Saliva is a potentially important barrier against respiratory viral infection but its mechanism of action is not well studied.
We tested the antiviral activities of whole saliva, specific salivary gland secretions, and purified salivary proteins against strains of influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro.
Whole saliva or parotid or submandibular/sublingual secretions from healthy donors inhibited IAV based on hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization assays. This differs from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), for which only submandibular/sublingual secretions are reported to be inhibitory. Among purified salivary proteins, MUC5B, scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein 340 (salivary gp-340), histatins, and human neutrophil defensins (HNPs) inhibited IAV at the concentrations present in whole saliva. In contrast, some abundant salivary proteins (acidic proline-rich proteins and amylase) had no activity, nor did several other less abundant salivary proteins with known activity against HIV (e.g. thrombospondin or serum leukocyte protease inhibitor). Whole saliva and MUC5B did not inhibit neuraminidase activity of IAV and viral neutralizing and aggregating activity of MUC5B was potentiated by the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Hence, MUC5B inhibits IAV by presenting a sialic acid ligand for the viral hemagglutinin. The mechanism of action of histatins requires further study.
These findings indicate that saliva represents an important initial barrier to IAV infection and underline the complexity of host defense activity of oral secretions. Of interest, antiviral activity of saliva against IAV and HIV differs in terms of specific glandular secretions and proteins that are inhibitory.
histatins; innate immunity; MUC5B
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are predisposed to recurrent oral candidiasis, and, although it has been assumed that this is because of deficient mucosal immune responses, this has not been properly established. The present study aimed to compare the concentrations and secretion rates of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgA subclass antibodies to Candida albicans in whole and parotid saliva samples from HIV-infected patients, AIDS patients, and control subjects. Levels of IgA antibody to Candida species in whole saliva were higher in the HIV group than in the controls and were highest in the AIDS group (P < 0.05). In parotid saliva, the mean antibody levels were significantly greater in HIV-positive patients than in controls (P < 0.05) but fell to lower levels in the AIDS group. The secretion rates of Candida antibodies in parotid saliva were reduced in AIDS patients compared with HIV patients. The specific activities of the IgA antibodies and both subclasses were significantly higher in the HIV and AIDS patients than in the controls in both whole and parotid saliva (P < 0.05). Antibody levels were significantly correlated with the numbers of Candida organisms isolated from saliva (P < 0.05). These results suggest clear differences in salivary antibody profiles among HIV-infected. AIDS, and control subjects and are indicative of a response to antigenic challenge by infecting Candida species. No obvious defect in the mucosal immune response in the HIV or AIDS groups that might account for the increased prevalence of candidiasis was apparent.
Oral fluids are convenient alternatives to blood sampling for evaluating significant metabolic components. Two forms of oral fluids, oral mucosal transudates (OMT) and saliva, were collected and compared for content of soluble products of immune activation. The data confirm that OMT and saliva represent distinct body fluids. The concentrations, outputs, and analyte/protein ratios of β-2-microglobulin (β2M), soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor II (sTNFαRII), and neopterin were measured. Both the OMT and the saliva of most of the individuals in the control healthy populations had measurable levels of all three activation markers. When the immune system is activated, as in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the levels of β2M and sTNFαRII are increased in both OMT and saliva compared to those in a healthy control population. OMT levels correlated better with levels in serum than did saliva and appear to reflect systemic immune activation in HIV infection. Because acquisition of oral fluids is noninvasive and easily repeatable, measurement of β2M and/or sTNFαRII content in OMT could be useful in the assessment of disease activity in patients with HIV infection or chronic inflammatory diseases.
Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is secreted by epithelial cells in all the mucosal fluids such as saliva, cervical mucus, as well in the seminal liquid. At the physiological concentrations found in saliva, SLPI has a specific antiviral activity against HIV-1 that is related to the perturbation of the virus entry process at a stage posterior to the interaction of the viral surface glycoprotein with the CD4 receptor. Here, we confirm that recombinant SLPI is able to inhibit HIV-1 infection of primary T lymphocytes, and show that SLPI can also inhibit the transfer of HIV-1 virions from primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells to autologous T lymphocytes. At the molecular level, we show that SLPI is a ligand for the phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) and PLSCR4, membrane proteins that are involved in the regulation of the movements of phospholipids between the inner and outer leaflets of the plasma membrane. Interestingly, we reveal that PLSCR1 and PLSCR4 also interact directly with the CD4 receptor at the cell surface of T lymphocytes. We find that the same region of the cytoplasmic domain of PLSCR1 is involved in the binding to CD4 and SLPI. Since SLPI was able to disrupt the association between PLSCR1 and CD4, our data suggest that SLPI inhibits HIV-1 infection by modulating the interaction of the CD4 receptor with PLSCRs. These interactions may constitute new targets for antiviral intervention.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are rarely acquired via an oral route in adults. Previous studies have shown that human whole saliva inhibits HIV infection in vitro, and multiple factors present in human saliva have been shown to contribute to this antiviral activity. Despite the widespread use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques as models for HIV pathogenesis and transmission, few studies have monitored SIV in the oral cavity of infected rhesus macaques and evaluated the viral inhibitory capacity of macaque saliva. Utilizing a cohort of rhesus macaques infected with SIVMac251, we monitored virus levels and genotypic diversity in the saliva throughout the course of the disease; findings were similar to previous observations in HIV-infected humans. An in vitro infectivity assay was utilized to measure inhibition of HIV/SIV infection by normal human and rhesus macaque whole saliva. Both human and macaque saliva were capable of inhibiting HIV and SIV infection. The inhibitory capacity of saliva samples collected from a cohort of animals postinfection with SIV increased over the course of disease, coincident with the development of SIV-specific antibodies in the saliva. These findings suggest that both innate and adaptive factors contribute to inhibition of SIV by whole macaque saliva. This work also demonstrates that SIV-infected rhesus macaques provide a relevant model to examine the innate and adaptive immune responses that inhibit HIV/SIV in the oral cavity.
Little information is available describing viral loads in body fluids other than blood. In addition, the suitability of commercially available assays for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA quantitation has not been evaluated in most nonblood fluids. We compared Organon Teknika's nucleic acid sequence-based amplification method (NASBA) and Roche's Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor (reverse transcriptase PCR [RT-PCR]) for quantitating HIV-1 RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva, breast milk, seminal plasma, and cervical-vaginal lavage fluid (CVL). Saliva and breast milk frequently demonstrated some inhibition in the RT-PCR assay, similar to the inhibition previously described in seminal plasma. Inhibition of the RT-PCR assay was not observed with CSF or CVL, nor in any of the NASBA assays. When fluids from HIV-infected individuals were tested by RT-PCR and NASBA, 73 and 27% of CSF samples and 60 and 40% of breast milk specimens had detectable RNA, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. In cross-sectional studies using RT-PCR to measure viral RNA in paired blood plasma and CSF samples, 71% of blood plasma samples and 42% of CSF samples were positive. A similar analysis using NASBA with paired blood plasma and CVL, saliva, or seminal plasma samples revealed 91% were blood plasma positive and 55% were CVL positive, 76% were blood plasma positive and 46% were saliva positive, and 83% were blood plasma positive and 63% were seminal plasma positive. NASBA worked fairly well to quantitate HIV-1 RNA from all fluids without apparent inhibition. RT-PCR performed well on CVL and CSF, frequently with greater sensitivity, although its use in other fluids appears limited due to the presence of inhibitors. These studies demonstrate that viral loads in nonblood fluids were generally lower than in blood.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been isolated from cervicovaginal secretions from infected women and is thought to be cell associated. To identify which cells harbour viral antigen, we used monoclonal antibodies to OKT4 and a monoclonal antibody directed against HIV p17 core antigen to perform indirect immunofluorescence assays of genital secretions from 17 HIV seropositive and 17 HIV seronegative women with leucorrhoea. OKT4 positive lymphocytes were detected in all tested samples. HIV p17 antigen was detected in the genital fluid lymphocytes in nine out of 14 seropositive subjects from whom lymphocytes were available. No viral antigen was detected in genital fluid lymphocytes of seronegative subjects, nor in any cervicovaginal epithelial cells. This study shows that lymphocytes are the major source of HIV in cervicovaginal secretions of infected women. Conditions that increase the lymphocyte population in the female genital tract, such as sexually transmitted disease (STD), chronic inflammation of the cervix, and menstruation, may facilitate the transmission of HIV during sexual intercourse.
Heterosexual contact is the primary mode of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) transmission worldwide. The chemokine receptor CCR5 is the major coreceptor that is associated with the mucosal transmission of R5-tropic HIV-1 during sexual intercourse. The CCR5 molecule is thus a target for antibody-based therapeutic strategies aimed at blocking HIV-1 entry into cells. We have previously demonstrated that polyreactive natural antibodies (NAbs) from therapeutic preparations of immunoglobulin G and from human breast milk contain NAbs directed against CCR5. Such antibodies inhibit the infection of human macrophages and T lymphocytes by R5-tropic isolates of HIV in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrate that human immunoglobulins from the cervicovaginal secretions of HIV-seronegative or HIV-seropositive women contain NAbs directed against the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5. Natural affinity-purified anti-CCR5 antibodies bound to CCR5 expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells and further inhibited the infection of macrophages and dendritic cells with primary and laboratory-adapted R5-tropic HIV but not with X4-tropic HIV. Natural anti-CCR5 antibodies moderately inhibited R5-tropic HIV transfer from monocyte-derived dendritic cells to autologous T cells. Our results suggest that mucosal anti-CCR5 antibodies from healthy immunocompetent donors may hamper the penetration of HIV and may be suitable for use in the development of novel passive immunotherapy regimens in specific clinical settings of HIV infection.
Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications—914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva—were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets.
Human saliva; parotid; submandibular; sublingual; ductal secretion; proteomics; mass spectrometry
Saliva contains an array of nonimmunoglobulin defense factors which are thought to contribute to the protection of the hard and soft tissue surfaces of the oral cavity by modulating microbial colonization and metabolism. Here we report the discovery of a putative innate defense factor in human saliva that inhibits the glucosyltransferase (GTF) of Streptococcus mutans, a virulence enzyme involved in oral colonization by this pathogen. The GTF-inhibiting factor (GIF) was initially identified as a nonimmunoglobulin salivary component that interfered with detection of antibodies to the glucan-binding region (GLU) of GTF by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This inhibitory activity was present in whole saliva and submandibular-sublingual saliva, but it was essentially absent from parotid saliva. GIF inhibited the recognition of S. mutans cell surface-associated GTF by specific antibodies but had no effect on antibodies to other cell surface antigens, suggesting that GIF specifically binds to GTF on S. mutans. GIF purified by size exclusion or affinity chromatography was used for biochemical and functional characterization. Analysis of GIF by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein after staining with Coomassie blue or Schiff's reagent. Heating and reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol of GIF resulted in the release of a ∼58-kDa protein that was identified as α-amylase by Western blotting using anti-α-amylase antibodies. GLU bound blotted α-amylase, suggesting that the latter molecule is the GLU-binding component of the GIF complex. The ability of GTF to synthesize extracellular glucans was inhibited by GIF but not by uncomplexed α-amylase or an unrelated high-molecular-weight glycoprotein. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that in human saliva, there is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein-α-amylase complex which is capable of inhibiting GTF and may contribute to control of S. mutans colonization in the oral cavity.
Physiological microenvironments such as blood, seminal plasma, mucosal secretions, or lymphatic fluids may influence the biology of the virus-host cell and immune interactions for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Relative to media, physiological levels of human plasma were found to enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 primary isolates in both phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Enhancement was observed only when plasma was present during the virus-cell incubation and resulted in a 3- to 30-fold increase in virus titers in all of the four primary isolates tested. Both infectivity and virion binding experiments demonstrated a slow, time-dependent process generally requiring between 1 and 10 h. Human plasma collected in anticoagulants CPDA-1 and heparin, but not EDTA, exhibited this effect at concentrations from 90 to 40%. Furthermore, heat-inactivated plasma resulted in a loss of enhancement in peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not in monocyte-derived macrophages. Physiological concentrations of human plasma appear to recruit additional infectivity, thus increasing the infectious potential of the virus inoculum.
Saliva is a body fluid that holds promise for use as a diagnostic fluid for detecting diseases. Salivary proteins are known to be heavily glycosylated and are known to play functional roles in the oral cavity. We identified N-linked glycoproteins in human whole saliva, as well as the N-glycoproteins in parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glandular fluids.
Materials and Methods
We employed hydrazide chemistry to affinity enrich for N-linked glycoproteins and glycopeptides. PNGase F releases the N-peptides/proteins from the agarose-hydrazide resin, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the salivary N-glycoproteins.
A total of 156 formerly N-glycosylated peptides representing 77 unique N-glycoproteins were identified in salivary fluids. The total number of N-glycoproteins identified in the individual fluids was: 62, 34, 44, and 53 in whole saliva, parotid fluid, submandibular fluid, and sublingual fluid, respectively. The majority of the N-glycoproteins were annotated as extracellular proteins (40%), and several of the N-glycoproteins were annotated as membrane proteins (14%). A number of glycoproteins were differentially found in submandibular and sublingual glandular secretions.
Mapping the N-glycoproteome of parotid, submandibular, and sublingual saliva is important for a thorough understanding of biological processes occurring in the oral cavity and to realize the role of saliva in the overall health of human individuals. Moreover, identifying glycoproteins in saliva may also be valuable for future disease biomarker studies.
Proteomics; Mass spectrometry; Isoelectric focusing; N-linked glycoproteins; Whole saliva; Parotid saliva; Submandibular saliva; Sublingual saliva; Disease biomarker
Innate immune factors in mucosal secretions may influence human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission. This study examined the levels of three such factors, genital tract lactoferrin [Lf], secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor [SLPI], and RANTES, in women at risk for acquiring HIV infection, as well as cofactors that may be associated with their presence. Women at high risk for HIV infection meeting established criteria (n = 62) and low-risk controls (n = 33) underwent cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), and the CVL fluid samples were assayed for Lf and SLPI. Subsets of 26 and 10 samples, respectively, were assayed for RANTES. Coexisting sexually transmitted infections and vaginoses were also assessed, and detailed behavioral information was collected. Lf levels were higher in high-risk (mean, 204 ng/ml) versus low-risk (mean, 160 ng/ml, P = 0.007) women, but SLPI levels did not differ, and RANTES levels were higher in only the highest-risk subset. Lf was positively associated only with the presence of leukocytes in the CVL fluid (P < 0.0001). SLPI levels were lower in women with bacterial vaginosis [BV] than in those without BV (P = 0.04). Treatment of BV reduced RANTES levels (P = 0.05). The influence, if any, of these three cofactors on HIV transmission in women cannot be determined from this study. The higher Lf concentrations observed in high-risk women were strongly associated with the presence of leukocytes, suggesting a leukocyte source and consistent with greater genital tract inflammation in the high-risk group. Reduced SLPI levels during BV infection are consistent with an increased risk of HIV infection, which has been associated with BV. However, the increased RANTES levels in a higher-risk subset of high-risk women were reduced after BV treatment.
Human colostrum, parotid saliva, and serum were assayed for the presence of naturally occurring antibodies to five serotypes of Streptococcus mutans. Appreciable levels of agglutinins to strains AHT, BHT, 10449, 6715, and LM-7 (groups a leads to e, respectively) were detected in normal colostrum and saliva, whereas relatively low levels were found in serum. No agglutinins could be detected in the colostrum or saliva of immunodeficient patients. Molecular sieve chromatography of the colostrum on Sephadex G-200 revealed agglutinin activity in the secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA)-rich fraction only. Titration of purified colostral s-IgA confirmed the IgA nature of this agglutinating activity. Indirect immunofluorescence tests with anti-s-IgA, -IgG, and -IgM revealed S. mutans specificity only in the s-IgA class. The presence of s-IgA antibodies to indigenous oral microorganisms in colostrum, as well as in saliva, suggests that antigenic stimulation occurs at a site remote from the oral mucosa.
The specificity patterns of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to streptococcal antigens in serum and autologous secretions were compared in order to determine whether IgG found in human secretions is exclusively of serum origin or can also be locally produced irrespective of the systemic immune system. Surface antigens from a type 6 M-protein strain of Streptococcus pyogenes were extracted by cell wall digestion and subjected to sodium lauryl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. After being blotted onto nitrocellulose, the antigens were incubated with purified IgG from various body fluids: saliva, cervicovaginal secretions, seminal fluid, and colostrum. Binding was then revealed with labeled antibodies to human Fcγ fragments. The antibody specificity patterns obtained by computer-assisted analysis were compared with those of paired sera. Major variations were observed between serum and secretions, as well as between different secretions from the same subject. These results are in favor of IgG-associated local immunity within different tissue compartments. This IgG response to mucosal antigens can complement that of secretory IgA in the defense against pathogens and should be taken into account during topical vaccinations.
Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) has been found to
possess activity against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1
(HIV-1) in vitro at physiological concentrations. A study was
undertaken to evaluate SLPI levels in human saliva and plasma among
HIV-positive (HIV+) patients with various HIV-1 viral loads
in comparison to uninfected controls. Whole blood in EDTA and
unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 37 HIV+
patients, of whom 20 had a history of intravenous drug abuse (IVDA).
Control samples were collected from 20 appropriate age- and sex-matched
HIV-1-negative individuals. SLPI was estimated from both saliva and
serum samples by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HIV viral load
was determined using a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. SLPI
levels were increased 16.7% in plasma and 10.3% in saliva among
HIV+ patients in comparison to uninfected controls. SLPI
levels were increased 5.9% in saliva and 3.9% in plasma among
HIV+ patients with a high viral load (>10,000 copies/ml)
as compared to patients with a low viral load (<400 copies/ml). Only
23% of patients with a high viral load used combination therapy with
protease inhibitor drugs, whereas 92.9% of HIV+ patients
with a low viral load used protease inhibitors. SLPI levels did not
differ significantly among the IVDA patients, patients with different
viral loads, or patients using protease inhibitor drugs. There was a
statistically significant increase in SLPI levels in saliva among HIV
patients in comparison to non-HIV-infected controls. An increase in
SLPI levels among HIV+ patients may be a natural
consequence of HIV pathogenesis and an important factor in preventing
oral transmission of HIV, but this increase may not be evident during
plasma viremia in patients with a high viral load.
The proteome of human salivary fluid has the potential to open new doors for disease biomarker discovery. A recent study to comprehensively identify and catalog the human ductal salivary proteome led to the compilation of 1166 proteins. The protein complexity of both saliva and plasma is large, suggesting that a comparison of these two proteomes will provide valuable insight into their physiological significance and an understanding of the unique and overlapping disease diagnostic potential that each fluid provides. To create a more comprehensive catalog of human salivary proteins, we have first compiled an extensive list of proteins from whole saliva (WS) identified through MS experiments. The WS list is thereafter combined with the proteins identified from the ductal parotid, and submandibular and sublingual (parotid/SMSL) salivas. In parallel, a core dataset of the human plasma proteome with 3020 protein identifications was recently released. A total of 1939 nonredundant salivary proteins were compiled from a total of 19 474 unique peptide sequences identified from whole and ductal salivas; 740 out of the total 1939 salivary proteins were identified in both whole and ductal saliva. A total of 597 of the salivary proteins have been observed in plasma. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed similarities in the distributions of the saliva and plasma proteomes with regard to cellular localization, biological processes, and molecular function, but revealed differences which may be related to the different physiological functions of saliva and plasma. The comprehensive catalog of the salivary proteome and its comparison to the plasma proteome provides insights useful for future study, such as exploration of potential biomarkers for disease diagnostics.
Biomarkers; Body fluid; MS; Plasma; Saliva
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be transmitted through infected seminal fluid or vaginal or rectal secretions during heterosexual or homosexual intercourse. To prevent mucosal transmission and spread to the regional lymph nodes, an effective vaccine may need to stimulate immune responses at the genitourinary mucosa. In this study, we have developed a mucosal model of genital immunization in male rhesus macaques, by topical urethral immunization with recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus p27gag, expressed as a hybrid Ty virus-like particle (Ty-VLP) and covalently linked to cholera toxin B subunit. This treatment was augmented by oral immunization with the same vaccine but with added killed cholera vibrios. Polymeric secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IgG antibodies to p27 were induced in urethral secretions, urine, and seminal fluid. This raises the possibility that the antibodies may function as a primary mucosal defense barrier against SIV (HIV) infection. The regional lymph nodes which constitute the genital-associated lymphoid tissue contained p27-specific CD4+ proliferative and helper T cells for antibody synthesis by B cells, which may function as a secondary immune barrier to infection. Blood and splenic lymphocytes also showed p27-sensitized CD4+ T cells and B cells in addition to serum IgG and IgA p27-specific antibodies; this constitutes a third level of immunity against dissemination of the virus. A comparison of genito-oral with recto-oral and intramuscular routes of immunization suggests that only genito-oral immunization elicits specific sIgA and IgG antibodies in the urine, urethra, and seminal fluid. Both genito-oral and recto-oral immunizations induced T-cell and B-cell immune responses in regional lymph nodes, with preferential IgA antibody synthesis. The mucosal route of immunization may prevent not only virus transmission through the genital mucosa but also dissemination and latency of the virus in the draining lymph nodes.
A common bar soap and tap water solution was able to demonstrate a 30-fold human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) inactivation and a 57 to 87% reduction in viable peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a mixture of cervicovaginal lavage fluid and seminal fluid. These observations indicate that soap and water might be used to inactivate HIV and HIV-infected cells in genital secretions.
Infection of adherent primary monocytes with HIV-1Ba-L is significantly suppressed in the presence of human saliva. By reverse transcriptase (RT) levels, saliva, although present for only 1 h during monocyte viral exposure, inhibited HIV-1 infectivity for 3 wk after infection, whereas human plasma and synovial fluid failed to inhibit HIV-1 infectivity. Antiviral activity was identified in the saliva soluble fraction, and to determine the factor(s) responsible, individual saliva proteins were examined. Of those proteins examined, only secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) was found to possess anti-HIV-1 activity at physiological concentrations. SLPI anti-HIV-1 activity was dose dependent, with maximal inhibition at 1-10 micrograms/ml (> 90% inhibition of RT activity). SLPI also partially inhibited HIV-1IIIB infection in proliferating human T cells. SLPI appears to target a host cell-associated molecule, since no interaction with viral proteins could be demonstrated. However, SLPI anti-HIV-1 activity was not due to direct interaction with or downregulation of the CD4 antigen. Partial depletion of SLPI in whole saliva resulted in decreased anti-HIV-1 activity of saliva. These data indicate that SLPI has antiretroviral activity and may contribute to the important antiviral activity of saliva associated with the infrequent oral transmission of HIV-1.
The aggregation of mucoid and nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa by submandibular, parotid, and whole saliva from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF subjects was investigated. There were significant differences (P less than 0.01) in aggregation of mucoid and nonmucoid variants of P. aeruginosa by submandibular and whole saliva from CF patients and non-CF subjects. However, the differences in the parotid secretion were not as pronounced. Patients with CF who were colonized with P. aeruginosa demonstrated a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) percent aggregation of the mucoid variants by the submandibular secretion and of both mucoid and nonmucoid variants by whole saliva, compared with corresponding secretions from patients with CF not colonized with this pathogen. The parotid saliva aggregation activity was not markedly different for the two groups with CF. From patients with CF, whole saliva demonstrated a higher percent P. aeruginosa aggregation than did the submandibular saliva. In non-CF subjects, however, the percent aggregation of P. aeruginosa by submandibular saliva was higher than that by whole saliva. Our results indicate that the sero-mucous products of the submandibular gland have a more significant role in P. aeruginosa aggregation than the serous secreting parotid cells and that the submandibular secretion is possibly responsible for the differences in oral colonization by this pathogen in subjects with and without CF.
The exposure to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not always result in infection. Indeed, there are individuals who have been repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 but do not exhibit clinical or serological evidence of infection; they are known as HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (HESN). To determine if secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a soluble factor secreted by epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces that showed anti-HIV activity in vitro, was associated with natural resistance to HIV infection, we measured by real time RT-PCR the expression of SLPI in oral mucosa of a cohort of Colombian HESN, in chronically HIV-1-infected individuals and in healthy controls. The HESN expressed significantly higher levels of SLPI mRNA than healthy controls (p=0.033) and chronically infected subjects (p=0.011). These findings suggest an association between SLPI expression and the natural resistance to HIV-1 infection exhibited by our HESN cohort.
We compared the levels of adsorption of Streptococcus mutans JBP and Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 to experimental pellicles formed from unsupplemented and glucosyltransferase (GTF)-supplemented saliva. Pellicles formed on hydroxyapatite beads from GTF or from saliva-GTF mixtures possessed detectable GTF activity. Low levels of GTF activity were also detected in clarified whole human saliva, but not in samples of submandibular saliva. The adsorptive behavior of S. mutans JBP to pellicles formed from saliva or saliva-GTF mixtures was strikingly different from that of S. sobrinus 6715. S. mutans JBP adsorbed in higher numbers to pellicles formed from whole or submandibular saliva than to buffer-treated hydroxyapatite under the assay conditions used, in which blocking with albumin was used. In contrast, S. sobrinus 6715 attached in lower numbers and did not show enhanced adsorption to pellicles prepared from saliva. Pellicles prepared from the high-molecular-weight mucin fraction of submandibular saliva effectively promoted adsorption of S. mutans JBP, but none of the saliva fractions tested enhanced the attachment of S. sobrinus 6715 above the levels of buffer controls. Exposure of pellicles which contained GTF to sucrose to permit in situ synthesis of glucan markedly enhanced attachment of S. sobrinus 6715 but not attachment of S. mutans JBP. Also, the presence of sucrose throughout the adsorption period did not enhance attachment of S. mutans JBP. Both organisms possessed cell-associated GTF, and GTF preparations derived from S. sobrinus 6715 and Streptococcus sanguis FC-1 behaved like GTF derived from S. mutans JBP. S. sobrinus 6715 attached in high numbers to dextran-treated hydroxyapatite, whereas S. mutans JBP did not. These observations suggest that S. mutans JBP cells possess an adhesin which binds to salivary components in the pellicles. In contrast, S. sobrinus 6715 cells appear to possess an adhesin which binds to glucan in the pellicles. Four additional strains of S. mutans and four additional strains of S. sobrinus behaved qualitatively like strains JBP and 6715, respectively, and thus the differences observed appear to be representative of these species. Collectively, our data indicate that S. mutans and S. sobrinus attach to different receptors in experimental pellicles.
Salivary anticandidal activities play an important role in oral
candidal infection. R. P. Santarpia et al. (Oral Microbiol.
Immunol. 7:38–43, 1992) developed in vitro anticandidal assays to
measure the ability of saliva to inhibit the viability of Candida
albicans blastoconidia and the formation of germ tubes by
C. albicans. In this report, we describe modifications of
these assays for use with small volumes of saliva (50 to 100 μl). For
healthy subjects, there is strong inhibition of blastoconidial
viability in stimulated parotid (75%), submandibular-sublingual
(74%), and whole (97%) saliva, as well as strong inhibition of germ
tube formation (>80%) for all three saliva types. The susceptibility
of several Candida isolates to inhibition of viability by
saliva collected from healthy subjects is independent of body source of
Candida isolation (blood, oral cavity, or vagina) or the
susceptibility of the isolate to the antifungal drug fluconazole.
Salivary anticandidal activities in human immunodeficiency virus
(HIV)-infected patients were significantly lower than those in healthy
controls for inhibition of blastoconidial viability (P
< 0.05) and germ tube formation (P < 0.001).
Stimulated whole-saliva flow rates were also significantly lower
(P < 0.05) for HIV-infected patients. These results
show that saliva of healthy individuals has anticandidal activity and
that this activity is reduced in the saliva of HIV-infected patients.
These findings may help explain the greater incidence of oral candidal
infections for individuals with AIDS.
Ingestion of a vaccine containing killed Streptococcus mutans, originally isolated from each volunteer, daily for 10 consecutive days induced increased levels of specific secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies to S. mutans cells and two cell surface proteins, glucosyltransferase and surface antigen I/II, in parotid saliva and tears of four healthy males and in parotid saliva, tears, colostrum, and milk of a pregnant woman. In addition, these antibodies inhibited glucosyltransferase activity. Both IgA1 and IgA2 antibodies were induced. The levels of IgA antibodies in all secretions remained significantly above preimmunization levels for more than 50 days after oral administration of antigen. A second series of immunizations for 7 consecutive days resulted in even higher levels of sIgA antibodies, which peaked earlier and persisted longer than those observed after the primary immunizations. No increase in levels of antibodies in serum were detected in any subject. Antibodies reactive with human heart and kidney antigens could not be detected in saliva, tears, colostrum, milk, or serum samples collected at any time during the immunization regimen. The numbers of viable S. mutans organisms in dental plaque and whole saliva decreased after each series of immunizations, which correlated with increased levels of IgA antibodies in saliva, suggesting that IgA antibodies in saliva were responsible for the reduced adherence of this bacterium. These results indicate that ingested S. mutans antigen induces secretion of specific IgA1 and IgA2 antibodies in saliva, tears, colostrum, and milk, providing further evidence for the existence of a common mucosal immune system.