocyte esterase (LE) strip is a useful tool for the screening of men with urethritis. In developing countries, where laboratory facilities are limited, and sexually transmitted diseases endemic, simple and inexpensive diagnostic tests which perform well, would be of great value. METHODS--Men presenting with urethritis to a referral clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi, Kenya participated in this cohort analytical study. First-void urine was collected for LE dipstick testing as part of the diagnostic work-up. The results of the dipstick measurement were compared with the laboratory detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. RESULTS--Of 200 men with symptoms of urethritis, 33 (17%) had a pathogen detected from the urethra or the urine. Chlamydia was detected in urine by PCR in 22 (11%), and gonorrhoea was cultured from the urethra in 11 (6%). Esterase activity (trace or greater) had a sensitivity of 76%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 42% and a negative predictive value of 94% for the presence of chlamydia or gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS--The use of the LE dipstick for the screening of men with symptomatic urethritis can improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce the amount of empiric antimicrobial therapy. The low detection rate of chlamydia in these men with a clinical diagnosis of nongonococcal urethritis needs further study.
PMCID: PMC1195170  PMID: 8300096
24.  Routine dipstick urinalysis in daily practice of Belgian occupational physicians 
Archives of Public Health  2012;70(1):15.
Background
Little work has been done to assess the quality of health care and the use of evidence-based methods by occupational physicians in Belgium. Therefore, the main objective is to describe one aspect of occupational health assessments, namely the common use of dipstick urinalysis, and to compare the current practice with international guidelines.
Methods
A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 211 members of the Scientific Association of Occupational Medicine in the Dutch speaking part of Belgium.
Results
A total of 120 occupational physicians responded, giving a response rate of 57%. Dipstick urinalysis was a routine investigation for the vast majority of physicians (69%). All test strips screened for protein and in 90% also for blood. Occupational health services offered clinical tests to satisfy customer wants as international guidelines do not recommend screening for haematuria and proteinuria in asymptomatic adults. A lack of knowledge concerning positive testing and referral criteria was demonstrated in almost half of the study participants.
Conclusions
Belgian occupational physicians still routinely perform dipstick testing although there is no evidence to support this screening in healthy workers. To practice evidence-based medicine, occupational physicians need more instruction and training. Development and implementation of more guidelines is not only of use for the individual practitioner, it may also enhance professionalization and efficiency of occupational health care.
doi:10.1186/0778-7367-70-15
PMCID: PMC3436716  PMID: 22958323
Evidence-based practice; Occupational health; Guidelines; Health surveillance
25.  Suspicious urinary cytology with negative evaluation for malignancy in the diagnostic investigation of haematuria: how to follow up? 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2004;57(4):365-368.
Aims: To define the natural history of patients with suspicious urinary cytology and negative initial evaluation for malignancy in the investigation of haematuria.
Patients and methods: Data from the hospital information support system on urinary cytology examinations carried out at one centre were audited over a period of 24 months. There were 102 patients who had suspicious urinary cytology for malignant cells with negative initial evaluation. Follow up investigations, treatment, and final outcome were noted.
Results: There were 102 patients with suspicious urinary cytology and negative initial evaluation for malignancy in 24 months, with a mean follow up of 15.7 months. Seventy patients had no obvious pathology on initial investigations. Forty one patients were found to have urological malignancies (29 bladder, eight ureteric, and four prostate) on follow up. All patients diagnosed as having urothelial malignancies on follow up had either persistent suspicious cytology (29) or recurrent haematuria (eight). The mean duration for appearance of lesions was 5.6 months (range, 3–12 months). Three patients had suspicious digital rectal examination and biopsies confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate. One patient had urinary retention and transurethral resection of prostate showed prostatic adenocarcinoma. The presence of suspicious cells on repeat urine analysis was the only significant factor in predicting the presence of urothelial tumours (p  =  0.002).
Conclusion: Patients with persistent suspicious/positive cytology or recurrent haematuria need further evaluation and follow up. Asymptomatic patients or patients with obvious benign pathology do not require repeat evaluation. Careful urological evaluation, including prostate, should be carried out in these patients.
doi:10.1136/jcp.2003.009696
PMCID: PMC1770277  PMID: 15047737
urinary cytology; urological follow up; suspicious cells in urine

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