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1.  Effective media communication of disasters: Pressing problems and recommendations 
BMC Public Health  2007;7:97.
Public health officials and journalists play a crucial role in disseminating information regarding natural disasters, terrorism and other human-initiated disasters. However, research suggests that journalists are unprepared to cover terrorism and many types of natural disasters, in part because of lack sufficient expertise in science and medicine and training. The objective of this research was to identify solutions to problems facing journalists and public health public information officer (PIOs) of communicating with the public during natural and human-initiated disasters.
To assist in identifying the most pressing problems regarding media response to health-related risks such as terrorism and large-scale natural disasters, 26 expert advisors were convened, including leaders representing journalists and public information officers, state health officials, experts in terrorism and emergency preparedness, and experts in health, risk, and science communication. The advisory group participated in pre-arranged interviews and were asked to identify and review bioterrorism educational resources provided to journalist. All advisory group members were then invited to attend a day long meeting January 29, 2004 to review the findings and reach consensus.
The most pressing problems were found to be a lack of coordination between PIO's and journalists, lack of resources for appropriately evaluating information and disseminating it efficiently, and a difference in perception of PIO's and journalist towards each others role during emergency situations. The advisory board developed a list of 15 recommendations that may enhance communication plans betweens PIO's, journalist and the public. The solutions were meant to be feasible in terms of costs and practical in terms of the professional and organizational realities in which journalists and PIO's work.
It is clear that PIO's and journalists play crucial roles in shaping public response to terrorism and other disasters. The findings from this formative research suggest that perspectives and organizational processes often limit effective communication between these groups; though practical solutions such as participation of journalists in drills, scenario exercises, sharing of informational resources, and raising awareness at professional trade meetings may enhance the timely dissemination of accurate and appropriate information.
PMCID: PMC1894967  PMID: 17553153
2.  The National Library of Medicine’s Disaster Information Management Research Center 
The Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC) develops and provides access to health information resources and technology for disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. DIMRC focuses on maintaining access to health information at all phases of disasters, developing innovative products and services for emergency personnel, conducting research to support disaster health information management, and collaborating with other agencies and communities. Several tools are available to help emergency responders in hazardous materials or chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear incidents. Access to the literature is made available through PubMed and the Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, with links to online documents and resources from numerous organizations and government agencies. In addition, DIMRC supports the Disaster Information Specialist Program, a collaborative effort to explore and promote the role of librarians and information specialists in the provision of disaster-related information resources to the workforce and communities.
PMCID: PMC3864260  PMID: 24380078
library; informationist; literature; tools; apps
3.  Using a Private-Public Partnership to Supplement Healthcare Information Technology in Nursing Education 
Various reports by the World Bank and U.S. business technology executives, academics, economists, researchers, and government policymakers have recommended crafting a new educational model for educating America’s future workforce including nurses in their professional research pursuits. According to the National League for Nursing, nursing research is an integral part of the scientific enterprise of improving the nation’s health. A major aim of this new educational focus is the partnering of private business enterprises and public educational institutions to achieve this outcome, i.e., public-private partnerships. Merck & Co., Inc. will partner/collaborate on a student learning pilot project with New York City College of Technology of the City University of New York Department of Nursing Bachelor of Nursing Program students - all practicing New York State Registered Professional Nurses - who are taking either Nursing Informatics or Leadership in the Management of Client Care courses.
PMCID: PMC3799165  PMID: 24199056
4.  Relational strategies for bridging and promoting cross-sector collaboration 
There is a growing consensus that the response to complex and difficult social problems—being the convergence of ageing and disability one of them– requires public agencies to be prepared to work in partnership with other public, civil society and business organisations. However, initiatives aimed at promoting health and social care providers working in partnership have had limited success so far.
To provide an analytical framework to assess the different kinds of organisational strategies to promote cross-sector collaboration.
The paper draws on empirical research studies in the fields of organization theory and public governance. At a macro level, it refers to the changing role of governments in advanced democracies and the emergence of the relational state as a response to the crisis of the welfare state. At a micro level, it discusses the different modes of non-hierarchical coordination between organisations (or horizontal coordination) as well as the different types of partnerships, their governance forms (market, hierarchy or network) and their organisational and institutional implications (e.g. organisational values, resources and capabilities needed, legal framework and incentives for collaboration).
There are significant obstacles and barriers to cross-sector collaboration which arise from the nature of the different organisations involved (policy domain, public or private status, geographical scope of activity, dominant professional group), their endowment in terms of resources and organisational capabilities, and the institutional framework that regulates their interplay. There is not such a thing as ‘one best way’ to achieve effective collaboration; instead decision-makers have a range of alternative collaboration arrangements, hence the importance of making the right choices and designing context-specific relational strategies.
PMCID: PMC2707554
relational strategies; horizontal coordination; cross-sector partnerships; network governance
5.  Improving Access to Medicines in Low and Middle Income Countries: Corporate Responsibilities in Context 
Southern Med Review  2012;5(2):3-8.
More than two billion people in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) lack adequate access to essential medicines. In this paper, we make strong public health, human rights and economic arguments for improving access to medicines in LMIC and discuss the different roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders, including national governments, the international community, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). We then establish a framework of pharmaceutical firms’ corporate responsibilities - the “must,” the “ought to,” and the “can” dimensions - and make recommendations for actionable business strategies for improving access to medicines. We discuss controversial topics, such as pharmaceutical profits and patents, with the goal of building consensus around facts and working towards a solution. We conclude that partnerships and collaboration among multiple stakeholders are urgently needed to improve equitable access to medicines in LMIC.
PMCID: PMC3606933  PMID: 23535994
Pharmaceutical Products; Health Policy; Health Financing; Health Systems
6.  Use of a Business Approach to Improve Disease Surveillance Data Management Systems and Information Technology Process in Florida's Bureau of STD Prevention and Control 
Public Health Reports  2009;124(Suppl 2):98-102.
The business of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and control demands technology that is capable of supporting a wide array of program activities—from the processing of laboratory test results to the complex and confidential process involved in contact investigation. The need for a tool that enables public health officials to successfully manage the complex operations encountered in an STD prevention and control program, and the need to operate in an increasingly poor resource environment, led the Florida Bureau of STD to develop the Patient Reporting Investigation Surveillance Manager. Its unique approach, technical architecture, and sociotechnical philosophy have made this business application successful in real-time monitoring of disease burden for local communities, identification of emerging outbreaks, monitoring and assurance of appropriate treatments, improving access to laboratory data, and improving the quality of data for epidemiologic analysis. Additionally, the effort attempted to create and release a product that promoted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's ideas for integration of programs and processes.
PMCID: PMC2775406
7.  Cross-Sector Leadership Development for Preparedness 
Public Health Reports  2005;120(Suppl 1):109-115.
After fall 2001, scientists and professionals recognized the importance of integrating public health with traditional first-response professions in planning and training for disasters. However, operationalizing this approach among professionals in the field confronted barriers that were both inter-cultural and jurisdictional. The Pennsylvania Preparedness Leadership Institute (PPLI) is a collaboration of the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the University of Pittsburgh Center for Public Health Preparedness. Team members are recruited from public health, emergency medicine, emergency management, hospitals, and public safety agencies from each of nine multi-county regions in Pennsylvania. Each team takes on a year-long project that addresses a strategic problem as a focus for capacity-building within its region. Unexpectedly during PPLI's first year in operation, a hepatitis-A outbreak tested whether one regional team could successfully mount the necessary integrated response. This experience, as well as the planned evaluation for PPLI, demonstrated both the successful processes and the positive impact of this integrated leadership training initiative.
PMCID: PMC2569977  PMID: 16025714
8.  Southeastern Regional Pediatric Disaster Surge Network: A Public Health Partnership 
Public Health Reports  2010;125(Suppl 5):117-125.
In the event of a natural or man-made disaster involving large numbers of children, resources in the Southeastern U.S. are extremely limited. This article chronicles the efforts of the Alabama Department of Public Health, the Mississippi State Department of Health, and the South Central Center for Public Health Preparedness in conjunction with more than 40 organizations to develop a voluntary network of health-care providers, public health departments, volunteers, and emergency responders from Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The purpose of the Southeastern Regional Pediatric Disaster Surge Network (the Network) is to improve the pediatric preparedness response strategies of public health, emergency response, and pediatric providers in the event of large-scale emergencies or disasters that overwhelm local or state pediatric resources.
The planning and development of the Network is proceeding through three general phases—information sharing, mutual goal setting and collective action, and long-term formal linkages. In Phase 1, critical planning tasks to be undertaken in the development of the Network were identified. In Phase 2, the agencies developed a draft operational handbook that served as the basis for a formal memorandum of understanding. In Phase 3, participants will engage in exercises and evaluations that will further identify and work out logistical and operational details.
PMCID: PMC2966653  PMID: 21133068
9.  Higher Education Initiatives for Disaster and Emergency Health in Iran 
Iranian Journal of Public Health  2013;42(6):635-638.
Iran’s health system is expanding the disaster and emergency higher education programs over the country to enhance the capacity of human resources for effective and efficient disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. In this article we present an overview about the initiatives and progress of disaster and emergency health higher education in Iran. Following the Bam earthquake, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health & Medical Education and National Institute of Health Research, School of Public Health at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran took the initiative to develop a Master of Public Health (MPH) with disaster concentration in 2006, a PhD in disaster and emergency health in 2011, and a well constructed certificate course in 2008 entitled Disaster Health Management and Risk Reduction (DHMR). Iran, Kerman and Shahid Beheshti Universities of Medical Sciences and University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation are other academia that joined this initiative. Regarding the importance of programs evaluation, we have planned for a comprehensive evaluation of MPH and DHMR programs in 2013–4 and the Accreditation and Evaluation Board of Disaster & Emergency Health, based in MOH&ME, is responsible for evaluation of the PhD program in 3–5 years from initiation.
PMCID: PMC3744261  PMID: 23967432
Disaster; Emergency; Health; Higher education; Iran
10.  Building Global Health Through a Center-Without-Walls: The Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health 
The Institute for Global Health at Vanderbilt enables the expansion and coordination of global health research, service, and training, reflecting the university's commitment to improve health services and outcomes in resource-limited settings. Global health encompasses both prevention via public health and treatment via medical care, all nested within a broader community-development context. This has fostered university-wide collaborations to address education, business/economics, engineering, nursing, and language training, among others. The institute is a natural facilitator for team building and has been especially helpful in organizing institutional responses to global health solicitations from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and other funding agencies. This center-without-walls philosophy nurtures noncompetitive partnerships among and within departments and schools. With extramural support from the NIH and from endowment and developmental investments from the school of medicine, the institute funds new pilot projects to nurture global educational and research exchanges related to health and development. Vanderbilt's newest programs are a CDC-supported HIV/AIDS service initiative in Africa and an overseas research training program for health science graduate students and clinical fellows. New opportunities are available for Vanderbilt students, staff, and faculty to work abroad in partnership with international health projects through a number of Tennessee institutions now networked with the institute. A center-without-walls may be a model for institutions contemplating strategic investments to better organize service and teaching opportunities abroad, and to achieve greater successes in leveraging extramural support for overseas and domestic work focused on tropical medicine and global health.
PMCID: PMC2564795  PMID: 18303361
11.  The Civil Air Patrol's Role in Medical Countermeasure Distribution in Michigan 
Michigan's unique geological features and highly variable climatic conditions make distribution of medical countermeasures during a public health emergency situation very challenging. To enhance distribution during these situations, the Civil Air Patrol (CAP) has agreed to support the state of Michigan by transporting life-saving medical countermeasures to remote areas of the state. The Michigan Strategic National Stockpile (MISNS) program has successfully developed, exercised, and enhanced its partnership with the CAP to include distribution of federally provided Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) assets. The CAP has proven to be a reliable and valuable partner, as well as a cost-effective and time-efficient means of transporting vital resources during a public health emergency.
Michigan's unique geological features and highly variable climate make distribution of medical countermeasures during a public health emergency situation challenging. The Civil Air Patrol agreed to transport life-saving medical countermeasures to remote areas of the state. The program was successfully developed and exercised.
PMCID: PMC3223014  PMID: 22060035
12.  Double Fire Tragedy of Kenya 
Eplasty  2009;10:e3.
Objective: Within days of each other, 2 catastrophic fires occurred in Kenya. On January 28, 2009, a busy supermarket was destroyed in downtown Nairobi. Shortly thereafter on February 2, an overturned petrol tanker exploded near the village of Molo, 200 km from the capital. These 2 disasters, in an urban and a rural setting, respectively, illustrate the lack of disaster readiness on a local and national level. Methods: A call for assistance was responded to by the James Jordan Foundation, which sponsored a team from the United States to provide consultation and patient care. Subsequent to this team's experiences, a review of medical records at the Kenyatta National Hospital, interactions with government health officials, and investigation of public media resources, the following observations are reported. Results: Twenty-six victims died in the supermarket fire, and 20 who were admitted to local hospitals later succumbed. At Molo, 91 lives were claimed at the scene; 178 patients were admitted to various hospitals, 40 of whom died. Conclusion: The fires brought to light factors contributing to these events and their outcomes. In addition, it produced improvised solutions for resuscitation of mass casualties and the performance of emergency surgery with inadequate equipment and facilities.
PMCID: PMC2803767  PMID: 20076785
13.  Partnering for Preparedness: The Project Public Health Ready Experience 
Public Health Reports  2005;120(Suppl 1):69-75.
Effective partnerships between local and state public health agencies and schools of public health have tremendous potential to improve the health of communities nationwide. This article highlights successful collaboration between local public health agencies (LPHA), state health departments, and Academic Centers for Public Health Preparedness (ACPHP) in schools of public health developed through participation in Project Public Health Ready, a program to recognize LPHA emergency preparedness. The project's pilot phase illustrated that LPHAs, state health departments, and ACPHP can effectively work together to improve individual public health worker competency and organizational response capacity in local public health agencies nationwide.
PMCID: PMC2569991  PMID: 16025710
14.  Demography and Public Health Emergency Preparedness: Making the Connection 
The tools and techniques of population sciences are extremely relevant to the discipline of public health emergency preparedness: protecting and securing the population’s health requires information about that population. While related fields such as security studies have successfully integrated demographic tools into their research and literature, the theoretical and practical connection between the methods of demography and the practice of public health emergency preparedness is weak. This article suggests the need to further the interdisciplinary use of demography by examining the need for a systematic use of population science techniques in public health emergency preparedness. Ultimately, we demonstrate how public health emergency preparedness can incorporate demography to develop more effective preparedness plans. Important policy implications emerge: demographers and preparedness experts need to collaborate more formally in order to facilitate community resilience and mitigate the consequences of public health emergencies.
PMCID: PMC2904460  PMID: 20694030
Public health; Preparedness; Policy; Demography
15.  National Collaborative for Bio-Preparedness 
Demonstrate the functionality of the National Collaborative for Bio-Preparedness system.
The National Collaborative for Bio-Preparedness (NCB-Prepared) was established in 2010 to create a biosurveillance resource to enhance situational awareness and emergency preparedness. This joint-institutional effort has drawn on expertise from the University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill, North Carolina State University, and SAS Institute, leveraging North Carolina’s role as a leader in syndromic surveillance, technology development and health data standards. As an unprecedented public/private alliance, they bring the flexibility of the private sector to support the public sector. The project has developed a functioning prototype system for multiple states that will be scaled and made more robust for national adoption.
NCB-Prepared recognizes that the capability of any biosurveillance system is a function of the data is analyzes. NCB-Prepared is designed to provide information services that analyze and integrate national data across a variety of domains, such as human clinical, veterinary and physical data. In addition to this one-health approach to surveillance, a primary objective of NCB-Prepared is to gather data that is closer in time to the event of interest. NCB-Prepared has validated the usefulness of North Carolina emergency medical services data for the purposes of biosurveillance of both acute outbreaks and seasonal epidemics (1).
A unique model of user-driven valuing of data-providing value back to the provider in their terms-motivates collaboration from potential data providers, along with timely and complete data. NCB-Prepared approaches potential data providers, partners and users with the proposition that enhanced data quality and analysis is valuable to them individually and that an integrated information system can be valuable to all. With the onboarding of new data sources, NCB-Prepared implements a formal process of data discovery and integration. The goal of this process is three-fold: 1) to develop recommendations to enhance data quality going forward, 2) to integrate information across data sources, and 3) to develop novel analytic techniques for detecting health threats. NCB-Prepared is committed to both utilizing standard methods for event detection and to developing innovative analytics for biosurveillance such as the Text Analytics and Proportional charts method (TAP). The sophisticated analytic functionality of the system, including improved time to detection, query reporting, alert detection, forecasting and predictive modeling, can be attributed to collaboration between analysts from private industry, academia and public health.
NCB-Prepared followed the formal software development process known as agile development to create the user interface of the system. This method is based on iterative cycles wherein requirements evolve from regular sessions between user groups and developers. The result of agile development and collaborative relationships is a system which visualizes signals and diverse data sources across time and place while providing information services across all levels of users and stakeholders.
Lessons Learned: Understand the functionality of new biosurveillance system, NCB-PreparedIdentify the benefit of creating collaborative relationships with data providers and usersAppreciate the value of a public/private partnership for biosurveillance and bio-preparedness
PMCID: PMC3692851
Biosurveillance; Analytics; Preparedness; Emergency
16.  Scaling up of physical activity interventions in Brazil: how partnerships and research evidence contributed to policy action 
Global Health Promotion  2013;20(4):5-12.
The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated.
PMCID: PMC3917705  PMID: 24323944
physical activity; policy; practice; program planning; management; collaboration; partnership; communicable disease
17.  Vehicle Scheduling Schemes for Commercial and Emergency Logistics Integration 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82866.
In modern logistics operations, large-scale logistics companies, besides active participation in profit-seeking commercial business, also play an essential role during an emergency relief process by dispatching urgently-required materials to disaster-affected areas. Therefore, an issue has been widely addressed by logistics practitioners and caught researchers' more attention as to how the logistics companies achieve maximum commercial profit on condition that emergency tasks are effectively and performed satisfactorily. In this paper, two vehicle scheduling models are proposed to solve the problem. One is a prediction-related scheme, which predicts the amounts of disaster-relief materials and commercial business and then accepts the business that will generate maximum profits; the other is a priority-directed scheme, which, firstly groups commercial and emergency business according to priority grades and then schedules both types of business jointly and simultaneously by arriving at the maximum priority in total. Moreover, computer-based simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of these two models by comparing them with two traditional disaster-relief tactics in China. The results testify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed models.
PMCID: PMC3877009  PMID: 24391724
18.  The Evidence Base for Effectiveness of Preparedness Training: A Retrospective Analysis 
Public Health Reports  2010;125(Suppl 5):15-23.
In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) commissioned an Evidence-Based Gaps Collaboration Group to consider whether past experience could help guide future efforts to educate and train public health workers in responding to emergencies and disasters.
The Group searched the peer-reviewed literature for preparedness training articles meeting three criteria: publication during the period when CDC's Centers for Public Health Preparedness were fully operational, content relevant to emergency response operations, and content particular to the emergency response roles of public health professionals. Articles underwent both quantitative and qualitative analyses.
The search identified 163 articles covering the topics of leadership and command structure (18.4%), information and communications (14.1%), organizational systems (78.5%), and others (23.9%). The number of reports was substantial, but their usefulness for trainers and educators was rated only “fair” to “good.” Thematic analysis of 137 articles found that organizational topics far outnumbered leadership, command structure, and communications topics. Disconnects among critical participants—including trainers, policy makers, and public health agencies—were noted. Generalizable evaluations were rare.
Reviews of progress in preparedness training for the public health workforce should be repeated in the future. Governmental investment in training for preparedness should continue. Future training programs should be grounded in policy and practice needs, and evaluations should be based on performance improvement.
PMCID: PMC2966641  PMID: 21133061
19.  The World Trade Center Attack Disaster preparedness: health care is ready, but is the bureaucracy? 
Critical Care  2001;5(6):323-325.
When a disaster occurs, it is for governments to provide the leadership, civil defense, security, evacuation, and public welfare. The medical aspects of a disaster account for less than 10% of resource and personnel expenditure. Hospitals and health care provider teams respond to unexpected occurrences such as explosions, earthquakes, floods, fires, war, or the outbreak of an infectious epidemic. In some geographic locations where natural disasters are common, such as earthquakes in Japan, such disaster practice drills are common. In other locations, disaster drills become pro forma and have no similarity to real or even projected and predicted disasters. The World Trade Center disaster on 11 September 2001 provides new information, and points out new threats, new information systems, new communication opportunities, and new detection methodologies. It is time for leaders of medicine to re-examine their approaches to disaster preparedness.
PMCID: PMC137381  PMID: 11737919
bioterrorism; detection; disaster planning; terrorism
20.  The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis 
Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets); a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid), and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with donors in essential nutrition and agricultural research. Currently governments in developed countries provide a wide range of incentives to the pharmaceutical industry to develop medicated solutions to nutritional problems. We need equivalent effort to be given to the development of more sustainable agricultural and food based solutions. We now face a truly global set of interlinked crises related to food that affect all people. The same degree of urgency and high level leadership and partnership seen during the Second World War is required on a global basis. This time it will need to simultaneously address agricultural, environmental and health considerations with the aim being the attainment of optimal nutrition for all within a framework of sustainable development.
PMCID: PMC2631462  PMID: 19055848
21.  Web 2.0 and Internet Social Networking: A New tool for Disaster Management? - Lessons from Taiwan 
Internet social networking tools and the emerging web 2.0 technologies are providing a new way for web users and health workers in information sharing and knowledge dissemination. Based on the characters of immediate, two-way and large scale of impact, the internet social networking tools have been utilized as a solution in emergency response during disasters. This paper highlights the use of internet social networking in disaster emergency response and public health management of disasters by focusing on a case study of the typhoon Morakot disaster in Taiwan.
In the case of typhoon disaster in Taiwan, internet social networking and mobile technology were found to be helpful for community residents, professional emergency rescuers, and government agencies in gathering and disseminating real-time information, regarding volunteer recruitment and relief supplies allocation. We noted that if internet tools are to be integrated in the development of emergency response system, the accessibility, accuracy, validity, feasibility, privacy and the scalability of itself should be carefully considered especially in the effort of applying it in resource poor settings.
This paper seeks to promote an internet-based emergency response system by integrating internet social networking and information communication technology into central government disaster management system. Web-based networking provides two-way communication which establishes a reliable and accessible tunnel for proximal and distal users in disaster preparedness and management.
PMCID: PMC2958996  PMID: 20925944
22.  Best Practice No 177 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2004;57(4):337-343.
This guideline reviews the introduction and development of business planning in the National Health Service. A guideline for writing a business case for service development that would form part of a pathology business plan has been developed. This guideline outlines six steps that are required in the preparation of a business case. The format of the guideline has been developed largely from other national guidelines that have been published for the development of capital projects. In view of the publication of these guidelines, the scope of this guideline excludes business cases for information, management, and technology projects and large capital projects.
PMCID: PMC1770268  PMID: 15047731
business case; business planning; pathology
23.  Transforming the Cross Cultural Collaborative of Pierce County Through Assessment Capacity Building 
Underserved populations are underrepresented in public health initiatives such as tobacco control and in cancer clinical trials. Community involvement is crucial to interventions aimed at reducing health disparities, and local health departments increasingly are called upon to provide both leadership and funding. The Tacoma Pierce County Health Department (TPCHD), in conjunction with 13 key community-based organizations and healthcare systems, formed the Cross Cultural Collaborative of Pierce County (CCC) that successfully employs needs-assessment and evaluation techniques to identify community health initiatives.
Community leaders from six underserved populations of the CCC were trained in needs-assessments techniques. Assessments measured effectiveness of the collaborative process and community health initiatives by using key informant (n = 18) and group interviews (n = 3).
The CCC, facilitated by its partnership with the TPCHD, built capacity and competence across community groups to successfully obtain two funded public health initiatives for six priority populations. Members expressed overall satisfaction with the training, organizational structure, and leadership. The CCC’s diversity, cultural competency, and sharing of resources were viewed both as a strength and a decision-making challenge.
Public health department leadership, collaboration, and evidence-based assessment and evaluation were key to demonstrating effectiveness of the interventions, ensuring the CCC’s sustainability.
PMCID: PMC2837662  PMID: 19077598
capacity building; collaborative; community assessments; evaluation
24.  Public Health-Specific National Incident Management System Trainings: Building a System for Preparedness 
Public Health Reports  2010;125(Suppl 5):43-50.
Local health departments (LHDs) are at the hub of the public health emergency preparedness system. Since the 2003 issuance of Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5, LHDs have faced challenges to comply with a new set of all-hazards, 24/7 organizational response expectations, as well as the National Incident Management System (NIMS). To help local public health practitioners address these challenges, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded Johns Hopkins Center for Public Health Preparedness (JH-CPHP) created and implemented a face-to-face, public health-specific NIMS training series for LHDs. This article presents the development, evolution, and delivery of the JH-CPHP NIMS training program. In this context, the article also describes a case example of practice-academic collaboration between the National Association of County and City Health Officials and JH-CPHP to develop public health-oriented NIMS course content.
PMCID: PMC2966644  PMID: 21137131
25.  Strategic planning with multitype libraries in the community: a model with extra funding as the main goal. 
Medical libraries are discovering that ongoing collaboration in fundraising with other types of community libraries is mutually beneficial. Such partnerships may lead to joint grants, increase library visibility and access to decision makers, allow participation in community information networks, and provide leverage in additional fundraising projects. These partnerships have the potential to raise the profile of libraries. The accompanying community recognition for the parent organization may create a positive image, draw patients to the health center, and position the library and institution for future success in fundraising. Within institutions, development officers may become allies, mentors, and beneficiaries of the medical librarian's efforts. For a planned approach to community outreach with extra funding as the major objective, busy medical library administrators need guidelines. Standard participative techniques were applied to strategic planning by Indianapolis libraries to help achieve successful community outreach and to write joint statements of mission, vision, goals, and objectives.
PMCID: PMC226267  PMID: 9285125

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