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1.  Identification and characterization of the in vitro synthesized gene products of bacteriophage M13. 
Journal of Virology  1975;15(3):570-584.
Bacteriophage M13 replicative form (RF) DNA was used to direct coupled transcription and translation in cell-free extracts prepared from Escherichia coli. By using RF DNA, isolated from cells infected with appropriate amber mutants of this phage, it has been possible to identify the products of genes I through IV. By using the same methods no gene-product relationship could be demonstrated for genes VI and VII. Coupled in vitro protein synthesis studies on RF-III DNA, a linear double-stranded DNA molecule, obtained after cleavage of either RF-I or RF-II DNA with the restriction endonuclease R.Hin11 from Haemophilus influenzae, indicated that the cleavage site for this enzyme is located in gene II. The in vitro products of both gene III and gene VIII are about 30 and six amino acids longer, respectively, than their native counterparts present within the virion. These results suggest that the latter proteins arise in vivo by cleavage of precursor molecules. Coupled transcription and translation studies on a DNA fragment which only contained the genetic information coding for gene IV protein, obtained after cleavage of RF DNA with the restriction endonuclease R.Hap11 from Haemophilus aphirophilus, indicated that a large number of the in vitro synthesized polypeptides are the result of premature chain termination.
PMCID: PMC354494  PMID: 1089807
2.  Simian Virus 40 DNA Segment of the Adenovirus 7-Simian Virus 40 Hybrid, E46+, and Its Transcription During Permissive Infection of Monkey Kidney Cells 
Journal of Virology  1975;15(5):1214-1221.
Nucleic acid hybridization methodology has been used to investigate the span of the simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA segment in the adenovirus 7-SV40 hybrid, E46+, and the extent of its transcription in lytically infected monkey kidney cells. The SV40 segment of E46+ comprises approximately 62% of the SV40 genome; it originates in the proximal region of Hin-G (the G fragment derived by cleavage of intact SV40 DNA with Haemophilus influenzae restriction endonuclease), extends sequentially through approximately 80% of this fragment, all of fragments Hin-B, -I, -H, and -A, and terminates approximately 70% of the distance through Hin-C. During E46+ lytic infection of permissive cells, the vast majority of stable cytoplasmic SV40-specific RNA is transcribed from the minus (E) strand of the fragments Hin-A, -H, -I, and -B, comprising the early template region. Transcripts of the minus strand of the Hin-G and -C fragments are detected in much lower concentrations, especially in the total lytic cellular RNA, whereas RNA complementary to the plus (L) strand is not detected. The transcriptional pattern of the SV40 segment within E46+ is thus very similar to that in a number of transformed cell lines and in some respects to the transcriptional pattern in a series of nondefective adenovirus 2-SV40 hybrid viruses. These results suggest a common transcriptional mechanism for integrated SV40 DNA.
PMCID: PMC354576  PMID: 16789154
3.  Site-specific recombinase genes in three Shigella subgroups and nucleotide sequences of a pinB gene and an invertible B segment from Shigella boydii. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1991;173(13):4079-4087.
Inversional switching systems in procaryotes are composed of an invertible DNA segment and a site-specific recombinase gene adjacent to or contained in the segment. Four related but functionally distinct systems have previously been characterized in detail: the Salmonella typhimurium H segment-hin gene (H-hin), phage Mu G-gin, phage P1 C-cin, and Escherichia coli e14 P-pin. In this article we report the isolation and characterization of three new recombinase genes: pinB, pinD, and defective pinF from Shigella boydii, Shigella dysenteriae, and Shigella flexneri, respectively. The genes pinB and pinD were detected by the complementation of a hin mutation of Salmonella and were able to mediate inversion of the H, P, and C segments. pinB mediated H inversion as efficiently as the hin gene did and mediated C inversion with a frequency three orders of magnitude lower than that of the cin gene. pinD mediated inversion of H and P segments with frequencies ten times as high as those for the genes intrinsic to each segment and mediated C inversion with a frequency ten times lower than that for cin. Therefore, the pinB and pinD genes were inferred to be different from each other. The invertible B segment-pinB gene cloned from S. boydii is highly homologous to the G-gin in size, organization, and nucleotide sequence of open reading frames, but the 5' constant region outside the segment is quite different in size and predicted amino acid sequence. The B segment underwent inversion in the presence of hin, pin, or cin. The defective pinF gene is suggested to hae the same origin as P-pin on e14 by the restriction map of the fragment cloned from a Pin+ transductant that was obtained in transduction from S. flexneri to E. coli delta pin.
PMCID: PMC208056  PMID: 2061288
4.  Evolution of competence and DNA uptake specificity in the Pasteurellaceae 
Many bacteria can take up DNA, but the evolutionary history and function of natural competence and transformation remain obscure. The sporadic distribution of competence suggests it is frequently lost and/or gained, but this has not been examined in an explicitly phylogenetic context. Additional insight may come from the sequence specificity of uptake by species such as Haemophilus influenzae, where a 9 bp uptake signal sequence (USS) repeat is both highly overrepresented in the genome and needed for efficient DNA uptake. We used the distribution of competence genes and DNA uptake specificity in H. influenzae's family, the Pasteurellaceae, to examine the ancestry of competence.
A phylogeny of the Pasteurellaceae based on 12 protein coding genes from species with sequenced genomes shows two strongly supported subclades: the Hin subclade (H. influenzae, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia succiniciproducens, and H. somnus), and the Apl subclade (A. pleuropneumoniae, M. haemolytica, and H. ducreyi). All species contained homologues of all known H. influenzae competence genes, consistent with an ancestral origin of competence. Competence gene defects were identified in three species (H. somnus, H. ducreyi and M. haemolytica); each appeared to be of recent origin.
The assumption that USS arise by mutation rather than copying was first confirmed using alignments of H. influenzae proteins with distant homologues. Abundant USS-like repeats were found in all eight Pasteurellacean genomes; the repeat consensuses of species in the Hin subclade were identical to that of H. influenzae (AAGTGCGGT), whereas members of the Apl subclade shared the consensus ACAAGCGGT. All species' USSs had the strong consensus and flanking AT-rich repeats of H. influenzae USSs. DNA uptake and competition experiments demonstrated that the Apl-type repeat is a true USS distinct from the Hin-type USS: A. pleuropneumoniae preferentially takes up DNA fragments containing the Apl-type USS over both H. influenzae and unrelated DNAs, and H. influenzae prefers its own USS over the Apl type.
Competence and DNA uptake specificity are ancestral properties of the Pasteurellaceae, with divergent USSs and uptake specificity distinguishing only the two major subclades. The conservation of most competence genes over the ~350 million year history of the family suggests that lineages that lose competence may be evolutionary dead ends.
PMCID: PMC1626085  PMID: 17038178
5.  Studies of polyoma virus DNA: cleavage map of the polyoma virus genome. 
Journal of Virology  1975;15(1):191-198.
A small-plaque polyoma virus, MPC-1, was isolated from a mouse plasmacytoma. The DNA of this polyoma virus was cleaved with a restriction enzyme from Haemophilus influenzae (Hin d), and the molecular weights of the limit products were analyzed by electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The fragments produced by this enzyme have been ordered by analysis of partial digest products. A physical map of the polyoma virus genome was then constructed.
PMCID: PMC354434  PMID: 163343
6.  Analysis of cytomegalovirus genomes with restriction endonucleases Hin D III and EcoR-1. 
Journal of Virology  1976;18(3):1095-1105.
Cleavage of genomes of eleven human, one simian, and one simian-related cytomegalovirus (CMV) isolate by the restriction endonucleases HinD III and EcoR-1 generated reproducible DNA fragments. The size range of CMV DNA fragments as estimated by contour length measurements in comparison with simian virus 40 form II DNA and by coelectrophoresis with EcoR-1 fragments of herpes simplex virus DNA varied between 15 X 10(6) and 0.5 X 10(6) daltons. Comparison of the cleavage products of each isolate in 1% agarose slab gels showed extensive comigration of fragments among the human CMV isolates. In the HinD III digests, three fragment bands comigrated among all human CMV isolates, and six fragments comigrated among most, but not all, human CMV isolates. In the EcoR-1 digests, nine fragment bands comigrated among all human CMV isolates, and five bands comigrated among most, but not all human isolates. Each isolate had a distinctive electrophoretic profile with either HinD III or EcoR-1 digests. No two isolates had identical HinD III or EcoR-1 patterns although some isolates did share more general pattern similarities than others. No clear-cut subgrouping of isolates based on cleavage pattern characteristics could be discerned. Comparison of HinD III and EcoR-1 patterns showed that human isolates differ greatly from nonhuman CMV isolates. HinD III and EcoR-1 digests of each isolate contained both major and minor molar classes of DNA fragments that ranged from about 1 and multiples of 1 M down to about 0.25 M; however, the summed molecular weights for major molar fragments resulting from HinD III or EcoR-1 digests of several isolates closely approximated the molecular weight of 10(8) of the intact genome.
PMCID: PMC354809  PMID: 178916
7.  Novel non-specific DNA adenine methyltransferases 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;40(5):2119-2130.
The mom gene of bacteriophage Mu encodes an enzyme that converts adenine to N6-(1-acetamido)-adenine in the phage DNA and thereby protects the viral genome from cleavage by a wide variety of restriction endonucleases. Mu-like prophage sequences present in Haemophilus influenzae Rd (FluMu), Neisseria meningitidis type A strain Z2491 (Pnme1) and H. influenzae biotype aegyptius ATCC 11116 do not possess a Mom-encoding gene. Instead, at the position occupied by mom in Mu they carry an unrelated gene that encodes a protein with homology to DNA adenine N6-methyltransferases (hin1523, nma1821, hia5, respectively). Products of the hin1523, hia5 and nma1821 genes modify adenine residues to N6-methyladenine, both in vitro and in vivo. All of these enzymes catalyzed extensive DNA methylation; most notably the Hia5 protein caused the methylation of 61% of the adenines in λ DNA. Kinetic analysis of oligonucleotide methylation suggests that all adenine residues in DNA, with the possible exception of poly(A)-tracts, constitute substrates for the Hia5 and Hin1523 enzymes. Their potential ‘sequence specificity’ could be summarized as AB or BA (where B = C, G or T). Plasmid DNA isolated from Escherichia coli cells overexpressing these novel DNA methyltransferases was resistant to cleavage by many restriction enzymes sensitive to adenine methylation.
PMCID: PMC3299994  PMID: 22102579
8.  Specificity of initiation of transcription of simian virus 40 DNA I by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: identification and localization of five sites for initiation with [gamma-32P]ATP. 
Journal of Virology  1977;22(2):430-445.
Simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA I was transcribed with Escherichia coli RNA polymerase in the presence of gamma-32P-labeled ribonucleoside triphosphates in order to investigate the specificity of initiation of in vitro transcription. ATP and GTP served as predominant initiating nucleotides, the former being incorporated about twice as much as the latter. Cleavage of [gamma-32P]ATP-labeled SV40 complementary RNA (cRNA) with T1 RNase followed by homochromatographic analysis of the resultant 5' initiation fragments revealed the presence of four specific initiation fragments 6 to 9 nucleotides in length, designated AI, AII, AIIIa, and AIIIb. By means of hybridization of [gamma-32P]ATP-labeled SV40 cRNA to DNA from specific adenovirus 2-SV40 hybrids and specific restriction endonuclease fragments of SV40 DNA before chromatographic analysis, it was possible to identify and determine approximate localizations of five [gamma-32P]ATP initiation sites on the SV40 genome: one in Hin-G close to the Hin-G-B junction, giving rise to the AII fragment, two in the overalpping fragment Hin-A-Hae-A,giving rise to AI and AIII fragments, and two in the fragment Hin-A-Hae-E, also giving rise to AI and AIII fragments. All five sites either fall within or lie near regions of the genome that are cleaved by S1 nuclease and subject to partial alkaline denaturation. These five sites lie on the minus strand of SV40 DNA and initiate RNAs that are copied in a leftward direction. Cleavage of [gamma-32P]GTP-labeled cRNA with pancreatic RNase liberated three major 5' initiation fragments of short length, GI, GII, and GIII, suggesting the presence of three principal GTP initiation sites.
PMCID: PMC515734  PMID: 194061
9.  Fine cleavage map of a small colicin E1 plasmid carrying genes responsible for replication and colicin E1 immunity. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1978;133(2):916-924.
A small plasmid (pAO2, 1 megadalton) carrying genes responsible for replication and colicin E1 immunity has been constructed from colicin E1 plasmid (A. Oka, K. Sugimoto, and M. Takanami, Proc. Mol. Biol. Jpn., p. 113-115, 1976). pAO2 DNA was cleaved into unique fragments with seven restriction endonucleases (R.HaeII,R.HaeIII,R.HapII,R.HhaI,R.AluI,R.HgaI, and R.HinfI). R.HaeII cleaved pAO2 DNA at two sites, R.HaeIII at four sites, R.HapII at nine sites, R.HhaI at eight sites, R-AluI at nine sites, R.HgaI at two sites, and R.HinfI at four sites, respectively. The order of HaeIII fragments of pAO2 was deduced from the physical map of colicin E1 plasmid previously reported (A. Oka and M. Takanami, Nature (London) 264:193-196, 1976). HapII, HhaI, and AluI fragments of pAO2 were assigned by analyzing overlapping sets of fragments arising upon digestion of individual HaeIII fragments with one of R.HapII, R.HhaI, or R.AluI, and upon their reciprocal digestion. The cleavage sites for R.HaeII, R.HgaI, and R.HinfI were localized on HapII, HhaI, and AluI fragments by combined digestion. On the basis of these data and estimates of the size of each fragment, a fine cleavage map of pAO2 was constructed.
PMCID: PMC222104  PMID: 342515
10.  RSITE: a computer program to predict the recognition sequence of a restriction enzyme. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1982;10(1):1-17.
A computer program (RSITE) was developed which predicts the recognition sequence of a restriction endonuclease. The sizes of fragments experimentally determined on cleavage of a DNA of known sequence were input. Possible recognition sequences producing fragments of sizes matching those determined empirically were printed out. The program faithfully predicted the specificity of restriction enzymes of known recognition sequence and also determined the recognition sequence of a new restriction enzyme from Haemophilus influenzae GU (HinGU II).
PMCID: PMC326108  PMID: 6278401
11.  Specific Fragments of φX174 Deoxyribonucleic Acid Produced by a Restriction Enzyme from Haemophilus aegyptius, Endonuclease Z 1 
Journal of Virology  1972;10(1):42-50.
A restriction-like enzyme has been purified from Haemophilus aegyptius. This nuclease, endonuclease Z, produces a rapid decrease in the viscosity of native calf thymus and H. influenzae deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), but does not degrade homologous DNA. The specificity of endonuclease Z is different from that of the similar endonuclease isolated from H. influenzae (endonuclease R). The purified enzyme cleaves the double-stranded replicative form DNA of bacteriophage φX174 (φX174 RF DNA) into at least 11 specific limit fragments whose molecular sizes have been estimated by gel electrophoresis. The position of these fragments with respect to the genetic map of φX174 can be determined by using the genetic assay for small fragments of φX174 DNA.
PMCID: PMC356423  PMID: 4537735
12.  Recombination Between Endogenous and Exogenous Simian Virus 40 Genes. II. Biochemical Evidence for Genetic Exchange 
Journal of Virology  1977;24(2):541-550.
The genome of the simian virus 40 (SV40) temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant tsD202 rescued by passage on transformed permissive monkey lines (see accompanying paper [Y. Gluzman et al., J. Virol. 24:534-540, 1977]) was analyzed by restriction endonuclease cleavage mapping to obtain biochemical evidence that the rescue of the ts phenotype results from recombination with the resident SV40 genome of the transformed cell. It was demonstrated that the endonuclease R· HaeIII cleavage site, which is located at 0.9 map unit in the standard viral genome (and which is in the proximity of the known map position of the tsD lesion), is missing in the DNAs of the parental tsD202 virus and of three independent revertants of tsD202. In contrast, this cleavage site was shown to be present in the DNAs of four out of five independently derived rescued D202 populations and in the DNA of the SV40 strain, 777, used to transform the monkey cells. Comparison of the endonuclease R· Hin(II + III) cleavage patterns of SV40 strain 777 DNA and tsD202 DNA revealed differences in the electrophoretic mobilities of Hin fragments A, B, and F. However, the corresponding Hin fragments from all four rescued D202 genomes were identical in their mobilities to those of tsD202 DNA, indicating that these regions of the rescued D202 genome are characteristic of the tsD202 parent. We conclude, therefore, that the genome of the rescued D202 virus is a true recombinant, since it contains restriction endonuclease cleavage sites characteristic of both parents, the endogenous resident SV40 genome of the transformed monkey cells and the exogenous tsD202 mutant.
PMCID: PMC515965  PMID: 199740
13.  Cleavage map of bacteriophage phiX174 RF DNA by restriction enzymes. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1976;3(8):1947-1960.
phiX RF DNA was cleaved by restriction enzymes from Haemophilus influenzae Rf (Hinf I) and Haemophilus haemolyticus (Hha. I). Twenty one fragments of approximately 25 to 730 base pairs were produced by Hinf I and seventeen fragments of approximately 40 to 1560 base pairs by Hha I. The order of these fragments has been established by digestion on Haemophilus awgyptius (Hae III) and Arthrobacter luteus (Alu I) endonuclease fragments of phiX RF with Hinf I and Hha1. By this method of reciprocal digestion a detailed cleavage map of phiX RF DNA was constructed, which includes also the previously determined Hind II, Hae III and Alu I cleavage maps of phiX 174 RF DNA (1, 2). Moreover, 28 conditional lethal mutants of bacteriophage phiX174 were placed in this map using the genetic fragment assay (3).
PMCID: PMC343051  PMID: 1085927
14.  The relationship between MHC-DRB1 gene second exon polymorphism and hydatidosis resistance of Chinese merino (Sinkiang Junken type), Kazakh and Duolang sheep 
The present study aimed at detecting the association of ovine major histocompatibility complex class II (Ovar II) DRB1 gene second exon and susceptibility or resistance to hydatidosis in three sheep breeds of Sinkiang. The MHC-DRB1 second exon was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from DNA samples of healthy sheep and sheep with hydatidosis. PCR products were characterized by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Five restriction enzymes, MvaI, HaeIII, SacI, SacII, Hin1I, were used, yielding 14 alleles and 31 restriction patterns. Frequencies of patterns MvaIbc, Hin1Iab, SacIIab, HaeIIIde, HaeIIIdf, HaeIIIdd (P < 0.01) in Kazakh sheep, SacIab (P < 0.05) in Duolang sheep, and HaeIIIab, HaeIIIce, HaeIIIde, HaeIIIee (P < 0.01) in Chinese Merino (Sinkiang Junken type) sheep, were significantly higher in healthy sheep compared with infected sheep. These results indicated a strong association between these patterns and hydatidosis resistance. In contrast, the frequencies of MvaIbb, SacIIaa, Hin1Ibb, HaeIIIef (P < 0.01) and HaeIIIab (P < 0.05) in Kazakh sheep, SacIbb, HaeIIIae, Hin1Iab (P < 0.05), HaeIIIaa, HaeIIIbe, HaeIIIef (P < 0.01) in Duolang sheep, SacIIaa (P < 0.05) and HaeIIIbd, Hin1Ibb, HaeIIIcf, HaeIIIef (P < 0.01) in Chinese Merino sheep (Sinkiang Junken type) were significantly lower in healthy sheep compared with infected sheep. This indicated a strong association between these patterns and hydatidosis susceptibility. In addition, sheep with the pattern of HaeIIIef demonstrated a high hydatidosis susceptibility (P < 0.01) in all three breeds, while sheep with the pattern HaeIIIde demonstrated significant hydatidosis resistance (P < 0.01) in Kazakh and Chinese Merino sheep (Sinkiang Junken type). These results suggest that the Ovar-DRB1 gene plays a role in resistance to hydatidosis infection in the three sheep breeds.
PMCID: PMC3671419  PMID: 21678792
Chinese merino sheep (Sinkiang Junken type); Kazakh sheep; Duolang sheep; Ovar-DRB1 exon 2; PCR-RFLP; hydatidosis; mouton mérinos chinois (type Sinkiang Junken); mouton Kazakh; mouton Duolang; Ovar-DRB1 exon 2; PCR-RFLP; hydatidose
15.  Multiple interfaces between a serine recombinase and an enhancer control site-specific DNA inversion 
eLife  2013;2:e01211.
Serine recombinases are often tightly controlled by elaborate, topologically-defined, nucleoprotein complexes. Hin is a member of the DNA invertase subclass of serine recombinases that are regulated by a remote recombinational enhancer element containing two binding sites for the protein Fis. Two Hin dimers bound to specific recombination sites associate with the Fis-bound enhancer by DNA looping where they are remodeled into a synaptic tetramer competent for DNA chemistry and exchange. Here we show that the flexible beta-hairpin arms of the Fis dimers contact the DNA binding domain of one subunit of each Hin dimer. These contacts sandwich the Hin dimers to promote remodeling into the tetramer. A basic region on the Hin catalytic domain then contacts enhancer DNA to complete assembly of the active Hin tetramer. Our results reveal how the enhancer generates the recombination complex that specifies DNA inversion and regulates DNA exchange by the subunit rotation mechanism.
eLife digest
Many processes in biology rely on enzymes that break both the strands in a DNA molecule, then rearrange the strands, and finally join them back together in a new configuration. These recombination reactions can, for example, change the positions of genetic elements such as enhancers and promoters within the DNA molecule and, therefore, influence how a given gene is expressed as a protein. Cells need to be able to control recombination reactions because they can lead to leukemia and lymphomas if they go wrong.
The enzymes that catalyze these recombination reactions are called recombinases. One type of recombinase binds to specific sequences of DNA bases and uses an amino acid in the enzyme–usually serine or tyrosine–to break and rejoin the DNA strands. Recombination reactions require the assembly of complexes containing many proteins bound to DNA. Tyrosine recombinases form relatively simple protein-DNA complexes, and these have been studied in detail. Serine recombinases, on the other hand, form more elaborate protein-DNA complexes, and much less is known about these.
Now McLean et al. have unraveled the mechanism that a serine recombinase called Hin uses to reverse the direction of a stretch of chromosomal DNA in the bacteria Salmonella enterica. Inverting this stretch of DNA–which contains about 1000 base pairs–changes the position of a gene promoter that is responsible for the production of flagellin, which is the protein that enables the bacterium to move. This is one of the tricks that Salmonella uses to evade the immune system of its host.
Previous research has established that four Hin subunits and two copies of a protein called Fis are needed to invert this stretch of DNA: two Hin subunits bind to each of the two hix recombination sites, and the Fis proteins (which are dimers) bind to each end of an enhancer that is located between the hix sites. A protein called HU then causes the DNA to bend and form a loop, and the four Hin subunits and the two Fis dimers all come together at the enhancer to form a structure called the invertasome where the recombination reaction occurs. All four DNA strands at the crossover point are broken as a result of a near simultaneous attack by the catalytic serine amino acids in the Hin subunits. One pair of Hin subunits–and the two DNA strands attached to them–then rotate by 180 degrees around the other pair of Hin subunits. This means that the stretch of DNA between the hix sites is inverted when the DNA strands are rejoined at the end of the reaction.
Enhancers often regulate transcription and other reactions from a distance. McLean et al. reveal how an enhancer of a DNA recombination reaction works. The pairs of Hin subunits that initially bind to the DNA are not catalytically active, but when they are brought together by the enhancer and form a tetramer, they become active. Two of the Hin subunits are clamped onto the enhancer by the Fis dimers and by directly interacting with the enhancer DNA, but the other two (and the DNA strands attached to them) are free to rotate within the tetramer. In the Salmonella chromosome the enhancer is located close to one of the hix sites (∼100 base pairs away from it), so the length of the DNA between the enhancer and hix site physically limits the number of Hin subunit rotations to just one.
PMCID: PMC3798978  PMID: 24151546
Salmonella enterica; site-specific DNA recombination; serine recombinase; recombinational enhancer; synaptic complex; DNA strand exchange; E. coli
16.  Inactivation of Haemophilus influenzae Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Genes Interferes with Outer Membrane Localization of the Hap Autotransporter 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(7):1815-1822.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a major cause of localized respiratory tract disease and initiates infection by colonizing the nasopharynx. Colonization requires adherence to host epithelial cells, which is mediated by surface proteins such as the Hap adhesin. In this study, we identified a relationship between Hap levels in the outer membrane and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis enzymes. We found that mutation of the rfaF, pgmB, lgtC, kfiC, orfE, rfbP, lsgB, or lsgD genes, which are involved in the synthesis of the LPS oligosaccharide core in H. influenzae strain Rd/HapS243A, resulted in loss of Hap in the bacterial outer membrane and a decrease in hap transcript levels. In contrast, the same mutations had no effect on outer membrane localization of H. influenzae P5 or IgA1 protease or levels of p5 or iga1 transcripts, suggesting a Hap-specific effect. Elimination of the HtrA periplasmic protease resulted in a return of Hap to the outer membrane and restoration of hap transcript levels. Consistently, in lgtC phase-off bacteria, Hap was absent from the outer membrane, and hap transcript levels were reduced. Hap localization and hap transcript levels were not related to LPS size but to the functions of the LPS biosynthesis enzymes themselves. We speculate that the lack of certain LPS biosynthesis enzymes causes Hap to mislocalize and accumulate in the periplasm, where it is degraded by HtrA. This degradation then leads to a decrease in hap transcript levels. Together, these data highlight a novel interplay between Hap and LPS biosynthesis that can influence H. influenzae interactions with the host.
PMCID: PMC3302475  PMID: 22287523
17.  Structure of HinP1I endonuclease reveals a striking similarity to the monomeric restriction enzyme MspI 
Nucleic Acids Research  2005;33(6):1892-1901.
HinP1I, a type II restriction endonuclease, recognizes and cleaves a palindromic tetranucleotide sequence (G↓CGC) in double-stranded DNA, producing 2 nt 5′ overhanging ends. Here, we report the structure of HinP1I crystallized as one protein monomer in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. HinP1I displays an elongated shape, with a conserved catalytic core domain containing an active-site motif of SDX18QXK and a putative DNA-binding domain. Without significant sequence homology, HinP1I displays striking structural similarity to MspI, an endonuclease that cleaves a similar palindromic DNA sequence (C↓CGG) and binds to that sequence crystallographically as a monomer. Almost all the structural elements of MspI can be matched in HinP1I, including both the DNA recognition and catalytic elements. Examining the protein–protein interactions in the crystal lattice, HinP1I could be dimerized through two helices located on the opposite side of the protein to the active site, generating a molecule with two active sites and two DNA-binding surfaces opposite one another on the outer surfaces of the dimer. A possible functional link between this unusual dimerization mode and the tetrameric restriction enzymes is discussed.
PMCID: PMC1074309  PMID: 15805123
18.  Cleavage maps of the filamentous bacteriophages M13, fd, fl, and ZJ/2. 
Journal of Virology  1976;18(3):1024-1039.
The replicative form DNAs of bacteriophage M13, fd, f1, and ZJ/2 were found to be sensitive to cleavage by the restriction endonucleases endoR-HapII, endoR-HaeII, endoR-HaeIII, endoR-HindII, endoR-AluI, endoR-Hha, and endoR-Hinf. With respect to M13 DNA the number of cleavage sites varied from 21 for endoR-Hinf, 18 for endoR-AluI, 15 for endoR-Hha, 13 for endoR-HapII, 10 for endoR-HaeIII, 3 for endoR-HaeII, to only a single site for endoR-HindII. In contrast to M13, fd and f1, the ZJ/2 DNA molecule was not cleaved by the endoR-HindII endonuclease. No cleavage site on either phage DNA was detected for the endonucleases endoR-Hsu, endoR-EcoRI and endoR-Sma. When compared with M13 DNA, several differences were noted in the number and size of cleavage products obtained with DNA of phage fd, f1, and ZJ/2. From the results of these analyses, using the M13 enzyme cleavage maps as a reference, the endoR-HapII, endoR-HaeII, endoR-HaeIII, endoR-HindII and endoR-AluI maps of phage fd, f1, and ZJ/2 could be constructed. As is expected for very closely related phages, the enzyme cleavage patterns exhibit a high degree of homology. Phage f1 and ZJ/2 are most related since an identical pattern was obtained with seven different restriction endonucleases. Evidence is provided also that f1 is more similar to M13 than to fd. Furthermore, characteristic differences exist within the endoR-Hinf enzyme cleavage pattern of all the four phages tested. Digestion of phage DNA with this enzyme, therefore, provides a new and sensitive method of distinguishing these closely related filamentous coliphages .
PMCID: PMC354802  PMID: 1271528
19.  A role for the human DNA repair enzyme HAP1 in cellular protection against DNA damaging agents and hypoxic stress. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1994;22(23):4884-4889.
The HAP1 protein (also known as APE/Ref-1) is a bifunctional human nuclear enzyme required for repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites in DNA and reactivation of oxidized proto-oncogene products. To gain insight into the biological roles of HAP1, the effect of expressing antisense HAP1 RNA in HeLa cells was determined. The constructs for antisense RNA expression consisted of either a full-length HAP1 cDNA or a genomic DNA fragment cloned downstream of the CMV promoter in pcDNAneo. Stable HeLa cell transfectants expressing HAP1 antisense RNA were found to express greatly reduced levels of the HAP1 protein compared to equivalent sense orientation and vector-only control transfectants. The antisense HAP1 transfectants exhibited a normal growth rate, cell morphology and plating efficiency, but were hypersensitive to killing by a wide range of DNA damaging agents, including methyl methanesulphonate, hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and paraquat. However, survival after UV irradiation was unchanged. The antisense transfectants were strikingly sensitive to changes in oxygen tension, exhibiting increased killing compared to controls following exposure to both hypoxia (1% oxygen) and hyperoxia (100% oxygen). Consistent with a requirement for HAP1 in protection against hypoxic stress, expression of the HAP1 protein was found to be induced in a time-dependent manner in human cells during growth under 1% oxygen. The possible involvement of a depletion of cellular glutathione being linked to the hypoxic stress-sensitive phenotype of the antisense HAP1 transfectants came from the finding that they also exhibited hypersensitivity to buthionine sulphoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis. We conclude that the HAP1 protein is a key factor in cellular protection against a wide variety of cellular stresses, including DNA damage and a change in oxygen tension.
PMCID: PMC523752  PMID: 7800476
20.  Physical mapping of adeno-associated virus serotype 4 DNA. 
Journal of Virology  1980;35(3):653-661.
The organization of adeno-associated virus serotype 4 (AAV 4) DNA was probed by using restriction enzymes. The cleavage sites of the following enzymes were mapped: BglII, BamI, HincII, KpnI, PstI, SalI, SstI, and XhoI. The orientation of transcription on the physical cleavage map was determined by locating the fragments which contain the 3' end of the mRNA. Strand separation gels were run for HinII fragments of AAV 4 DNA. By hybridizing AAV 4 mRNA to the resolved strands, the polarity of the DNA strands was identified. Restriction digestion of AAV 4 DNA sometimes produced terminal fragments which migrated in agarose gels as doublets. However, when AAV 4 DNA was prepared devoid of any single-stranded nicks, these terminal doublet bands were not observed upon subsequent restriction analysis. During these studies, the molecular weights of both AAV 4 and AAV 2 duplex DNA were measured and were found to be somewhat larger than previously reported (3.18 x 10(6) and 3.10 x 10(6), respectively).
PMCID: PMC288859  PMID: 6252330
21.  Anatomy of herpes simplex virus DNA. III. Characterization of defective DNA molecules and biological properties of virus populations containing them. 
Journal of Virology  1975;16(1):153-167.
We have characterized the virus progeny and its DNA from plaque-purified and undiluted passages of herpes simplex virus 1 in HEp-2 cells. Secifically, (i) infectious virus yields declined progressively in passages 1 through 10 and gradually increased at passages 11 through 14. The yields correlated with PFU/particle ratios. (ii) In cells infected with virus from passages 6 through 10, there was an overproduction of an early viral polypeptide (no. 4) and a delay in the synthesis of late viral proteins. In addition, the virus in these passages interfered with the replication of a nondefective marker virus. Cells infected with passage 14 virus produced normal amounts of polypeptide 4 and, moreover, this virus showed minimal interfering capacity. (iii) In addition to DNA of density 1.726 g/cm-3, which was the sole component present in viral progeny of passage 0, passages 6 through 14 contained one additional species (p 1.732) and in some instances (passages 6 and 10) also DNA of an intermediate buoyant density. The ratio of p 1.732 to p 1.726 DNA increased to a maximum of 4 in passages 6 through 9 and gradually decreased to 1 in passages 10 through 14. (iv) p 1.732 DNA cannot be differentiated from p 1.726 DNA with respect to size; however, it has no Hin III restriction enzyme cleavage sites and yields only predominantly two kinds of fragments with molecular weights of 5.1 x 10-6 and 5.4 x 10-6 upon digestion with EcoRI enzyme. (v) Partial denaturation profiles of purified p 1.732 DNA from passage 14 revealed the presence of two types of tandemly repeated units corresponding roughly in size to the EcoRI fragments and situated in different molecules. (vi) In addition to the two kinds of p 1.732 molecules consisting of tandem repaeat units of different sizes, other evidence for the diversity of defective DNA molecules emerged from comparisons of specific infectivity and interfering capacity of the progeny from various passages. The data suggest that some of the particles with DNA of normal buoyant density (1.726) must also be defective since the capacity to interfere and to produce an excess of polypeptide 4 did not appear to be proportional to the amount of high-buoyant-density defective DNA. The data suggest that defective interfering particles are replaced by defective particles with diminished capacity to interfere and that more than one species of defective DNA molecules evolves on serial preparation of HSV.
PMCID: PMC354644  PMID: 166202
22.  Identification and Characterization of the fis Operon in Enteric Bacteria 
Journal of Bacteriology  1998;180(22):5932-5946.
The small DNA binding protein Fis is involved in several different biological processes in Escherichia coli. It has been shown to stimulate DNA inversion reactions mediated by the Hin family of recombinases, stimulate integration and excision of phage λ genome, regulate the transcription of several different genes including those of stable RNA operons, and regulate the initiation of DNA replication at oriC. fis has also been isolated from Salmonella typhimurium, and the genomic sequence of Haemophilus influenzae reveals its presence in this bacteria. This work extends the characterization of fis to other organisms. Very similar fis operon structures were identified in the enteric bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Erwinia carotovora, and Proteus vulgaris but not in several nonenteric bacteria. We found that the deduced amino acid sequences for Fis are 100% identical in K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens, E. coli, and S. typhimurium and 96 to 98% identical when E. carotovora and P. vulgaris Fis are considered. The deduced amino acid sequence for H. influenzae Fis is about 80% identical and 90% similar to Fis in enteric bacteria. However, in spite of these similarities, the E. carotovora, P. vulgaris, and H. influenzae Fis proteins are not functionally identical. An open reading frame (ORF1) preceding fis in E. coli is also found in all these bacteria, and their deduced amino acid sequences are also very similar. The sequence preceding ORF1 in the enteric bacteria showed a very strong similarity to the E. coli fis P region from −53 to +27 and the region around −116 containing an ihf binding site. Both β-galactosidase assays and primer extension assays showed that these regions function as promoters in vivo and are subject to growth phase-dependent regulation. However, their promoter strengths vary, as do their responses to Fis autoregulation and integration host factor stimulation.
PMCID: PMC107668  PMID: 9811652
23.  The nucleotide sequence of a DNA fragment, 71 base pairs in length, near the origin of DNA replication of bacteriophage 0X174. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1976;3(10):2827-2844.
Part of the nucleotide sequence of a restriction fragment covering the origin of phiX174 DNA replication 1 has been determined. The fragment A7c was obtained by digestion of phiX174 RF DNA by the restriction enzyme from Arthrobacter luteus, Alu 1. It was further cleaved into two fragments, one large and one small, by the action of the restriction enzyme from Haemophilus aegyptius, Hae 111. The nucleotide sequence of the small fragment has been determined by analysis of the transcription products obtained by the action of Escherichia coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerase on denaturated template under conditions of low salt. Transcripts longer than the template were found. The whole sequence of 71 nucleotide pairs could be derived from complementary oligonucleotides, obtained after digestion of the transcripts with T1 or pancreatic RNAase. The sequence suggests that at least 4 of the 5 amber mutants 2 that have been mapped on this fragment are identical. On account of this and other evidence a reading frame is proposed.
PMCID: PMC343130  PMID: 995652
24.  In Vivo Methylation of Bacteriophage φX174 DNA 
Journal of Virology  1979;32(3):845-851.
A mutant (designated mec−) has been isolated from Escherichia coli C which has lost DNA-cytosine methylase activity and the ability to protect phage λ against in vivo restriction by the RII endonuclease. This situation is analogous to that observed with an E. coli K-12 mec− mutant; thus, the E. coli C methylase appears to have overlapping sequence specificity with the K-12 and RII enzymes; (the latter methylases have been shown previously to recognize the same sequence). Covalently closed, supertwisted double-standed DNA (RFI) was isolated from C mec+ and C mec− cells infected with bacteriophage φX174. φX· mec− RFI is sensitive to in vitro cleavage by R·EcoRII and is cut twice to produce two fragments of almost equal size. In contrast, φX·mec+ RFI is relatively resistant to in vitro cleavage by R·EcoRII. R·BstI, which cleaves mec+/RII sites independent of the presence or absence of 5-methylcytosine, cleaves both forms of the RFI and produces two fragments similar in size to those observed with R· EcoRII. These results demonstrate that φX·mec+ RFI is methylated in vivo by the host mec+ enzyme and that this methylation protects the DNA against cleavage by R·EcoRII. This is consistent with the known location of two mec+/ RII sequences (viz., [Formula: see text]) on the φX174 map. Mature singlestranded virion DNA was isolated from φX174 propagated in C mec+ or C mec− in the presence of l-[methyl-3H]methionine. Paper chromatographic analyses of acid hydrolysates revealed that φX·mec+ DNA had a 10-fold-higher ratio of [3H]5-methylcytosine to [3H]cytosine compared to φX·mec−. Since φX·mec+ contains, on the average, approximately 1 5-methylcytosine residue per viral DNA, we conclude that methylation of φX174 is mediated by the host mec+ enzyme only. These results are not consistent with the conclusions of previous reports that φX174 methylation is mediated by a phage-induced enzyme and that methylation is essential for normal phage development.
PMCID: PMC525933  PMID: 159962
25.  Size and physical map of the chromosome of Haemophilus influenzae. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1989;171(5):2474-2479.
A variation of pulse-field electrophoresis, field-inversion gel electrophoresis, was used to determine the size and physical map of the chromosome of Haemophilus influenzae. The DNA of H. influenzae had a low G + C content (39%) and no restriction sites for the enzymes NotI or SfiI. However, a number of restriction enzymes (SmaI, ApaI, NaeI, and SacII) that recognized 6-base-pair sequences containing only G and C nucleotides were found to generate a reasonable number of DNA fragments that were separable in agarose gels by field-inversion gel electrophoresis. The sizes of the DNA fragments were calibrated with a lambda DNA ladder and lambda DNA restriction fragments. The sum of fragment sizes obtained with restriction digests yielded a value for the chromosome of 1,980 kilobase pairs. Hybridization of a labeled fragment with two or more fragments from a digest with a different restriction enzyme provided the information needed to construct a circular map of the H. influenzae chromosome.
PMCID: PMC209923  PMID: 2785105

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