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1.  Osteoarthritis of the knee 
BMJ Clinical Evidence  2007;2007:1121.
Introduction
Osteoarthritis of the knee affects about 10% of adults aged over 60 years, with risk increased in those with obesity, and joint damage or abnormalities. Progression of disease on x rays is commonplace, but x ray changes don’t correlate well with clinical symptoms.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-surgical treatments for osteoarthritis of the knee? What are the effects of surgical treatments for osteoarthritis of the knee? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 74 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, capsaicin, chondroitin, education to aid self-management, exercise and physiotherapy, glucosamine, insoles, intra-articular corticosteroids, intra-articular hyaluronan, joint bracing, knee replacement, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (including topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), opioid analgesics, osteotomy, simple analgesics, and taping.
Key Points
Osteoarthritis of the knee affects about 10% of adults aged over 60 years, with risk increased in those with obesity, and joint damage or abnormalities. Progression of disease on x rays is commonplace, but x ray changes don't correlate well with clinical symptoms.We don't know the long-term effectiveness of any non-surgical treatment in reducing pain and improving function.
Exercise and physiotherapy and joint bracing or taping reduce pain and disability in people with knee osteoarthritis, but we don't know whether patient education or insoles are beneficial.
Oral and topical NSAIDs reduce pain in the short term compared with placebo, but can cause gastrointestinal, renal and cardiac adverse effects. Paracetamol reduces pain in the short term compared with placebo, but may be less effective than NSAIDs. Opioid analgesics reduce pain in knee osteoarthritis but they are associated with serious adverse effects so are not rcommended for first-line treatment.
Intra-articular corticosteroids and intra-articular hyaluronan may improve pain, although most studies are of poor quality. We don't know whether acupuncture, capsaicin, glucosamine, or oral or intramuscularchondroitin improve symptoms in knee osteoarthritis.
Consensus is that total knee replacement is the most clinically effective treatment for severe osteoarthritis of the knee. Unicompartmental knee replacement may be more effective than tricompartmental knee replacement in the long term.Tibial osteotomy may be as effective as unicompartmental knee replacement in reducing symptoms of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.
PMCID: PMC2943785  PMID: 19450299
2.  The discordance between clinical and radiographic knee osteoarthritis: A systematic search and summary of the literature 
Background
Studies have suggested that the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) are rather weakly associated with radiographic findings and vice versa. Our objectives were to identify estimates of the prevalence of radiographic knee OA in adults with knee pain and of knee pain in adults with radiographic knee OA, and determine if the definitions of x ray osteoarthritis and symptoms, and variation in demographic factors influence these estimates.
Methods
A systematic literature search identifying population studies which combined x rays, diagnosis, clinical signs and symptoms in knee OA. Estimates of the prevalence of radiographic OA in people with knee pain were determined and vice versa. In addition the effects of influencing factors were scrutinised.
Results
The proportion of those with knee pain found to have radiographic osteoarthritis ranged from 15–76%, and in those with radiographic knee OA the proportion with pain ranged from 15% – 81%. Considerable variation occurred with x ray view, pain definition, OA grading and demographic factors
Conclusion
Knee pain is an imprecise marker of radiographic knee osteoarthritis but this depends on the extent of radiographic views used. Radiographic knee osteoarthritis is likewise an imprecise guide to the likelihood that knee pain or disability will be present. Both associations are affected by the definition of pain used and the nature of the study group. The results of knee x rays should not be used in isolation when assessing individual patients with knee pain.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-116
PMCID: PMC2542996  PMID: 18764949
3.  Referral recommendations for osteoarthritis of the knee incorporating patients' preferences 
Family Practice  2010;28(1):68-74.
Background. GPs have to respond to conflicting policy developments. As gatekeeper they are supposed to manage the growing demand for specialist services and as patient advocate they should be responsive to patients' preferences. We used an innovative approach to develop a referral guideline for patients with chronic knee pain that explicitly incorporates patients' preferences.
Methods. A guideline development group of 12 members including patients, GPs, orthopaedic surgeons and other health care professionals used formal consensus development informed by systematic evidence reviews. They rated the appropriateness of referral for 108 case scenarios describing patients according to symptom severity, age, body mass, co-morbidity and referral preference. Appropriateness was expressed on scale from 1 (‘strongly disagree’) to 9 (‘strongly agree’).
Results. Ratings of referral appropriateness were strongly influenced by symptom severity and patients' referral preferences. The influence of other patient characteristics was small. There was consensus that patients with severe knee symptoms who want to be referred should be referred and that patient with moderate or mild symptoms and strong preference against referral should not be referred. Referral preference had a greater impact on the ratings of referral appropriateness when symptoms were moderate or severe than when symptoms were mild.
Conclusions. Referral decisions for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee should only be guided by symptom severity and patients' referral preferences. The guideline development group seemed to have given priority to avoiding inefficient resource use in patients with mild symptoms and to respecting patient autonomy in patients with severe symptoms.
doi:10.1093/fampra/cmq066
PMCID: PMC3023074  PMID: 20817791
Clinical practice guideline; gatekeeping; knee; osteoarthrits; patient preference; referral and consultation
4.  Gender difference in symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis in the Knee Clinical Assessment – CAS(K): A prospective study in the general population 
Background
A recent study of adults aged ≥50 years reporting knee pain found an excess of radiographic knee osteoarthritis (knee ROA) in symptomatic males compared to females. This was independent of age, BMI and other clinical signs and symptoms. Since this finding contradicts many previous studies, our objective was to explore four possible explanations for this gender difference: X-ray views, selection, occupation and non-articular conditions.
Methods
A community-based prospective study. 819 adults aged ≥50 years reporting knee pain in the previous 12 months were recruited by postal questionnaires to a research clinic involving plain radiography (weight-bearing posteroanterior semiflexed, supine skyline and lateral views), clinical interview and physical examination. Any knee ROA, ROA severity, tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis (TJOA) and patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (PJOA) were defined using all three radiographic views. Occupational class was derived from current or last job title. Proportions of each gender with symptomatic knee ROA were expressed as percentages, stratified by age; differences between genders were expressed as percentage differences with 95% confidence intervals.
Results
745 symptomatic participants were eligible and had complete X-ray data. Males had a higher occurrence (77%) of any knee ROA than females (61%). In 50–64 year olds, the excess in men was mild knee OA (particularly PJOA); in ≥65 year olds, the excess was both mild and moderate/severe knee OA (particularly combined TJOA/PJOA). This male excess persisted when using the posteroanterior view only (64% vs. 52%). The lowest level of participation in the clinic was symptomatic females aged 65+. Within each occupational class there were more males with symptomatic knee ROA than females. In those aged 50–64 years, non-articular conditions were equally common in both genders although, in those aged 65+, they occurred more frequently in symptomatic females (41%) than males (31%).
Conclusion
The excess of knee ROA among symptomatic males in this study seems unlikely to be attributable to the use of comprehensive X-ray views. Although prior occupational exposures and the presence of non-articular conditions cannot be fully excluded, selective non-participation bias seems the most likely explanation. This has implications for future study design.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-82
PMCID: PMC2443794  PMID: 18547403
5.  Labelling chronic illness in primary care: a good or a bad thing? 
Traditionally the management of any chronic condition starts with its diagnosis. The labelling of disease can be beneficial in terms of defining appropriate treatment such as in coronary artery disease. However, sometimes it may be detrimental such as when x-rays are used to diagnose lumbar spondylosis leading to patients inappropriately limiting their activity. Chronic knee pain in the elderly is another example where applying labels is problematical. A common diagnosis in this situation is osteoarthritis, but this label can be applied in two ways: as a radiological diagnosis, or as a clinical one. The x-ray diagnosis, however, does not equate with the clinical syndrome, and vice versa. In addition, diagnosing knee pain as osteoarthritis does not necessarily help in management, since a patient's debility is more dependent upon their clinical signs and symptoms than the presence of radiographic osteoarthritis, and by the same token its clinical counterpart. GPs are consistent in their management of knee pain, but in attempting to diagnose the pain as osteoarthritis, these plans can alter and become more dependent on the actual diagnosis than the clinical picture. As a result management may well diverge from what the current best evidence supports. Diagnosis for diagnosis sake, should therefore be discouraged, and chronic knee pain gives us one example of why this is the case. GPs would be better placed to manage this condition if it was considered more as a regional pain syndrome, perhaps defining it simply as ‘chronic knee pain in older people’. This example suggests that there is a pressing need in primary care to carefully consider in chronic disease when it is appropriate to be definitive in diagnosis such that when using disease specific labels, there is definite benefit for the patient and doctor.
PMCID: PMC1326113  PMID: 15588540
chronic disease; diagnosis; knee osteoarthritis; radiography
6.  Arthroscopic Lavage and Debridement for Osteoarthritis of the Knee 
Executive Summary
Objective
The purpose of this review was to determine the effectiveness and adverse effects of arthroscopic lavage and debridement, with or without lavage, in the treatment of symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, and to conduct an economic analysis if evidence for effectiveness can be established.
Questions Asked
Does arthroscopic lavage improve motor function and pain associated with OA of the knee?
Does arthroscopic debridement improve motor function and pain associated with OA of the knee?
If evidence for effectiveness can be established, what is the duration of effect?
What are the adverse effects of these procedures?
What are the economic considerations if evidence for effectiveness can be established?
Clinical Need
Osteoarthritis, the most common rheumatologic musculoskeletal disorder, affects about 10% of the Canadian adult population. Although the natural history of OA is not known, it is a degenerative condition that affects the bone cartilage in the joint. It can be diagnosed at earlier ages, particularly within the sports injuries population, though the prevalence of non-injury-related OA increases with increasing age and varies with gender, with women being twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with this condition. Thus, with an aging population, the impact of OA on the health care system is expected to be considerable.
Treatments for OA of the knee include conservative or nonpharmacological therapy, like physiotherapy, weight management and exercise; and more generally, intra-articular injections, arthroscopic surgery and knee replacement surgery. Whereas knee replacement surgery is considered an end-of-line intervention, the less invasive surgical procedures of lavage or debridement may be recommended for earlier and more severe disease. Both arthroscopic lavage and debridement are generally indicated in patients with knee joint pain, with or without mechanical problems, that are refractory to medical therapy. The clinical utility of these procedures is unclear, hence, the assessment of their effectiveness in this review.
Lavage and Debridement
Arthroscopic lavage involves the visually guided introduction of saline solution into the knee joint and removal of fluid, with the intent of extracting any excess fluids and loose bodies that may be in the knee joint. Debridement, in comparison, may include the introduction of saline into the joint, in addition to the smoothening of bone surface without any further intervention (less invasive forms of debridement), or the addition of more invasive procedures such as abrasion, partial or full meniscectomy, synovectomy, or osteotomy (referred to as debridement in combination with meniscectomy or other procedures). The focus of this health technology assessment is on the effectiveness of lavage, and debridement (with or without meniscal tear resection).
Review Strategy
The Medical Advisory Secretariat followed its standard procedures and searched these electronic databases: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment.
The keywords searched were: arthroscopy, debridement, lavage, wound irrigation, or curettage; arthritis, rheumatoid, osteoarthritis; osteoarthritis, knee; knee or knee joint.
Time frame: Only 2 previous health technology assessments were identified, one of which was an update of the other, and included 3 of 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from the first report. Therefore, the search period for inclusion of studies in this assessment was January 1, 1995 to April 24, 2005.
Excluded were: case reports, comments, editorials, and letters. Identified were 335 references, including previously published health technology assessments, and 5 articles located through a manual search of references from published articles and health technology assessments. These were examined against the criteria, as described below, which resulted in the inclusion of 1 health technology assessment and its corresponding update, and 4 articles (2 RCTs and 2 level 4 studies) for arthroscopic lavage and 8 papers (2 RCTs and 6 level 4 studies) for arthroscopic debridement.
Inclusion Criteria
English-language articles from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Systematic Reviews, and health technology assessments from January 1, 1995 onward
Studies on OA of the knee with a focus on the outcomes of motor function and pain
Studies of arthroscopic procedures only
Studies in which meniscal tear resection/meniscectomy (partial or full) has been conducted in conjunction with lavage or debridement.
Exclusion Criteria
Studies that focus on inflammatory OA, joint tuberculosis, septic joints, psoriatic joints (e.g., psoriatic knee joint synovitis), synovitis, chondropathy of the knee and gonarthrosis (which includes varotic gonarthrosis)
Studies that focus on rheumatoid arthritis
Studies that focus on meniscal tears from an acute injury (e.g., sports injury)
Studies that are based on lavage or debridement for microfracture of the knee
Studies in which other surgical procedures (e.g., high tibial osteotomy, synovectomy, have been conducted in addition to lavage/debridement)
Studies based on malalignment of the knee (e.g., varus/valgus arthritic conditions).
Studies that compare lavage to lavage plus drug therapy
Studies on procedures that are not arthroscopic (i.e., visually guided) (e.g., nonarthroscopic lavage)
Studies of OA in children.
Intervention
Arthroscopic lavage or debridement, with or without meniscectomy, for the treatment of motor function symptoms and pain associated with OA of the knee.
Comparators
Studies in which there was a comparison group of either diseased or healthy subjects or one in which subjects were their own control were included. Comparisons to other treatments included placebo (or sham) arthroscopy. Sham arthroscopy involved making small incisions and manipulating the knee, without the insertion of instruments.
Summary of Findings
In early OA of the knee with pain refractory to medical treatment, there is level 1b evidence that:
Arthroscopic lavage gives rise to a statistically significant, but not clinically meaningful effect in improving pain (WOMAC pain and VAS pain) up to 12 months following surgery. The effect on joint function (WOMAC function) and the primary outcome (WOMAC aggregate) was neither statistically nor clinically significant.
In moderate or severe OA of the knee with pain refractory to medical treatment, there is:
Level 1b evidence that the effect on pain and function of arthroscopic lavage (10 L saline) and debridement (with 10 L saline lavage) is not statistically significant up to 24 months following surgery.
Level 2 evidence that arthroscopic debridement (with 3 L saline lavage) is effective in the control of pain in severe OA of the medial femoral condyle for up to 5 years.
For debridement in combination with meniscectomy, there is level 4 evidence that the procedure, as appropriate, might be effective in earlier stages, unicompartmental disease, shorter symptom duration, sudden onset of mechanical symptoms, and preoperative full range of motion. However, as these findings are derived from very poor quality evidence, the identification of subsets of patients that may benefit from this procedure requires further testing.
In patients with pain due to a meniscal tear, of the medial compartment in particular, repair of the meniscus results in better pain control at 2 years following surgery than if the pain is attributable to other causes. There is insufficient evidence to comment on the effectiveness of lateral meniscus repair on pain control.
Conclusions
Arthroscopic debridement of the knee has thus far only been found to be effective for medial compartmental OA. All other indications should be reviewed with a view to reducing arthroscopic debridement as an effective therapy.
Arthroscopic lavage of the knee is not indicated for any stage of OA.
There is very poor quality evidence on the effectiveness of debridement with partial meniscectomy in the case of meniscal tears in OA of the knee.
PMCID: PMC3382413  PMID: 23074463
7.  A cross sectional study of requests for knee radiographs from primary care 
Background
Knee pain is the commonest pain complaint amongst older adults in general practice. General Practitioners (GPs) may use x rays when managing knee pain, but little information exists regarding this process. Our objectives, therefore, were to describe the information GPs provide when ordering knee radiographs in older people, to assess the association between a clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) and the presence of radiographic knee OA, and to investigate the clinical content of the corresponding radiologists' report.
Methods
A cross sectional study of GP requests for knee radiographs and their matched radiologists' reports from a local radiology department. Cases, aged over 40, were identified during an 11-week period. The clinical content of the GPs' requests and radiologists' reports was analysed. Associations of radiologists' reporting of i) osteoarthritis, ii) degenerative disease and iii) individual radiographic features of OA, with patient characteristics and clinical details on the GPs' requests, were assessed.
Results
The study identified 136 cases with x ray requests from 79 GPs and 11 reporting radiologists. OA was identified clinically in 19 (14%) of the requests, and queried in another 31 (23%). The main clinical descriptor was pain in 119 cases (88%). Radiologists' reported OA in 22% of cases, and the features of OA were mentioned in 63%. Variation in reporting existed between radiologists. The commonest description was joint space narrowing in 52 reports (38%). There was an apparent although non significant increase in the reporting of knee OA when the GP had diagnosed or queried it (OR 1.95; 95% CI 0.76, 5.00).
Conclusion
The features of radiographic OA are commonly reported in those patients over 40 whom GPs send for x ray. If OA is clinically suspected, radiologists appear to be more likely to report its presence. Further research into alternative models of referral and reporting might identify a more appropriate imaging policy in knee disorders for primary care.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-8-77
PMCID: PMC1963327  PMID: 17683606
8.  Effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for knee osteoarthritis pain: protocol of a randomized controlled trial 
Background
Knee osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis, with pain being its most common symptom. Little is known about the psychological aspects of knee osteoarthritis pain. There is an emerging consensus among osteoarthritis specialists about the importance of addressing not only biological but also psychosocial factors in the assessment and treatment of osteoarthritis. As few studies have evaluated the effect of psychological interventions on knee osteoarthritis pain, good quality randomized controlled trials are needed to determine their effectiveness.
Methods/Design
We intend to conduct a 6-week single-blinded randomized controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up. Altogether, 108 patients aged from 35 to 75 years with clinical symptoms and radiographic grading (KL 2–4) of knee osteoarthritis will be included. The clinical inclusion criteria are pain within the last year in or around the knee occurring on most days for at least one month, and knee pain of ≥40 mm on a 100-mm visual analogue scale in the WOMAC pain subscale for one week prior to study entry. Patients with any severe psychiatric disorder, other back or lower limb pain symptoms more aggravating than knee pain, or previous or planned lower extremity joint surgery will be excluded. The patients will be randomly assigned to a combined GP care and cognitive-behavioral intervention group (n = 54) or to a GP care control group (n = 54). The cognitive-behavioral intervention will consist of 6 weekly group sessions supervised by a psychologist and a physiotherapist experienced in the treatment of pain. The main goals of the intervention are to reduce maladaptive pain coping and to increase the self-management of pain and disability. The follow-up-points will be arranged at 3 and 12 months. The primary outcome measure will be the WOMAC pain subscale. Secondary outcome measures will include self-reports of pain and physical function, a health related quality of life questionnaire, and various psychological questionnaires. Personnel responsible of the data analysis will be blinded.
Discussion
This study addresses the current topic of non-pharmacological conservative treatment of knee OA-related pain. We anticipate that these results will provide important new insights to the current care recommendations.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN64794760
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-46
PMCID: PMC3626912  PMID: 23356455
Osteoarthritis; Pain management; Cognitive-behavioral; Psychological; Intervention study
9.  The management of Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease: is there a consensus? 
Purpose
The aim of the study was to find out whether or not there is consensus among experienced pediatric orthopaedists about the management of certain clinical scenarios in Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease.
Methods
A questionnaire was sent to all 297 members of the European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society (EPOS) describing four cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes’ disease (LCPD) with two X-rays each and a short description of the clinical scenario. Two of the patients were younger and two were older than six years of age. From both age groups there was one with a good range of motion and an X-ray classified as Herring A or B, while the other patient had a poor range of motion and an X-ray classified as Herring C. EPO members were asked to choose from various treatment options or to describe any other therapy that they would advise in the clinical scenarios.
Results
One-hundred and fifty members answered the questionnaire. The participants had an average of 20 years of experience in pediatric orthopaedics. There was a consensus that no surgery should be performed in a young patient with a good range of motion and that there should be no weight relief when older with a good range of motion. Conservative containment treatment (abduction splint, Petrie cast) and arthrodiastasis was suggested in only very few centres. There was a tendency to performan operation when the patient is older with a poor range of motion and to perform operative treatment only when there were subluxation or head at risk signs.pelvic osteotomies or a combination of pelvic and femoral osteotomies rather than femoral osteotomies alone. Age did not determine the indication for treatment and there was no agreement on the indications for physiotherapy. There was also no consensus on the type of pelvic osteotomy to be used.
Conclusions
The study showed that indications for the treatment of LCPD is based more on the personal experience of the surgeon rather than on scientific data.
doi:10.1007/s11832-007-0010-z
PMCID: PMC2656702  PMID: 19308501
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease; Multicentre study; Indication; Operative treatment; Conservative treatment
10.  Use of Knee Magnetic Resonance Imaging by Primary Care Physicians in Patients Aged 40 Years and Older 
Sports Health  2010;2(5):385-390.
Background:
Criteria are needed for primary care providers such that they can evaluate age-related knee pain in a cost-effective manner. This study examined (1) in what percentage of patients are appropriate radiographic views of the knee ordered before magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for knee pain, (2) specialists’ retrospective evaluation for appropriate utilization of MRI in knee pain, and (3) in what manner would the MRIs have altered diagnosis and management of knee disorders.
Hypothesis:
Primary care providers underuse appropriate radiographs—especially, flexion weightbearing posteroanterior films—and overuse MRIs when evaluating older patients with knee pain.
Study Design:
Case control.
Methods:
The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 100 patients older than 40 years with knee MRIs. Patient encounters with primary care physicians were reviewed. Given available information, specialists then formulated a pre- and post-MRI diagnosis and treatment plan and indicated whether the MRI would have altered their treatment.
Results:
Only 12 of 100 MRIs would have been ordered by an orthopaedist given the documented data. No MRIs would have been ordered in the 19 patients aged 60 years or older. Among 44 radiographs ordered, only 7 were flexion weightbearing. The most common pre-MRI diagnoses made by primary care providers were joint pain (22%) and meniscus injury (24%); the most common post-MRI diagnoses were osteoarthritis (40%) and degenerative meniscus injury (23%). In contrast, the 2 most common pre- and post-MRI diagnoses by specialists were osteoarthritis (28% and 37%, respectively) and degenerative meniscus injury (23% and 24%, respectively). Also, referrals to specialists increased from 9% pre-MRI to 76% post-MRI.
Conclusion:
Primary care providers may be overusing knee MRIs and underusing flexion weightbearing posteroanterior radiographs in patients older than 40 years with knee pain.
Clinical relevance:
Primary care providers should strongly consider not ordering knee MRI in patients with radiographic evidence of degenerative changes.
doi:10.1177/1941738110377420
PMCID: PMC3445052  PMID: 23015964
knee; flexion weightbearing radiographs; magnetic resonance imaging; degenerative meniscus tear; osteoarthritis
11.  Variability in Recommendations for Total Knee Arthroplasty among Rheumatologists and Orthopedic Surgeons 
The Journal of rheumatology  2013;41(1):10.3899/jrheum.130762.
Objective
The most rapidly growing population of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is under the age of 65. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the factors influencing physicians’ recommendations for persons in this age group with moderate osteoarthritis (OA).
Methods
Rheumatologists and orthopedic surgeons attending national meetings were asked to complete a survey including a standardized scenario of a 62 year old person with knee OA who has moderate knee pain limiting strenuous activity despite medical management. We used an experimental 2×2×2 design to examine the effects of gender, employment status and severity of radiographic OA on physicians’ recommendations. Each physician was asked to rate a single scenario.
Results
The percent of physicians recommending TKA varied from 30% to 55% for scenarios describing a patient with mild radiographic OA, and from 39% to 71% for scenarios describing a patient with moderate radiographic OA. Surgeons were less likely to recommend TKA for women compared to men of the same age, employment status, symptom severity and functional status, and x-rays. Rheumatologists practicing in academic settings were more likely to recommend TKA compared to those practicing in non-academic settings, and American surgeons were more likely to recommend TKA compared to their European counterparts.
Conclusion
Orthopedic surgeons and rheumatologists vary significantly in their recommendations for patients with moderate knee pain and functional limitations. Both patient and physician characteristics influence physicians’ recommendations and rheumatologists and orthopedic surgeons display different patterns of decision-making.
doi:10.3899/jrheum.130762
PMCID: PMC3880398  PMID: 24293580
Total Joint Arthroplasty; Practice Patterns; Physician Bias; Unwarranted Variability
12.  Mid term results of LCS knee: The Indian experience 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2013;47(1):57-62.
Background:
The low contact stress rotating platform (LCS RP) knee (DePuy Orthopedics, Inc, Warsaw, Indiana), in use for last four decades in Western population, is reported to have a survival of more than 95% at 15 to 20 years. The reported Indian experience of this knee is limited to 5 years. Our aim was to report the clinical and radiological results of the LCS RP TKA design in the Indian population with a minimum followup of 10 years.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty-five LCS knees (45 patients) operated between February 1997 and October 2001 were evaluated retrospectively. LCS design was generally selected if the patient was young (≤65 years of age), active and had no severe deformity. There were 40 female (88.9%) and 5 male (11.1%) patients; 47 knees had osteoarthritis (85.5%) and 8 knees had rheumatoid arthritis (14.5%). Knee Society Scores (KSS) and outcome questionnaire were filled at followup and radiographs were analyzed using Knee Society radiographic evaluation and scoring system.
Results:
Of 45 patients (55 knees) enrolled, 37 patients (44 knees; 80%) were available for followup at 10 years. Average age was 59.6 years (range 40 to 77). Minimum followup was 10 years (average 12.3 years; range 10 to 15.3 years.). Three knees (6.8%) had been revised, one each for aseptic loosening, bearing dislocation and infection. Mean preoperative KSS of 33 improved to 91 postoperatively. Mean preoperative functional score of 45 improved to 76 postoperatively. Mean preoperative flexion of 113° (90°-140°) reduced to 102° (80°-135°) postoperatively. Erratic femoral rollback and tighter flexion gap to prevent spin out are the probable factors for decreased postoperative range of motion. Five (12%) patients could sit cross-legged and sit on the floor. Anterior knee pain was present in 4.6% (2/44 knees). The survival was 93.2% at 12.3 years. One patient (1.8%) had spin-out of the rotating bearing. No knee had osteolysis or progressive radiolucent lines on X-rays.
Conclusion:
LCS implant has given good survival (93.2% at 12.3 years) with low rates of spin-out and anterior knee pain and no incidence of osteolysis. Limited flexion post surgery (104°) with only 12% managing to sit cross legged on the floor is a drawback.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.106903
PMCID: PMC3601235  PMID: 23532673
Knee arthroplasty; LCS; mobile bearing; rotating platform
13.  Consistency of Knee Pain: Correlates and Association with Function 
Objective
The extent and factors associated with knee pain fluctuation are not well-known. We evaluated the prevalence, correlates, and association with function of consistency of knee pain.
Design
Participants of The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study, a cohort of individuals with or at high risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA) had baseline knee x-rays, questionnaires, and a question about frequent knee pain (FKnP) (pain on most of the past 30 days) at two time points: a telephone screen and a later clinic visit. We computed the prevalence of inconsistent knee pain (positive answer to FKnP question at only one time point) and consistent knee pain (positive answer to FKnP question at both time points). We evaluated the association of consistency of FKnP with a number of sociodemographic factors, pain severity, and function.
Results
There were 2940 participants with complete data (5867 knees) (mean age 62, mean BMI 30.7, 60% female). Of those, 2977 knees had pain, with 43% having inconsistent and 57% having consistent knee pain. Those with radiographic OA (OR 0.46), depressive symptoms (OR 0.73), and widespread pain (OR 0.68) (all p<0.05) were less likely to have inconsistent compared with consistent knee pain. Pain, function, and strength were significantly better in persons with 2 knees that had inconsistent compared with consistent pain.
Conclusions
A substantial proportion of persons with knee pain have inconsistent knee pain, associated with better physical function and strength (adjusting for pain severity). Such pain may be suggestive of an earlier stage of disease.
doi:10.1016/j.joca.2010.08.001
PMCID: PMC2943545  PMID: 20708003
Osteoarthritis; Knee pain; Temporal pattern; function
14.  Internet-mediated physiotherapy and pain coping skills training for people with persistent knee pain (IMPACT – knee pain): a randomised controlled trial protocol 
Background
Persistent knee pain in people over 50 years of age is often attributable to knee osteoarthritis (OA), a common joint condition that causes physical and psychological dysfunction. Exercise and pain coping skills training (PCST) can help reduce the impact of persistent knee pain, however, access to health professionals who deliver these services can be challenging. With increasing access to the Internet, remotely delivered Internet-based treatment approaches may provide alternatives for healthcare delivery. This pragmatic randomised controlled trial will investigate whether an Internet-delivered intervention that combines PCST and physiotherapist-guided exercise (PCST + Ex) is more effective than online educational material (educational control) in people with persistent knee pain.
Methods/Design
We will recruit 148 people over 50 years of age with self-reported persistent knee pain consistent with knee OA from the Australian community. Following completion of baseline questionnaires, participants will be randomly allocated to access a 3-month intervention of either (i) online educational material, or (ii) the same online material plus an 8-module (once per week) Internet-based PCST program and seven Internet-delivered physiotherapy sessions with a home exercise programs to be performed 3 times per week. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 3 months and 9 months with the primary time point at 3 months. Primary outcomes are average knee pain on walking (11-point numeric rating scale) and self-reported physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale). Secondary outcomes include additional measures of knee pain, health-related quality-of-life, perceived global change in symptoms, and potential moderators and mediators of outcomes including self-efficacy for pain management and function, pain coping attempts and pain catastrophising. Other measures of adherence, adverse events, harms, use of health services/co-interventions, and process measures including appropriateness and satisfaction of the intervention, will be collected at 3, 6 and 9 months.
Discussion
The findings will help determine the effectiveness and acceptability of Internet access to a combination of interventions that are known to be beneficial to people with persistent knee pain. This study has the potential to guide clinical practice towards innovative modes of healthcare provision.
Trial registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12614000243617.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-279
PMCID: PMC4137067  PMID: 25125068
Knee osteoarthritis; Knee pain; Physiotherapy; Pain coping skills; Internet; Health care delivery; Randomised control trial
15.  The clinical assessment study of the foot (CASF): study protocol for a prospective observational study of foot pain and foot osteoarthritis in the general population 
Background
Symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) affects approximately 10% of adults aged over 60 years. The foot joint complex is commonly affected by OA, yet there is relatively little research into OA of the foot, compared with other frequently affected sites such as the knee and hand. Existing epidemiological studies of foot OA have focussed predominantly on the first metatarsophalangeal joint at the expense of other joints. This three-year prospective population-based observational cohort study will describe the prevalence of symptomatic radiographic foot OA, relate its occurrence to symptoms, examination findings and life-style-factors, describe the natural history of foot OA, and examine how it presents to, and is diagnosed and managed in primary care.
Methods
All adults aged 50 years and over registered with four general practices in North Staffordshire, UK, will be invited to participate in a postal Health Survey questionnaire. Respondents to the questionnaire who indicate that they have experienced foot pain in the preceding twelve months will be invited to attend a research clinic for a detailed clinical assessment. This assessment will consist of: clinical interview; physical examination; digital photography of both feet and ankles; plain x-rays of both feet, ankles and hands; ultrasound examination of the plantar fascia; anthropometric measurement; and a further self-complete questionnaire. Follow-up will be undertaken in consenting participants by postal questionnaire at 18 months (clinic attenders only) and three years (clinic attenders and survey participants), and also by review of medical records.
Discussion
This three-year prospective epidemiological study will combine survey data, comprehensive clinical, x-ray and ultrasound assessment, and review of primary care records to identify radiographic phenotypes of foot OA in a population of community-dwelling older adults, and describe their impact on symptoms, function and clinical examination findings, and their presentation, diagnosis and management in primary care.
doi:10.1186/1757-1146-4-22
PMCID: PMC3180294  PMID: 21892960
16.  Varus and Valgus Alignment and Incident and Progressive Knee Osteoarthritis 
Annals of the rheumatic diseases  2010;69(11):1940-1945.
Objective
Varus and valgus alignment increase, respectively, medial and lateral tibiofemoral load. Alignment was associated with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis progression in previous studies; an effect on risk of incident osteoarthritis is less certain. We tested whether alignment influences the risk of incident and progressive radiographic tibiofemoral osteoarthritis.
Methods
In an observational, longitudinal study of the MOST (Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study) cohort, full-limb x-rays to measure alignment were acquired at baseline and knee x-rays were acquired at baseline and 30 months. Varus alignment was defined as ≤ 178° and valgus as ≥ 182°. Using logistic regression and GEE, we examined the association of baseline alignment and incident osteoarthritis at 30 months (in knees without osteoarthritis at baseline), and alignment and osteoarthritis progression (in knees with baseline osteoarthritis). All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, BMI, knee injury, laxity, and extensor strength, with neutral knees as referent.
Results
2958 knees (1752 participants) were without osteoarthritis at baseline. Varus (adj. OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.06, 2.10) but not valgus alignment was associated with incident osteoarthritis. 1307 knees (950 participants) had osteoarthritis at baseline. Varus alignment was associated with a greater risk of medial osteoarthritis progression (adj. OR 3.59, 95% CI 2.62, 4.92) and a reduced risk of lateral progression, and valgus with a greater risk of lateral progression (adj. OR 4.85, 95% CI 3.17, 7.42) and a reduced risk of medial progression.
Conclusion
Varus but not valgus alignment increased the risk of incident tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. In knees with osteoarthritis, varus and valgus alignment each increased the risk of progression in the biomechanically stressed compartment and reduced the risk of progression in the unloaded compartment.
doi:10.1136/ard.2010.129742
PMCID: PMC2994600  PMID: 20511608
17.  Osteoarthritis and the Rule of Halves 
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage  2014;22(4):535-539.
Summary
Background
Symptomatic osteoarthritis poses a major challenge to primary health care but no studies have related accessing primary care (‘detection’), receiving recommended treatments (‘treatment’), and achieving adequate control (‘control’).
Objective
To provide estimates of detection, treatment, and control within a single population adapting the approach used to determine a Rule of Halves for other long-term conditions.
Setting
General population.
Participants
400 adults aged 50+ years with prevalent symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.
Design
Prospective cohort with baseline questionnaire, clinical assessment, and plain radiographs, and questionnaire follow-up at 18 and 36 months and linkage to primary care medical records.
Outcome measures
‘Detection’ was defined as at least one musculoskeletal knee-related GP consultation between baseline and 36 months. ‘Treatment’ was self-reported use of at least one recommended treatment or physiotherapy/hospital specialist referral for their knee problem at all three measurement points. Pain was ‘controlled’ if characteristic pain intensity <5 out of 10 on at least two occasions.
Results
In 221 cases (55.3%; 95%CI: 50.4, 60.1) there was evidence that the current problem had been detected in general practice. Of those detected, 164 (74.2% (68.4, 80.0)) were receiving one or more of the recommended treatments at all three measurement points. Of those detected and treated, 45 (27.4% (20.5, 34.3)) had symptoms under control on at least two occasions. Using narrower definitions resulted in substantially lower estimates.
Conclusion
Osteoarthritis care does not conform to a Rule of Halves. Symptom control is low among those accessing health care and receiving treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.joca.2014.02.006
PMCID: PMC3988991  PMID: 24565953
Osteoarthritis; Rule of Halves; Primary care
18.  A physiotherapist-delivered integrated exercise and pain coping skills training intervention for individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol 
Background
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic musculoskeletal condition with no cure. Pain is the primary symptom and results from a complex interaction between structural changes, physical impairments and psychological factors. Much evidence supports the use of strengthening exercises to improve pain and physical function in this patient population. There is also a growing body of research examining the effects of psychologist-delivered pain coping skills training (PCST) particularly in other chronic pain conditions. Though typically provided separately, there are symptom, resource and personnel advantages of exercise and PCST being delivered together by a single healthcare professional. Physiotherapists are a logical choice to be trained to deliver a PCST intervention as they already have expertise in administering exercise for knee OA and are cognisant of the need for a biopsychosocial approach to management. No studies to date have examined the effects of an integrated exercise and PCST program delivered solely by physiotherapists in this population. The primary aim of this multisite randomised controlled trial is to investigate whether an integrated 12-week PCST and exercise treatment program delivered by physiotherapists is more efficacious than either program alone in treating pain and physical function in individuals with knee OA.
Methods/design
This will be an assessor-blinded, 3-arm randomised controlled trial of a 12-week intervention involving 10 physiotherapy visits together with home practice. Participants with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA will be recruited from the community in two cities in Australia and randomized into one of three groups: exercise alone, PCST alone, or integrated PCST and exercise. Randomisation will be stratified by city (Melbourne or Brisbane) and gender. Primary outcomes are overall average pain in the past week measured by a Visual Analogue Scale and physical function measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale. Secondary outcomes include global rating of change, muscle strength, functional performance, physical activity levels, health related quality of life and psychological factors. Measurements will be taken at baseline and immediately following the intervention (12 weeks) as well as at 32 weeks and 52 weeks to examine maintenance of any intervention effects. Specific assessment of adherence to the treatment program will also be made at weeks 22 and 42. Relative cost-effectiveness will be determined from health service usage and outcome data.
Discussion
The findings from this randomised controlled trial will provide evidence for the efficacy of an integrated PCST and exercise program delivered by physiotherapists in the management of painful and functionally limiting knee OA compared to either program alone.
Trial registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference number: ACTRN12610000533099
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-129
PMCID: PMC3524463  PMID: 22828288
19.  Patient and provider interventions for managing osteoarthritis in primary care: protocols for two randomized controlled trials 
Background
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee are among the most common chronic conditions, resulting in substantial pain and functional limitations. Adequate management of OA requires a combination of medical and behavioral strategies. However, some recommended therapies are under-utilized in clinical settings, and the majority of patients with hip and knee OA are overweight and physically inactive. Consequently, interventions at the provider-level and patient-level both have potential for improving outcomes. This manuscript describes two ongoing randomized clinical trials being conducted in two different health care systems, examining patient-based and provider-based interventions for managing hip and knee OA in primary care.
Methods / Design
One study is being conducted within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system and will compare a Combined Patient and Provider intervention relative to usual care among n = 300 patients (10 from each of 30 primary care providers). Another study is being conducted within the Duke Primary Care Research Consortium and will compare Patient Only, Provider Only, and Combined (Patient + Provider) interventions relative to usual care among n = 560 patients across 10 clinics. Participants in these studies have clinical and / or radiographic evidence of hip or knee osteoarthritis, are overweight, and do not meet current physical activity guidelines. The 12-month, telephone-based patient intervention focuses on physical activity, weight management, and cognitive behavioral pain management. The provider intervention involves provision of patient-specific recommendations for care (e.g., referral to physical therapy, knee brace, joint injection), based on evidence-based guidelines. Outcomes are collected at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months. The primary outcome is the Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (self-reported pain, stiffness, and function), and secondary outcomes are the Short Physical Performance Test Protocol (objective physical function) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (depressive symptoms). Cost effectiveness of the interventions will also be assessed.
Discussion
Results of these two studies will further our understanding of the most effective strategies for improving hip and knee OA outcomes in primary care settings.
Trial registration
NCT01130740 (VA); NCT 01435109 (NIH)
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-60
PMCID: PMC3433311  PMID: 22530979
Osteoarthritis; Physical activity; Weight reduction program; Pain management; Intervention study
20.  Decision aid for patients considering total knee arthroplasty with preference report for surgeons: a pilot randomized controlled trial 
Background
To evaluate feasibility and potential effectiveness of a patient decision aid (PtDA) for patients and a preference report for surgeons to reduce wait times and improve decision quality in patients with osteoarthritis considering total knee replacement.
Methods
A prospective two-arm pilot randomized controlled trial. Patients with osteoarthritis were eligible if they understood English and were referred for surgical consultation about an initial total knee arthroplasty at a Canadian orthopaedic joint assessment clinic. Patients were randomized to the PtDA intervention or usual education. The intervention was an osteoarthritis PtDA for patients and a one-page preference report summarizing patients’ clinical and decisional data for their surgeon. The main feasibility outcomes were rates of recruitment and questionnaire completion; the preliminary effectiveness outcomes were wait times and decision quality.
Results
Of 180 patients eligible for surgical consultation, 142 (79%) were recruited and randomized to the PtDA intervention (n = 71) or usual education (n = 71). Data collection yielded a 93% questionnaire completion rate with less than 1% missing items. After one year, 13% of patients remained on the surgical wait list. The median time from referral to being off the wait list (censored using survival analysis techniques) was 33.4 weeks for the PtDA group (n = 69, 95% CI: 26.0, 41.4) and 33.0 weeks for usual education (n = 71, 95% CI: 26.1, 39.9). Patients exposed to the PtDA had higher decision quality based on knowledge (71% versus 47%; p < 0.0001) and quality decision being an informed choice that is consistent with their values for option outcomes (56.4% versus 25.0%; p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Recruitment of patients with osteoarthritis considering surgery and data collection were feasible. As some patients remained on the surgical waiting list after one year, follow-up should be extended to two years. Patients exposed to the PtDA achieved higher decision quality compared to those receiving usual education but there was no difference in wait for surgery.
Trials registration
ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00743951
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-54
PMCID: PMC3937455  PMID: 24564877
Patient decision aids; Patient preferences; Osteoarthritis; Joint arthroplasty; Wait times; Decision quality
21.  Increasing Prevalence of Knee Pain and Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis 
Annals of internal medicine  2011;155(11):725-732.
Background
Recent surge in knee replacements has been assumed to be due to aging and increased obesity of the US population.
Objectives
We described the trend in prevalences of knee pain and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis and assessed whether age, obesity, and change in radiographic osteoarthritis explained this trend.
Design
We used data from six National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) between 1971 and 2004 and from three examination periods in the Framingham Osteoarthritis (FOA) Study between 1983 through 2005 (Original cohort 1983–5 and 1992–5, Offspring 1992–5 and 2002–5, and a Community sample 2002–5).
Setting
NHANES included nationally representative samples of the non-institutionalized US population, and the Framingham Study was a population-based cohort.
Participants
We included data from NHANES participants 60 to 74 years of age, of White or Black race, and data from Framingham Study of mostly White participants, 70 years or older.
Measurements
Subjects in NHANES were asked about pain in or around the knee on most days. In the Framingham Study, subjects were asked about knee pain and had bilateral weight-bearing anteroposterior knee x-rays to define radiographic osteoarthritis. We used radiographic evidence and pain to define symptomatic osteoarthritis. We used marginal standardization with logistic regression first to calculate age-adjusted, and then age and BMI-adjusted prevalence by sex, and compared the adjusted prevalence of knee pain and osteoarthritis at later exams with earlier exams using the ratio of the prevalence estimates.
Results
The age-adjusted prevalence of knee pain and symptomatic osteoarthritis increased over time in all samples studied. With adjustment for both age and BMI the prevalence of knee pain increased by about 65% in NHANES from 1974 to 1994 among Non-Hispanic White and Mexican men and women and among African American women. In the Framingham Osteoarthritis (FOA) Study, the age and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted prevalences of knee pain and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis approximately doubled in women and tripled in men over a 20-year period. No such increasing trend was observed in radiographic osteoarthritis prevalence in Framingham subjects. After age adjustment, additionally adjusting for BMI resulted in a 10–25% decrease in the prevalence ratios for knee pain and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.
Limitations
We cannot rule out differences in sampling of Framingham subjects over time or birth cohort effects (generational factors) as possible explanations of the increased reporting of knee pain. Increases in prevalence at the last time period in Framingham might be due to differences in cohort membership by time period.
Conclusions
Results suggest that independent of age and BMI prevalence of knee pain has increased substantially over a 20–year period. Obesity accounted for only part of this increase. In the FOA Study, there was an increase in symptomatic osteoarthritis but no increase in radiographic osteoarthritis.
Primary Funding Source
The American College of Rheumatology Research and Education Foundation Rheumatology Scientist Development Award, NIH AR47785 and AG18393, and NHLBI, Framingham Heart Study (NHLBI/NIH Contract #N01-HC-25195) and the Boston University School of Medicine.
doi:10.1059/0003-4819-155-11-201112060-00004
PMCID: PMC3408027  PMID: 22147711
22.  Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol 
Background
Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program.
Methods/Design
100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis), pain, and self-reported physical function measured at baseline and immediately following the program. Secondary outcomes include the external knee adduction moment angular impulse, electromyographic muscle activation patterns, knee and hip muscle strength, balance, functional ability, and quality-of-life.
Discussion
The findings will help determine whether neuromuscular exercise is superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening regarding effects on knee load, pain and physical function in people with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment.
Trial Registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12610000660088
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-276
PMCID: PMC3247187  PMID: 22141334
23.  Willingness and access to joint replacement among black patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized, controlled intervention 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2013;65(5):1253-1261.
Background
African-American patients are significantly less likely to undergo knee replacement for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Racial difference in preference (willingness) has emerged as a key factor.
Objective
To examine the efficacy of a patient-centered educational intervention on patient willingness and the likelihood of receiving a referral to orthopedics.
Methods
Randomized, controlled, 2×2 factorial design.
Patients
639 black patients with moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis from three Veterans Affairs primary care clinics.
Intervention
Knee osteoarthritis decision aid video with/without brief counseling.
Main Measures
Change in patient willingness and receipt of a referral to orthopedics. Also assessed were whether patients discussed knee pain with their provider or saw orthopedics within 12 months of the intervention.
Results
At baseline, 67% of participants were definitely/probably willing to consider knee replacement with no difference among the groups. The intervention increased patient willingness (75%) in all groups at one month. For those who received the decision aid intervention alone, the gains were sustained for up to 3 months. By 12 months post intervention subjects who received any intervention were more likely to report engaging their provider in a discussion about knee pain (92% vs 85%), have a referral to orthopedics (18% vs 13%) and for those with a referral attend an orthopedic consult (63% vs 50%).
Conclusion
An educational intervention significantly increased African-American patient willingness to consider knee replacement. It also improved the likelihood of patient-provider discussion about knee pain and access to surgical evaluation.
doi:10.1002/art.37899
PMCID: PMC3641679  PMID: 23613362
24.  The effect of depressive symptoms on the association between radiographic osteoarthritis and knee pain: a cross-sectional study 
Background
The progressive nature of knee osteoarthritis (OA) leads to not only to physical but also to psychosocial decline; this aspect can influence knee pain experience, manifestations and inevitably diagnostic accuracy.
To analyze the role of depressive symptoms on the association between radiographic OA and knee pain, understanding the ability of knee pain symptoms to find out individuals with radiographic OA.
Methods
Data on 663 subjects was obtained by interview using a structured questionnaire on social, demographic, behavioural and clinical data. Painful knee was assessed regarding having pain: ever, in the last year, in the last 6 months and in the last month. Using factor analysis, participants were graded using a knee pain score, with higher scores representing more symptomatology. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI), and radiographic knee OA was classified using the Kellgren Lawrence (KL) scale; those with KL ≥ 2 were considered as having radiographic OA.
Results
Knee pain was reported by 53.2% of those with radiographic KL ≥ 2 and by 33.2% of those with radiographic KL < 2. The prevalence of depressive symptoms (BDI > 14) was 19.9% among participants with radiographic KL ≥ 2 and 12.6% among those with radiographic KL < 2 (p = 0.01). The association of knee pain with radiographic knee OA was higher in higher pain scores and in participants without depressive symptoms. Among participants with BDI ≤ 14 the likelihood ratio to identify patients with radiographic knee OA increased with increased pain scores: 1.02 for score 1; 2.19 for score 2 and 7.34 when participants responded positively to all pain questions (score 3). Among participants with depressive symptoms (BDI > 14) likelihood ratios were 0.51, 1.92, 1.82, respectively. The results were similar for both genders.
Conclusions
Knee pain scores increased ability to identify participants with radiographic KL ≥ 2 in both sexes. However, the presence of depressive symptoms impairs the ability of knee pain complaints to identify patients with radiographic OA.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-214
PMCID: PMC3724602  PMID: 23875806
Knee; Osteoarthritis; Pain; Radiographic OA; Depressive symptoms
25.  Clinical predictors of elective total joint replacement in persons with end-stage knee osteoarthritis 
Background
Arthritis is a leading cause of disability in the United States. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has become the gold standard to manage the pain and disability associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Although more than 400 000 primary TKA surgeries are performed each year in the United States, not all individuals with knee OA elect to undergo the procedure. No clear consensus exists on criteria to determine who should undergo TKA. The purpose of this study was to determine which clinical factors will predict the decision to undergo TKA in individuals with end-stage knee OA. Knowledge of these factors will aid in clinical decision making for the timing of TKA.
Methods
Functional data from one hundred twenty persons with end-stage knee OA were obtained through a database. All of the individuals complained of knee pain during daily activities and had radiographic evidence of OA. Functional and clinical tests, collectively referred to as the Delaware Osteoarthritis Profile, were completed by a physical therapist. This profile consisted of measuring height, weight, quadriceps strength and active knee range of motion, while functional mobility was assessed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and the Stair Climbing Task (SCT). Self-perceived functional ability was measured using the activities of daily living subscale of the Knee Outcome Survey (KOS-ADLS). A logistic regression model was used to identify variables predictive of TKA use.
Results
Forty subjects (33%) underwent TKA within two years of evaluation. These subjects were significantly older and had significantly slower TUG and SCT times (p < 0.05). Persons that underwent TKA were also significantly weaker, had lower self-reported function and had less knee extension than persons who did not undergo TKA. No differences between groups were seen for BMI, gender, knee flexion ROM and unilateral versus bilateral joint disease. Using backward regression, age, knee extension ROM and KOS-ADLS together significantly predicted whether or not a person would undergo TKA (p ≤ 0.001, R2 = 0.403).
Conclusions
Younger patients with full knee ROM who have a higher self-perception of function are less likely to undergo TKA. Physicians and clinicians should be aware that potentially modifiable factors, such as knee ROM can be addressed to potentially postpone the need for TKA.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-86
PMCID: PMC2877653  PMID: 20459622

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