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1.  Study of Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems Among Medical Students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences Loni, Western Maharashtra, India 
Background:
Good quality sleep and adequate amount of sleep are important in order to have better cognitive performance and avoid health problems and psychiatric disorders.
Aim:
The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates, interns and postgraduate students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni, Maharashtra, India.
Subject and Methods:
Sleep habits and problems were investigated using a convenience sample of students from Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni, Maharashtra, India. The study was carried out during Oct. to Dec. 2011 with population consisted of total 150 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire developed based on Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0.
Results:
In this study, out of 150 medical students, 26/150 (17.3%) students had abnormal levels of daytime sleepiness while 20/150 (13.3%) were border line. Sleep quality in females was better than the male.
Conclusion:
Disorders related to poor sleep qualities are significant problems among medical students in our institution. Caffeine and alcohol ingestion affected sleep and there was high level of daytime sleepiness. Sleep difficulties resulted in irritability and affected lifestyle and interpersonal relationships.
doi:10.4103/2141-9248.109488
PMCID: PMC3634224  PMID: 23634330
Medical students; Sleep disorders; Sleep habits; Sleep quality
2.  Sleep Disorders in the Older Adult – A Mini-Review 
Gerontology  2009;56(2):181-189.
Approximately 50% of older adults complain of difficulty sleeping. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. The decrements seen in the sleep of the older adult are often due to a decrease in the ability to get needed sleep. However, the decreased ability is less a function of age and more a function of other factors that accompany aging, such as medical and psychiatric illness, increased medication use, advances in the endogenous circadian clock and a higher prevalence of specific sleep disorders. Given the large number of older adults with sleep complaints and sleep disorders, there is a need for health care professionals to have an increased awareness of these sleep disturbances to better enable them to assess and treat these patients. A thorough sleep history (preferably in the presence of their bed partner) is required for a proper diagnosis, and when appropriate, an overnight sleep recording should be done. Treatment of primary sleep problems can improve the quality of life and daytime functioning of older adults. This paper reviews the diagnoses and characteristics of sleep disorders generally found in the older adult. While aimed at the practicing geriatrician, this paper is also of importance for any gerontologist interested in sleep.
doi:10.1159/000236900
PMCID: PMC2842167  PMID: 19738366
Sleep disorders; Circadian rhythms; Insomnia
3.  Effect of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on sleep in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 
Background
Sleep problems are common in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on sleep quality in adults with ADHD.
Methods
This 4-week, phase 3, double-blind, forced-dose escalation study of adults aged 18 to 55 years with ADHD randomized participants to receive placebo (n = 62), or 30 (n = 119), 50 (n = 117), or 70 (n = 122) mg/d LDX, taken once a day in the morning. The self-rated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was administered at baseline and at week 4 to assess sleep quality. The PSQI global score assesses 7 sleep components (subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medications, and daytime dysfunction) each scored from 0 (no difficulty) to 3 (severe difficulty).
Results
The mean baseline PSQI global score was 5.8 for LDX and 6.3 for placebo (P = .19) indicating poor overall sleep quality. At endpoint, least squares (LS) mean change from baseline was -0.8 for LDX vs -0.5 for placebo (P = .33). The daytime functioning component showed significant improvement in LS mean change at endpoint for LDX compared with placebo (LDX -0.4 vs placebo 0.0, P = .0001). LS mean changes for the other 6 PSQI components did not significantly differ from placebo. Sleep-related treatment-emergent adverse events with an incidence ≥2% in the active treatment and placebo groups, respectively, were insomnia (19.3% and 4.8%), initial insomnia (5.0% and 3.2%), middle insomnia (3.6% and 0%), sleep disorder (0.6% and 3.2%), somnolence (0.3% and 3.2%), and fatigue (4.7% and 4.8%), and were generally mild or moderate in severity.
Conclusion
For most subjects, LDX was not associated with an overall worsening of sleep quality and significantly improved daytime functioning in adults with ADHD.
Trial Registration
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00334880
doi:10.1186/1744-9081-5-34
PMCID: PMC2732626  PMID: 19650932
4.  Sleep fragmentation elevates behavioral, electrographic and neurochemical measures of sleepiness 
Neuroscience  2007;146(4):1462-1473.
Sleep fragmentation, a feature of sleep apnea as well as other sleep and medical/psychiatric disorders, is thought to lead to excessive daytime sleepiness. A rodent model of sleep fragmentation was developed (termed sleep interruption, SI), where rats were awakened every 2 min by the movement of an automated treadmill for either 6 or 24 h of exposure. The sleep pattern of rats exposed to 24h of SI resembled sleep of the apneic patient in the following ways: sleep was fragmented (up to 30 awakening/h), total REM sleep time was greatly reduced, NREM sleep episode duration was reduced (from 2 min, 5 s baseline to 58 s during SI), whereas the total amount of NREM sleep time per 24h approached basal levels. Both 6 and 24 h of SI made rats more sleepy, as indicated by a reduced latency to fall asleep upon SI termination. Electrographic measures in the recovery sleep period following either 6 or 24 h of SI also indicated an elevation of homeostatic sleep drive; specifically, the average NREM episode duration increased (e.g., for 24 h SI, from 2 min, 5 s baseline to 3 min, 19 s following SI), as did the NREM delta power during recovery sleep. Basal forebrain (BF) levels of extracellular adenosine (AD) were also measured with microdialysis sample collection and HPLC detection, as previous work suggests that increasing concentrations of BF AD are related to sleepiness. BF AD levels were significantly elevated during SI, peaking at 220% of baseline during 30 h of SI exposure. These combined findings imply an elevation of the homeostatic sleep drive following either 6 or 24 h of SI, and BF AD levels appear to correlate more with sleepiness than with the cumulative amount of prior wakefulness, since total NREM sleep time declined only slightly. SI may be partially responsible for the symptom of daytime sleepiness observed in a number of clinical disorders, and this may be mediated by mechanisms involving BF AD.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.03.009
PMCID: PMC2156190  PMID: 17442498
adenosine; sleep; EEG (electroencephalogram); rat; microdialysis; forebrain; homeostasis; apnea; delta; sleep latency
5.  Beyond fatigue: Assessing variables associated with sleep problems and use of sleep medications in multiple sclerosis 
Clinical Epidemiology  2010;2:99-106.
Background:
Recent research indicates that sleep disturbances are common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), though research to date has primarily focused on the relationship between fatigue and sleep. In order to improve treatment of sleep disorders in MS, a better understanding of other factors that contribute to MS sleep disturbance and use of sleep medications in this population is needed.
Methods:
Individuals with MS (N = 473) involved in an ongoing self-report survey study were asked to report on use of over-the-counter and prescription sleep medications. Participants completed the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep (MOSS) scale and other common self-report symptom measures. Multiple regression was used to evaluate factors associated with sleep problems and descriptive statistics were generated to examine use of sleep medications.
Results:
The mean score on the MOSS scale was 35.9 (standard deviation, 20.2) and 46.8% of the sample had moderate or severe sleep problems. The majority of participants did not use over-the-counter (78%) or prescription (70%) sleep medications. In a regression model variables statistically significantly associated with sleep problems included depression, nighttime leg cramps, younger age, pain, female sex, fatigue, shorter duration of MS, and nocturia. The model explained 45% of the variance in sleep problems. Of the variance explained, depression accounted for the majority of variance in sleep problems (33%), with other variables explaining significantly less variance.
Conclusions:
Regression results indicate that fatigue may play a minor role in sleep disturbance in MS and that clinicians should consider the interrelationship between depression and sleep problems when treating either symptom in this population. More research is needed to explore the possibility of under-treatment of sleep disorders in MS and examine the potential effectiveness of nonpharmaceutical treatment options.
PMCID: PMC2936768  PMID: 20838467
multiple sclerosis; sleep; depression; fatigue; nonpharmaceutical treatments; self-medication
6.  Beyond fatigue: Assessing variables associated with sleep problems and use of sleep medications in multiple sclerosis 
Clinical epidemiology  2010;2010(2):99-106.
Background
Recent research indicates that sleep disturbances are common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), though research to date has primarily focused on the relationship between fatigue and sleep. In order to improve treatment of sleep disorders in MS, a better understanding of other factors that contribute to MS sleep disturbance and use of sleep medications in this population is needed.
Methods
Individuals with MS (N = 473) involved in an ongoing self-report survey study were asked to report on use of over-the-counter and prescription sleep medications. Participants completed the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep (MOSS) scale and other common self-report symptom measures. Multiple regression was used to evaluate factors associated with sleep problems and descriptive statistics were generated to examine use of sleep medications.
Results
The mean score on the MOSS scale was 35.9 (standard deviation, 20.2) and 46.8% of the sample had moderate or severe sleep problems. The majority of participants did not use over-the-counter (78%) or prescription (70%) sleep medications. In a regression model variables statistically significantly associated with sleep problems included depression, nighttime leg cramps, younger age, pain, female sex, fatigue, shorter duration of MS, and nocturia. The model explained 45% of the variance in sleep problems. Of the variance explained, depression accounted for the majority of variance in sleep problems (33%), with other variables explaining significantly less variance.
Conclusions
Regression results indicate that fatigue may play a minor role in sleep disturbance in MS and that clinicians should consider the interrelationship between depression and sleep problems when treating either symptom in this population. More research is needed to explore the possibility of under-treatment of sleep disorders in MS and examine the potential effectiveness of nonpharmaceutical treatment options.
doi:10.2147/CLEP.S10425
PMCID: PMC2936768  PMID: 20838467
multiple sclerosis; sleep; depression; fatigue; nonpharmaceutical treatments; self-medication
7.  Evaluation and Management of Sleep Disturbance During the Menopause Transition 
Seminars in reproductive medicine  2010;28(5):404-421.
Sleep disturbances in midlife women are common and have been associated with the menopause transition itself, symptoms of hot flashes, anxiety and depressive disorders, aging, primary sleep disorders (i.e., obstructive sleep apnea, periodic limb movement disorder), comorbid medical conditions and medications, as well as with psychosocial and behavioral factors. Because there are several common sources of sleep problems in midlife women, the cause of an individual woman's sleep disturbance may be multifactorial. Effective behavioral and pharmacological therapies are available to treat sleep disturbances of different etiologies. This review provides an overview of different types of sleep disturbance occurring in midlife women and presents data supporting the use of hormone therapy, hypnotic agents, and behavioral strategies to treat sleep problems in this population. The review aims to equip clinicians evaluating menopause-age women with the knowledge and evaluation tools to diagnose, engage sleep experts where appropriate, and treat sleep disturbance in this population. Sleep disorders in midlife women should be treated because substantial improvements in quality of life and health outcomes are achievable.
doi:10.1055/s-0030-1262900
PMCID: PMC3736837  PMID: 20845239
8.  Circadian-Related Sleep Disorders and Sleep Medication Use in the New Zealand Blind Population: An Observational Prevalence Survey 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e22073.
Study Objectives
To determine the prevalence of self-reported circadian-related sleep disorders, sleep medication and melatonin use in the New Zealand blind population.
Design
A telephone survey incorporating 62 questions on sleep habits and medication together with validated questionnaires on sleep quality, chronotype and seasonality.
Participants
Participants were grouped into: (i) 157 with reduced conscious perception of light (RLP); (ii) 156 visually impaired with no reduction in light perception (LP) matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status, and (iii) 156 matched fully-sighted controls (FS).
Sleep Habits and Disturbances
The incidence of sleep disorders, daytime somnolence, insomnia and sleep timing problems was significantly higher in RLP and LP compared to the FS controls (p<0.001). The RLP group had the highest incidence (55%) of sleep timing problems, and 26% showed drifting sleep patterns (vs. 4% FS). Odds ratios for unconventional sleep timing were 2.41 (RLP) and 1.63 (LP) compared to FS controls. For drifting sleep patterns, they were 7.3 (RLP) and 6.0 (LP).
Medication Use
Zopiclone was the most frequently prescribed sleep medication. Melatonin was used by only 4% in the RLP group and 2% in the LP group.
Conclusions
Extrapolations from the current study suggest that 3,000 blind and visually impaired New Zealanders may suffer from circadian-related sleep problems, and that of these, fewer than 15% have been prescribed melatonin. This may represent a therapeutic gap in the treatment of circadian-related sleep disorders in New Zealand, findings that may generalize to other countries.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022073
PMCID: PMC3138759  PMID: 21789214
9.  Sleep and aging: 1. Sleep disorders commonly found in older people 
Aging is associated with several well-described changes in patterns of sleep. Typically, there is a phase advance in the normal circadian sleep cycle: older people tend to go to sleep earlier in the evening but also to wake earlier. They may also wake more frequently during the night and experience fragmented sleep. The prevalence of many sleep disorders increases with age. Insomnia, whether primary or secondary to coexistant illness or medication use, is very common among elderly people. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder and narcolepsy, although less common, are frequently not considered for this population. Periodic leg-movement disorder, a frequent cause of interrupted sleep, can be easily diagnosed with electromyography during nocturnal polysomnography. Restless legs syndrome, however, is diagnosed clinically. Snoring is a common sleep-related respiratory disorder; so is obstructive sleep apnea, which is increasingly seen among older people and is significantly associated with cardio-and cerebrovascular disease as well as cognitive impairment.
doi:10.1503/cmaj.060792
PMCID: PMC1852874  PMID: 17452665
10.  Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Sleep Disorders: Evidence for a Causal Link and Therapeutic Implications 
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and sleep disturbances are both common health problems. There is a significant association between disturbed sleep and GERD, and this may be bidirectional. Sleep disorders may induce gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances, while GI symptoms also may provoke or worsen sleep derangements. Reflux of gastric acid is a less frequent event during sleep, however, acid clearance mechanisms (including swallowing, salivation and primary esophageal motility) are impaired during sleep resulting in prolongation of acid contact time. Nighttime reflux can lead to sleep disturbance and sleep disturbance may further aggravate GERD by prolonged acid contact time and heightened sensory perception. This may facilitate the occurrence of complicated GERD and decreased quality of life. However, the interplay between sleep problems and GERD is complex, and there are still relatively limited data on this issue. Further investigation of sleep-related GERD may identify common pathophysiological themes and new therapeutic targets.
doi:10.5056/jnm.2010.16.1.22
PMCID: PMC2879818  PMID: 20535322
Sleep; Gastroesophageal reflux disease
11.  Sleep Quality in Parkinson’s Disease: An Examination of Clinical Variables 
The etiology of sleep problems in PD is not well understood, as they may arise from the pathology of the disease or from other disease related-factors such as motor dysfunction, dopaminergic medication, and mood disturbances. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with sleep including disease-related variables such as motor symptom severity, dose of medication and mood and disease subtypes. Thirty-five non-demented patients with PD were included. Sleep was measured using 24-hour wrist actigraphy over a seven-day period, during which time participants kept a sleep diary. Subjective sleep and arousal questionnaires included the Parkinson’s Disease Sleep Scale and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Motor symptom severity and dopaminergic medication were significantly related to measures of sleep quality. Gender differences in sleep were found, with men having worse sleep quality and more excessive daytime sleepiness than women. We also found that actigraphy may serve as a useful tool for identifying individuals with possible REM behavior disorder, a sleep disorder that has important implications in early detection of PD.
doi:10.1097/WNN.0b013e31821a4a95
PMCID: PMC3126883  PMID: 21537164
12.  Alcohol’s Effects on Sleep in Alcoholics 
Sleep problems, which can have significant clinical and economic consequences, are more common among alcoholics than among nonalcoholics. During both drinking periods and withdrawal, alcoholics commonly experience problems falling asleep and decreased total sleep time. Other measures of sleep are also disturbed. Even alcoholics who have been abstinent for short periods of time (i.e., several weeks) or extended periods of time (i.e., several years) may experience persistent sleep abnormalities. Researchers also found that alcoholics are more likely to suffer from certain sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea. Conversely, sleep problems may predispose some people to developing alcohol problems. Furthermore, sleep problems may increase the risk of relapse among abstinent alcoholics.
PMCID: PMC2778757  PMID: 11584550
sleep disorder; AOD (alcohol or other drug) dependence; physiological AODE (effects of AOD use, abuse, and dependence); REM (rapid eye movement) sleep; AOD withdrawal syndrome; AOD abstinence; self medication; AODD (AOD use disorder) relapse; melatonin; treatment and maintenance; literature review
13.  Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e75301.
Objectives
To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined.
Method
308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey.
Results
The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times.
Conclusion
While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075301
PMCID: PMC3782469  PMID: 24086501
14.  An investigation on sleep behaviors of the elderly hospitalized in Zahedan 
Background:
Sleep is an essential need in every individual's life. A disorder in the natural sleep can cause physical and mental problems. The elderly are usually faced with more sleep problems. Therefore, the present study aimed to define sleep behavior among the elderly hospitalized in Zahedan.
Materials and Methods:
This is a descriptive analytical study conducted on 300 elderly people aged 60 years and over who were hospitalized in Zahedan. In this research convenience sampling method was used and the research tool was a questionnaire. The data were collected through interviews. Descriptive (frequency distribution) and inferential (X2) statistical tests were employed to analyze the data.
Findings:
The results showed that 62% of the hospitalized elderly people (total of 300) had sleep disorder. About 44.7%took sleep medication in order to sleep, and only 16.7% did not take sleeping medications. About 44.7% had no special schedule for the time of their sleeping and waking up, and 4.3% were involved in drug abuse and smoking, and had a big dinner before sleeping. There was a significant association between sleep disorder, gender, education, living in urban or rural areas, the cause of hospitalization, and suffering from a chronic disease
Conclusions:
Sleep disorder and inappropriate sleep related behaviors had a high prevalence among the elderly. With regard to the important role of sleep in the quality of life of the elderly, detection of the reasons of sleep disorder, motivating them to practice an appropriate sleep behavior, and preventing them from having inappropriate sleep related behaviors are crucial issues.
PMCID: PMC3590697  PMID: 23493461
Sleep behavior; elderly; hospitalized elderly
15.  Circadian rhythm sleep disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis and its association with fatigue: A case-control study 
Background:
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a presentation of sleep disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aims to compare this problem in MS patients with healthy people and to determine its association with chronic fatigue in MS patients.
Materials and Methods:
A case-control study was performed on 120 MS patients and 60 healthy subjects matched for age and sex, in 2009 in MS Clinic Alzahra Hospital. Sleep quality, rhythm and fatigue severity were assessed using PSQI (Pittsburgh sleep quality index) and FSS (Fatigue severity Scale) questionnaires, respectively. Its reliability and validity has been confirmed in several studies (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83). This index has seven sections including patient's assessment of his/her sleep, sleep duration, efficacy of routine sleep, sleep disorders, use of hypnotic medication, and dysfunction in daily activities.
Results:
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder was more frequent in MS patients relative to healthy subjects (P: 0.002). It was higher in MS patients with severe fatigue relative to MS patients with mild fatigue (P: 0.05). Fatigue severity was 49.9 ± 8.2 and 22.5 ± 7.4 in the first and second group, respectively. PSQI index was 7.9 ± 4.5 in patients with severe fatigue and 5.9 ± 4.5 in patients with mild fatigue and 4.5 ± 2.4 in the control group (P: 0.0001).
Conclusion:
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are more frequent in MS patients and those with fatigue. Recognition and management of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in MS patients, especially those with fatigue may be helpful in improving care of these patients.
PMCID: PMC3743326  PMID: 23961292
Chronic fatigue; circadian rhythm sleep disorder; fatigue severity scale; multiple sclerosis; Pittsburg sleep quality index
16.  Are vasomotor symptoms associated with sleep characteristics among symptomatic midlife women? Comparisons of self-report and objective measures 
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)  2012;19(7):742-748.
Objective
Many women report vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and sleep problems during the menopausal transition. Although reported VMS are consistently related to reported sleep disturbance, findings using physiologic measures of VMS or sleep have been more mixed. Our objective was to examine whether more VMS during sleep are associated with poorer sleep among midlife women with VMS using physiologic measures of both VMS and sleep.
Methods
A subcohort of participants (N = 52) with VMS, a uterus and both ovaries, and free of medications affecting VMS from the Pittsburgh site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation underwent four 24-hour periods of in-home ambulatory VMS and sleep measurement. Measures included sternal skin conductance for the measurement of VMS, actigraphy for assessing sleep, a VMS diary, and a sleep diary completed before bed and upon waking. Associations between VMS and sleep were evaluated using generalized estimating equations with covariates age, body mass index, medications affecting sleep, race, financial strain, and depressive symptoms.
Results
More VMS recalled upon waking were associated with significantly lower actigraphy-assessed sleep efficiency, significantly higher wakefulness after sleep onset, and somewhat longer sleep latency. Conversely, physiologically measured VMS and VMS reported during the night were largely unrelated to sleep characteristics.
Conclusions
Associations between VMS and sleep may depend more on the awareness of and recall of VMS rather than solely on their physiologic occurrence.
doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3182422973
PMCID: PMC3551537  PMID: 22415568
Hot flashes; Night sweats; Vasomotor symptoms; Sleep; Actigraphy; Menopause
17.  Sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 
In this article, we advocate the need for better understanding and treatment of children exhibiting inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive behaviors, by in-depth questioning on sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing or problematic behaviors at bedtime, during the night and upon awakening, as well as night-to-night sleep duration variability. The relationships between sleep and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are complex and are routinely overlooked by practitioners. Motricity and somnolence, the most consistent complaints and objectively measured sleep problems in children with ADHD, may develop as a consequence of multidirectional and multifactorial pathways. Therefore, subjectively perceived or reported restless sleep should be evaluated with specific attention to restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder, and awakenings should be queried with regard to parasomnias, dyssomnias and sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep hygiene logs detailing sleep onset and offset quantitatively, as well as qualitatively, are required. More studies in children with ADHD are needed to reveal the 24-h phenotype, or its sleep comorbidities.
doi:10.1586/ern.11.7
PMCID: PMC3129712  PMID: 21469929
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; insomnia; limit-setting disorder; restless legs; sleep-disordered breathing
18.  Disrupted Sleep in Breast and Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy: The Role of Coping Processes 
Psycho-oncology  2010;19(7):767-776.
Background
Sleep problems are a common complaint in cancer patients that has been understudied.
Methods
This study examined changes in sleep in 33 breast cancer patients and 23 prostate cancer patients during radiation therapy and over a 6-month follow-up. Coping processes were examined as predictors of sleep. Self-reported sleep was assessed at 8 time-points before, during, and after treatment using the Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale. The COPE Scale was used to assess coping processes before treatment onset.
Results
Mixed effects linear modeling analyses revealed that both breast and prostate cancer patients reported the most sleep problems prior to and during the early weeks of treatment. Coping strategies predicted sleep trajectories in both groups. In particular, approach coping predicted better sleep in prostate cancer patients, whereas avoidance coping predicted worst sleep in both prostate and breast cancer patients (p’s <.05).
Conclusion
These findings highlight the importance of evaluating sleep in patients as they undergo treatment for cancer. Additionally, they suggest that interventions aimed at increasing the use of approach oriented coping strategies may improve sleep and quality of life in these patients.
doi:10.1002/pon.1639
PMCID: PMC2922069  PMID: 19885853
sleep; breast cancer; prostate cancer; coping processes; radiation therapy
19.  Polysomnographic sleep patterns of non-depressed, non-medicated children with generalized anxiety disorder 
Journal of affective disorders  2012;147(0):379-384.
Background
Polysomnographic (PSG) studies of children with psychiatric illness have primarily focused on depressed samples. Children with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) report high rates of sleep problems yet investigation of objective sleep patterns in non-depressed children with GAD are unavailable. Identification of unique clinical features linking early GAD with sleep disturbance, including possible HPA activation during the pre-sleep period, is needed to inform understanding of effective treatments.
Method
Thirty non-medicated, pre-pubescent children (ages 7–11 years) were assessed including 15 children with GAD and 15 matched healthy controls. Anxious children had GAD as their primary diagnosis and did not meet criteria for secondary mood disorders. All participants underwent structured diagnostic assessment and laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG). State anxiety and salivary cortisol were assessed prior to light out on the PSG night.
Results
Children with GAD showed significantly increased sleep onset latency and reduced latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared to controls. Marginal differences in form of reduced sleep efficiency and increased total REM sleep also were found in the GAD group. Pre-sleep anxiety and cortisol levels did not differ between the two groups.
Limitations
A small sample size, time-limited assessment of cortisol, and possible first night effects should be considered.
Conclusions
Results of this study provide initial evidence of PSG-based differences in children with GAD compared to controls. Follow-up studies are needed to explore the course of sleep alterations and whether targeting sleep problems early in the course of GAD might improve clinical outcomes.
doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.08.015
PMCID: PMC3985749  PMID: 23026127
Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Children; Depression; Sleep; Polysomnography; Cortisol
20.  Marital quality and the marital bed: Examining the covariation between relationship quality and sleep 
Sleep medicine reviews  2007;11(5):389-404.
The majority of adults sleep with a partner, and for a significant proportion of couples, sleep problems and relationship problems co-occur, yet there has been little systematic study of the association between close relationships and sleep. The association between sleep and relationships is likely to be bi-directional and reciprocal—the quality of close relationships influences sleep and sleep disturbances or sleep disorders influence close relationship quality. Therefore, the purpose of the present review is to summarize the extant research on 1) the impact of co-sleeping on bed partner's sleep; 2) the impact of sleep disturbance or sleep disorders on relationship functioning; and 3) the impact of close personal relationship quality on sleep. In addition, we provide a conceptual model of biopsychosocial pathways to account for the covariation between relationship functioning and sleep. Recognizing the dyadic nature of sleep and incorporating such knowledge into both clinical practice and research in sleep medicine may elucidate key mechanisms in the etiology and maintenance of both sleep disorders and relationship problems and may ultimately inform novel treatments.
doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2007.05.002
PMCID: PMC2644899  PMID: 17854738
Marital quality; close relationships; sleep; sleep disorders
21.  Sleep Disturbances Associated with Parkinson's Disease 
Parkinson's Disease  2011;2011:219056.
Sleep disturbances are common problems affecting the quality life of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and are often underestimated. The causes of sleep disturbances are multifactorial and include nocturnal motor disturbances, nocturia, depressive symptoms, and medication use. Comorbidity of PD with sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, or circadian cycle disruption also results in impaired sleep. In addition, the involvement of serotoninergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic neurons in the brainstem as a disease-related change contributes to impaired sleep structures. Excessive daytime sleepiness is not only secondary to nocturnal disturbances or dopaminergic medication but may also be due to independent mechanisms related to impairments in ascending arousal system and the orexin system. Notably, several recent lines of evidence suggest a strong link between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and the risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. In the present paper, we review the current literature concerning sleep disorders in PD.
doi:10.4061/2011/219056
PMCID: PMC3159123  PMID: 21876839
22.  A Review on Genetics of Sleep Disorders 
One-third of population deal with sleep disorders which might be due to social, economic or medical problems. Studies on twins have indicated the role of genetic factors in these disorders. Monozygotic twins have a very similar hypnogram. A higher prevalence of some sleep disorders is reported in relatives of the patients with these disorders. Genes also affect sleep disorders as well as some other disorders at the same time. Sleep disorders can also influence the level of the personal and social functioning. Recent genetic advances have clarified the role of different genes in sleep disorders. The purpose of this article is to present a brief review about the role of genetic factors in some of the sleep disorders.
PMCID: PMC3939950  PMID: 24644464
Gene; Genetic study; Sleep disorders
23.  ADHD Subtypes and Comorbid Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Sleep Problems 
Journal of Pediatric Psychology  2008;34(3):328-337.
Objective Sleep problems were analyzed in children with ADHD (Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder). Methods Scales were completed by parents of 135 control children and 681 children with ADHD combined type (ADHD-C) or inattentive type (ADHD-I) with or without comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, or depression. Results Children with ADHD-I alone had the fewest sleep problems and did not differ from controls. Children with ADHD-C had more sleep problems than controls and children with ADHD-I. Comorbid anxiety/depression increased sleep problems, whereas ODD did not. Daytime sleepiness was greatest in ADHD-I and was associated with sleeping more (not less) than normal. Medicated children had greater difficulty falling asleep than unmedicated children. Conclusions Differences in sleep problems were found as a function of ADHD subtype, comorbidity, and medication.
doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsn083
PMCID: PMC2722128  PMID: 18676503
ADHD, anxiety; depression; sleep; medication; oppositional-defiant disorder
24.  Sleep problems and functional disability in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders: An examination of the potential mediating effects of physical and emotional symptoms 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:142.
Background
Sleep disturbances are increasingly recognized as a common problem for children and adolescents with chronic pain conditions, but little is known about the prevalence, type, and impact of sleep problems in pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). The objectives of the current study were two-fold: 1) to describe the pattern of sleep disturbances reported in a large sample of children and adolescents with FGIDs; and, 2) to explore the impact of sleep by examining the inter-relationships between sleep disturbance, physical symptoms, emotional problems, and functional disability in this population.
Methods
Over a 3-year period, 283 children aged 8–17 years who were diagnosed with an FGID and a primary caretaker independently completed questionnaires regarding sleep, emotional functioning, physical symptoms, and functional disability during an initial evaluation for chronic abdominal pain at a pediatric tertiary care center. A verbal review of systems also was collected at that time. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the pattern of sleep disturbances reported, while structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test theorized meditational relationships between sleep and functional disability through physical and emotional symptoms.
Results
Clinically significant elevations in sleep problems were found in 45% of the sample, with difficulties related to sleep onset and maintenance being most common. No difference was seen by specific FGID or by sex, although adolescents were more likely to have sleep onset issues than younger children. Sleep problems were positively associated with functional disability and physical symptoms fully mediated this relationship. Emotional symptoms, while associated with sleep problems, evidenced no direct link to functional disability.
Conclusions
Sleep problems are common in pediatric FGIDs and are associated with functional disability through their impact on physical symptoms. Treatments targeting sleep are likely to be beneficial in improving physical symptoms and, ultimately, daily function in pediatric FGIDs.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-142
PMCID: PMC3527282  PMID: 23067390
Sleep; Functional disability; Functional gastrointestinal disorders; Pediatrics
25.  INSOMNIA, SELF-MEDICATION, AND RELAPSE TO ALCOHOLISM 
The American journal of psychiatry  2001;158(3):399-404.
Objective
This study investigated the frequencies of insomnia and its self-medication with alcohol in a sample of alcoholic patients, as well as the relationship of these variables to alcoholic relapse.
Method
Subjects were 172 men and women receiving treatment for alcohol dependence. They completed a sleep questionnaire, measures of alcohol problem severity and depression severity, and polysomnograpy after at least two weeks of abstinence.
Results
Using eight items from the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire, >60% of subjects were classified as having symptomatic insomnia during the six months prior to treatment entry. Compared to patients without insomnia, patients with insomnia were more likely to report frequent alcohol use for sleep (55% vs. 28%; χ2=12.03, df=1, p=0.001), had significantly worse polysomnographic measures of sleep continuity, and had greater severity scores for both alcohol dependence and depression. Among 74 alcoholics who were followed a mean of five months after treatment, 60% with baseline insomnia vs. 30% without baseline insomnia relapsed to any use of alcohol (χ2=6.16, df=1, p=0.02). Insomnia remained a robust predictor of relapse after applying logistic regression analysis to control for other variables. A history of self-medicating insomnia with alcohol did not significantly predict subsequent relapse.
Conclusions
The majority of alcoholic patients entering treatment reported insomnia symptoms. Given the potential link between insomnia and relapse, routine questions about sleep in clinical and research settings are warranted.
PMCID: PMC3008542  PMID: 11229980

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