Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may exist. OHS patients may have obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea with hypercapnia and sleep hypoventilation, or an isolated sleep hypoventilation. Despite its major impact on health, this disorder is under-recognized and under-diagnosed. Available management options include aggressive weight reduction, oxygen therapy and using positive airway pressure techniques. In this review, we will go over the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation and diagnosis and management of OHS.
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome; positive pressure ventilation; sleep-disordered breathing
The majority of adults sleep with a partner, and for a significant proportion of couples, sleep problems and relationship problems co-occur, yet there has been little systematic study of the association between close relationships and sleep. The association between sleep and relationships is likely to be bi-directional and reciprocal—the quality of close relationships influences sleep and sleep disturbances or sleep disorders influence close relationship quality. Therefore, the purpose of the present review is to summarize the extant research on 1) the impact of co-sleeping on bed partner's sleep; 2) the impact of sleep disturbance or sleep disorders on relationship functioning; and 3) the impact of close personal relationship quality on sleep. In addition, we provide a conceptual model of biopsychosocial pathways to account for the covariation between relationship functioning and sleep. Recognizing the dyadic nature of sleep and incorporating such knowledge into both clinical practice and research in sleep medicine may elucidate key mechanisms in the etiology and maintenance of both sleep disorders and relationship problems and may ultimately inform novel treatments.
Marital quality; close relationships; sleep; sleep disorders
Sleep curtailment has become a common behavior in modern society. This review summarizes the current laboratory evidence indicating that sleep loss may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and obesity. Experimentally-induced sleep loss in healthy volunteers decreases insulin sensitivity without adequate compensation in beta-cell function, resulting in impaired glucose tolerance and increased diabetes risk. Lack of sleep also down-regulates the satiety hormone leptin, up-regulates the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin, and increases hunger and food intake. Taken together with the epidemiologic evidence for an association between short sleep and the prevalence or incidence of diabetes mellitus and/or obesity, these results support a role for reduced sleep duration in the current epidemic of these metabolic disorders. Screening for habitual sleep patterns in patients with “diabesity” is therefore of great importance. Studies are warranted to investigate the putative therapeutic impact of extending sleep in habitual short sleepers with metabolic disorders.
Sleep deprivation; glucose metabolism; appetite regulation; diabetes; obesity
In recent years, a number of studies have attempted to characterize psychological disturbances related to various sleep disorders. The objective of this type of research is to investigate the possibility that psychopathology may represent an etiological factor, a complication, and/or a target for treatment. In addition, disordered sleep can present itself in a complex and atypical fashion in which the primary sleep-related component may not be immediately apparent. This article reviews the evidence for a relationship between organic sleep disorders and psychiatric morbidity. Generally, it can be concluded that organic sleep disorders have a profound negative impact on most domains of health-related quality of life. Results for the sleep disorders that have been studied (narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia, sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, and circadian sleep disorders) show strong evidence for an association with mood disorders. After treatment, depression scores may or may not improve to the level of population norms, suggesting that this relationship is more complex than one of mere cause and effect.
sleep; mood disorder; narcolepsy; idiopathic hypersomnia; sleep apnea syndrome; restless legs syndrome; periodic limb movement disorder; circadian sleep disorder; quality of life
Sleep problems are common in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on sleep quality in adults with ADHD.
This 4-week, phase 3, double-blind, forced-dose escalation study of adults aged 18 to 55 years with ADHD randomized participants to receive placebo (n = 62), or 30 (n = 119), 50 (n = 117), or 70 (n = 122) mg/d LDX, taken once a day in the morning. The self-rated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was administered at baseline and at week 4 to assess sleep quality. The PSQI global score assesses 7 sleep components (subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medications, and daytime dysfunction) each scored from 0 (no difficulty) to 3 (severe difficulty).
The mean baseline PSQI global score was 5.8 for LDX and 6.3 for placebo (P = .19) indicating poor overall sleep quality. At endpoint, least squares (LS) mean change from baseline was -0.8 for LDX vs -0.5 for placebo (P = .33). The daytime functioning component showed significant improvement in LS mean change at endpoint for LDX compared with placebo (LDX -0.4 vs placebo 0.0, P = .0001). LS mean changes for the other 6 PSQI components did not significantly differ from placebo. Sleep-related treatment-emergent adverse events with an incidence ≥2% in the active treatment and placebo groups, respectively, were insomnia (19.3% and 4.8%), initial insomnia (5.0% and 3.2%), middle insomnia (3.6% and 0%), sleep disorder (0.6% and 3.2%), somnolence (0.3% and 3.2%), and fatigue (4.7% and 4.8%), and were generally mild or moderate in severity.
For most subjects, LDX was not associated with an overall worsening of sleep quality and significantly improved daytime functioning in adults with ADHD.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00334880
Sleep disturbances are very common in patients with PD and are associated with a variety of negative outcomes. The evaluation of sleep disturbances in these patients is complex, as sleep may be affected by a host of primary sleep disorders, other primary medical or psychiatric conditions, reactions to medications, aging or the neuropathophysiology of PD itself. In this article we review the evaluation of the common disturbances of sleep seen in PD. This includes the primary sleep disorders, the interaction of depression and insomnia, the impact that medications for PD have on sleep, as well as the role of factors such as nocturia, pain, dystonia, akinesia, difficulty turning in bed and vivid dreaming. The treatment of sleep disturbances in PD is largely unstudied but recommendations based on clinical experience in PD and research studies in other geriatric populations can be made. Important principles include, diagnosis, treating the specific sleep disorder or co-occurring disorder, and control of the motor aspects of PD.
To describe an approach to sleep apnea for family physicians based on a review of current practice limitations for Canadian family physicians, validated risk prediction tools, and ambulatory sleep apnea technologies.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Published epidemiologic studies focused on family practice management of sleep apnea, clinical practice guidelines, risk prediction tools for sleep apnea, randomized controlled treatment trials, and the author’s community practice audit. Evidence was levels I, II, and III.
Sleep apnea is commonly encountered in family practice, but many family physicians are unfamiliar with sleep medicine. The pretest probability of sleep apnea can be accurately predicted using any one of several simple risk prediction tools. Screening for other common sleep disorders is important, especially when the pretest probability of sleep apnea is low to intermediate; one-third of sleep apnea patients have additional sleep disorders. The use of home-based rather than laboratory-based diagnostic testing and treatment titration is controversial, but the former setting is often used when referral access is limited.
There are several tools that allow family physicians to make accurate sleep apnea risk assessments. There is growing evidence to guide home- versus laboratory-based diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea.
Rationale: The impact of REM-predominant sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) on sleepiness, quality of life (QOL), and sleep maintenance is uncertain.
Objective: To evaluate the association of SDB during REM sleep with daytime sleepiness, health-related QOL, and difficulty maintaining sleep, in comparison to their association with SDB during non-REM sleep in a community-based cohort.
Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 5,649 Sleep Heart Health Study participants (mean age 62.5 [SD = 10.9], 52.6% women, 22.6% ethnic minorities). SDB during REM and non-REM sleep was quantified using polysomnographically derived apnea-hypopnea index in REM (AHIREM) and non-REM (AHINREM) sleep. Sleepiness, sleep maintenance, and QOL were respectively quantified using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Sleep Heart Health Study Sleep Habit Questionnaire, and the physical and mental composites scales of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF)-36.
Measurements and Main Results: AHIREM was not associated with the ESS scores or the physical and mental components scales scores of the SF-36 after adjusting for demographics, body mass index, and AHINREM. AHIREM was not associated with frequent difficulty maintaining sleep or early awakening from sleep. AHINREM was associated with the ESS score (β = 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.34) and the physical (β = −0.12; 95% CI, −0.42 to −0.01) and mental (β = −0.20; 95% CI, −0.20 to −0.01) components scores of the SF-36 adjusting for demographics, body mass index, and AHIREM.
Conclusions: In a community-based sample of middle-aged and older adults, REM-predominant SDB is not independently associated with daytime sleepiness, impaired health-related QOL, or self-reported sleep disruption.
epidemiology; sleep apnea syndromes; sleep, REM; hypersomnia
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two to three times more likely to experience sleep problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative contributions of circadian preferences and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems experienced by children with ADHD and to test for a moderation effect of ADHD diagnosis on the impact of circadian preferences and externalizing problems on sleep onset problems.
After initial screening, parents of children meeting inclusion criteria documented child bedtime over 4 nights, using a sleep log, and completed questionnaires regarding sleep, ADHD and demographics to assess bedtime routine prior to PSG. On the fifth night of the study, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child’s natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Seventy-five children (26 with ADHD and 49 controls) aged 7–11 years (mean age 8.61 years, SD 1.27 years) participated in the present study.
In both groups of children, externalizing problems yielded significant independent contributions to the explained variance in parental reports of bedtime resistance, whereas an evening circadian tendency contributed both to parental reports of sleep onset delay and to PSG-measured sleep-onset latency. No significant interaction effect of behavioral/circadian tendency with ADHD status was evident.
Sleep onset problems in ADHD are related to different etiologies that might require different interventional strategies and can be distinguished using the parental reports on the CSHQ.
Sleep onset insomnia; Externalizing problems; Sleep problems; ADHD; Circadian tendencies; Behavioral problems
That insufficient sleep is associated with poor attention and performance deficits is becoming widely recognized. Fewer people are aware that chronic sleep complaints in epidemiological studies have also been associated with an increase in overall mortality and morbidity. This article summarizes findings of known effects of insufficient sleep on cardiovascular risk factors including blood pressure, glucose metabolism, hormonal regulation and inflammation with particular emphasis on experimental sleep loss, using models of total and partial sleep deprivation, in healthy individuals who normally sleep in the range of 7-8 hours and have no sleep disorders. These studies show that insufficient sleep alters established cardiovascular risk factors in a direction that is known to increase the risk of cardiac morbidity.
inflammation; sleep deprivation; blood pressure; glucose metabolism; hormonal regulation
The purpose of this review is to highlight existing literature on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatments of stroke sleep disorders. Stroke sleep disorders are associated with many intermediary vascular risk factors leading to stroke, but they may also influence these risk factors through direct or indirect mechanisms. Sleep disturbances may be further exacerbated by stroke or caused by stroke. Unrecognized and untreated sleep disorders may influence rehabilitation efforts and poor functional outcomes following stroke and increase risk for stroke recurrence. Increasing awareness and improving screening for sleep disorders is paramount in the primary and secondary prevention of stroke and in improving stroke outcomes. Many vital questions about the relationship of sleep disorders and stroke are still unanswered and await future well-designed studies.
insomnia; sleep apnea; sleep disorders; stroke
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic disorder that is prevalent, especially in subjects with obesity or diabetes. OSA is related to several metabolic abnormalities, including diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Although Koreans are less obese than Caucasians, the prevalence of OSA is comparable in both groups. Thus, the impact of OSA on metabolism may be similar. Many epidemiologic and experimental studies have demonstrated that OSA is associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance via intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, and sleep deprivation. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on glucose metabolism is still controversial. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the ability of OSA treatment to reduce the risk of diabetes and insulin resistance in subjects without diabetes and to ameliorate glucose control in patients with diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus; Glucose intolerance; Glucose metabolism; Insulin resistance; Sleep apnea, obstructive
The aim of this pilot study was to quantify the impact of sleep deprivation on psychophysiological reactivity to emotional stimuli. Following an adaptation night of sleep in the lab, healthy young adults were randomly assigned to either one night of total sleep deprivation or to a normal sleep control condition. The next afternoon, responses to positive, negative, and neutral picture stimuli were examined with pupillography, an indicator of cognitive and affective information processing. Only the sleep-deprived group displayed significantly larger pupil diameter while viewing negative pictures compared to positive or neutral pictures. The sleep-deprived group also showed anticipatory pupillary reactivity during blocks of negative pictures. These data suggest that sleep deprivation is associated with increased reactions to negative emotional information. Such responses may have important implications for psychiatric disorders, which may be triggered or characterized by sleep disturbances.
Sleep deprivation; Affect; Emotional reactivity; Pupil dilation
The relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep is a complex one which poses many challenges in clinical practice.
Studies of sleep disturbances in children with academic and behavioral problems have underscored the role that primary sleep disorders play in the clinical presentation of symptoms of inattention and behavioral dysregulation. In addition, recent research has shed further light on the prevalence, type, risk factors for, and impact of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD.
The following discussion of the multi-level and bi-directional relationships among sleep, neurobehavioral functioning, and the clinical syndrome of ADHD synthesizes current knowledge about the interaction of sleep and attention/arousal in these children.
Guidelines are provided, outlining a clinical approach to evaluation and management of children with ADHD and sleep problems.
sleep; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; sleep disorders; sommeil; trouble du déficit d’attention avec hyperactivité; troubles du sommeil
Psychological stressors have a prominent effect on sleep in general, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular. Disruptions in sleep are a prominent feature, and potentially even the hallmark, of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Ross et al., 1989). Animal models are critical in understanding both the causes and potential treatments of psychiatric disorders. The current review describes a number of studies that have focused on the impact of stress on sleep in rodent models. The studies are also summarized in Table 1, summarizing the effects of stress in 4-hr blocks in both the light and dark phases. Although mild stress procedures have sometimes produced increases in REM sleep, more intense stressors appear to model the human condition by leading to disruptions in sleep, particularly REM sleep. We also discuss work conducted by our group and others looking at conditioning as a factor in the temporal extension of stress-related sleep disruptions. Finally, we attempt to describe the probable neural mechanisms of the sleep disruptions. A complete understanding of the neural correlates of stress-induced sleep alterations may lead to novel treatments for a variety of debilitating sleep disorders.
Amygdala; corticotropin-releasing factor; stress; sleep; REM; PTSD
Hypersomnia, a complaint of excessive daytime sleep or sleepiness, affects 4% to 6% of the population, with an impact on the everyday life of the patient Methodological tools to explore sleep and wakefulness (interview, questionnaires, sleep diary, polysomnography Multiple Sleep Latency Test, Maintenance of Wakefulness Test) and psy-chomotor tests (for example, psychomotor vigilance task and Oxford Sleep Resistance or Osier Test) help distinguish between the causes of hypersomnia. In this article, the causes of hypersomnia are detailed following the conventional classification of hypersomnic syndromes: narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia, recurrent hypersomnia, insufficient sleep syndrome, medication- and toxin-dependent sleepiness, hypersomnia associated with psychiatric disorders, hypersomnia associated with neurological disorders, posttraumatic hypersomnia, infection (with a special emphasis on the differences between bacterial and viral diseases compared with parasitic diseases, such as sleeping sickness) and hypersomnia, hypersomnia associated with metabolic or endocrine diseases, breathing-related sleep disorders and sleep apnea syndromes, and periodic limb movements in sleep.
narcolepsy; idiopathic hypersomnia; recurrent hypersomnia; insufficient sleep syndrome; periodic limb movements in sleep; sleep apnea syndrome; human African trypanosomiasis; infectious disease
Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk for metabolic disorders. To assess a possible causal relationship, we examined the effects of experimental sleep disturbance on glucose regulation in Wistar rats under controlled laboratory conditions. Three groups of animals were used: a sleep restriction group (RS), a group subjected to moderate sleep disturbance without restriction of sleep time (DS), and a home cage control group. To establish changes in glucose regulation, animals were subjected to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) before and after 1 or 8 days of sleep restriction or disturbance. Data show that both RS and DS reduce body weight without affecting food intake and also lead to hyperglycemia and decreased insulin levels during an IVGTT. Acute sleep disturbance also caused hyperglycemia during an IVGTT, yet, without affecting the insulin response. In conclusion, both moderate and severe disturbances of sleep markedly affect glucose homeostasis and body weight control.
Sleep disturbances are increasingly recognized as a common problem for children and adolescents with chronic pain conditions, but little is known about the prevalence, type, and impact of sleep problems in pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). The objectives of the current study were two-fold: 1) to describe the pattern of sleep disturbances reported in a large sample of children and adolescents with FGIDs; and, 2) to explore the impact of sleep by examining the inter-relationships between sleep disturbance, physical symptoms, emotional problems, and functional disability in this population.
Over a 3-year period, 283 children aged 8–17 years who were diagnosed with an FGID and a primary caretaker independently completed questionnaires regarding sleep, emotional functioning, physical symptoms, and functional disability during an initial evaluation for chronic abdominal pain at a pediatric tertiary care center. A verbal review of systems also was collected at that time. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the pattern of sleep disturbances reported, while structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test theorized meditational relationships between sleep and functional disability through physical and emotional symptoms.
Clinically significant elevations in sleep problems were found in 45% of the sample, with difficulties related to sleep onset and maintenance being most common. No difference was seen by specific FGID or by sex, although adolescents were more likely to have sleep onset issues than younger children. Sleep problems were positively associated with functional disability and physical symptoms fully mediated this relationship. Emotional symptoms, while associated with sleep problems, evidenced no direct link to functional disability.
Sleep problems are common in pediatric FGIDs and are associated with functional disability through their impact on physical symptoms. Treatments targeting sleep are likely to be beneficial in improving physical symptoms and, ultimately, daily function in pediatric FGIDs.
Sleep; Functional disability; Functional gastrointestinal disorders; Pediatrics
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common obstructive lung diseases affecting millions of people in the United States. As sleep disorders are also common, it is not surprising that many people with obstructive lung disease also suffer from sleep disorders. However, people with COPD and those with asthma have worse sleep quality and more sleep-related problems when compared to people with other chronic health problems. In addition, a pathologic relationship may exist between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obstructive lung diseases. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical implications of sleep disturbances in asthma and COPD.
Sleep; Asthma; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; nocturnal hypoxemia
Up to 70% of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience sleep problems including difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep. Sleep problems in children with ADHD can result in poorer child functioning, impacting on school attendance, daily functioning and behaviour, as well as parental mental health and work attendance. The Sleeping Sound with ADHD trial aims to investigate the efficacy of a behavioural sleep program in treating sleep problems experienced by children with ADHD. We have demonstrated the feasibility and the acceptability of this treatment program in a pilot study.
This randomised controlled trial (RCT) is being conducted with 198 children (aged between 5 to 12 years) with ADHD and moderate to severe sleep problems. Children are recruited from public and private paediatric practices across the state of Victoria, Australia. Upon receiving informed written consent, families are randomised to receive either the behavioural sleep intervention or usual care. The intervention consists of two individual, face-to-face consultations and a follow-up phone call with a trained clinician (trainee consultant paediatrician or psychologist), focusing on the assessment and management of child sleep problems. The primary outcome is parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms (ADHD Rating Scale IV). Secondary outcomes are child sleep (actigraphy and parent report), behaviour, daily functioning, school attendance and working memory, as well as parent mental health and work attendance. We are also assessing the impact of children's psychiatric comorbidity (measured using a structured diagnostic interview) on treatment outcome.
To our knowledge, this is the first RCT of a behavioural intervention aiming to treat sleep problems in children with ADHD. If effective, this program will provide a feasible non-pharmacological and acceptable intervention improving child sleep and ADHD symptoms in this patient group.
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68819261.
The primary aim of this study was to investigate the acute impact of methylphenidate (MPH) on sleep parameters in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. The second aim was to investigate the different effects of intermediate- and longacting MPH on sleep parameters. The third aim was to test the different effects of dose and age on sleep parameters.
Ninety-three ADHD children were enrolled and randomized to two different MPH preparations. Baseline and daily sleep diaries were evaluated for four weeks after taking medication. Weekday and weekend bedtimes, wake-up times, sleep latencies and total sleep times were compared by weeks.
After taking MPH, there was a significant delay in bedtimes and a significant reduction of total sleep time (TST) both on weekdays and at weekends. There was also a significant delay in wake-up time on weekdays. However, the difference was applied to younger age group children only. There was no difference in changes of TST between metadate-CD and OROS-MPH. There also was no difference in changes of TST with different doses of MPH.
MPH had negative impacts on sleep among young ADHD children, but different preparations and doses did not affect the result.
ADHD; Children; Methylphenidate; OROS-MPH; Metadate-CD
Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP). Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years) were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT), and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT). Baseline (BSL) performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD) using the Student’s t test.
Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms) relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005), for males (p = 0.0066), and for females (p = 0.0208). Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005)(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p < 0.0001)]. These effects were evident within both gender subgroups [(right: males, p = 0.0080; females, p = 0.0143)(left: males, p = 0.0076; females: p = 0.0010).
Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life.
Central auditory processing; Sleep; RGDT; SSWT
Objective. Rheumatologic disorders are associated with sleep disturbances. This study examines sleep disturbance correlates in patients with SSc.
Methods. Participants are 180 SSc patients in an observational study. At baseline, patients completed the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep measure (MOS-Sleep scale). In addition, patients were administered other patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures including the 36-item short form (SF-36), HAQ disability index (HAQ-DI), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale and a University of California at Los Angeles Scleroderma Clinical Trial Consortium Gastrointestinal Tract Questionnaire (UCLA SCTC GIT 2.0). Descriptive statistics were assessed for six scales of MOS-Sleep and the 9-item sleep problem index (SLP-9; a composite index). We computed Spearman’s rank-order correlations between the MOS-Sleep scales and the HAQ-DI, FACIT-Fatigue, CESD, SSc-SCTC GIT 2.0 and SF-36 scales. In addition, we developed a regression model to assess predictors of SLP-9 scores. Covariates included demographics, physician variables of disease severity and patient-reported variables of worsening symptoms and the PRO measures.
Results. SSc patients reported a mean (s.d.) of 7.1 (1.73) h of sleep a night. Patients reported worse scores on four of six scales (except for snoring and sleep quantity) compared with the US general population (P < 0.001). SLP-9 was correlated with worsening pain and dyspnoea over the past 1 month, reflux scale of the UCLA SCTC GIT 2.0, CESD and FACIT-Fatigue (ρ 0.26–0.56). In the stepwise multivariate regression model, the CESD, worsening dyspnoea and reflux scale were significantly associated with SLP-9 index.
Conclusion. Sleep disturbances are common in SSc and are associated with worsening dyspnoea, depressed mood and severity of reflux symptoms.
Systemic sclerosis; Scleroderma; Sleep; Depression; Gastroesophageal reflux; Quality of life; SF-36; HAQ disability index (HAQ-DI); Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue); Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale; University of California at Los Angeles Scleroderma Clinical Trial Consortium Gastrointestinal Tract Questionnaire (UCLA SCTC GIT 2.0)
Obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome is characterized by repeated airway collapse during sleep. The li-terature describes multiple causes of the disease. The main cause is a reduction of the expansion forces of the pharyngeal dilator muscles, as in situations of genioglossal muscle dysfunction, and discoordination between the inspiratory activity of the muscle and respiratory effort, which play an important role in progression of the disease.
Other described causes are soft tissue disorders, such as macroglossia or tonsillar hypertrophy, and skeletal structural alterations such as micrognathia and retrognathia. The syndrome is also more frequent in obese people, where the accumulation of fat in the neck region produces narrowing of the pharyngeal airway, thereby diminishing the passage of air.
This review focuses on the pathogenesis, epidemiology, main features and diagnosis of the disease, and on its main forms of treatment.
Key words:Sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, sleep apnea syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
The epidemiological study of hypersomnia symptoms is still in its infancy; most epidemiological surveys on this topic were published in the last decade. More than two dozen representative community studies can be found. These studies assessed two aspects of hypersomnia: excessive quantity of sleep and sleep propensity during wakefulness (excessive daytime sleepiness). The prevalence of excessive quantity of sleep when referring to the subjective evaluation of sleep duration is around 4% of the population. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been mostly investigated in terms of frequency or severity; duration of the symptom has rarely been investigated. EDS occurring at least 3 days per week has been reported in between 4% and 20.6% of the population, while severe EDS was reported at 5%. In most studies men and women are equally affected. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, hypersomnia symptoms are the essential feature of 3 disorders: insufficient sleep syndrome, hypersomnia (idiopathic, recurrent or posttraumatic) and narcolepsy. Insufficient sleep syndrome and hypersomnia diagnoses are poorly documented. The co-occurrence of insufficient sleep and EDS has been explored in some studies and prevalence has been found in around 8% of the general population. However, these subjects often have other conditions such as insomnia, depression or sleep apnea. Therefore, the prevalence of insufficient sleep syndrome is more likely to be between 1% and 4% of the population. Idiopathic hypersomnia would be rare in the general population with prevalence, around 0.3%. Narcolepsy has been more extensively studied, with a prevalence around 0.045% in the general population. Genetic epidemiological studies of narcolepsy have shown that between 1.5% and 20.8% of narcoleptic individuals have at least one family member with the disease. The large variation is mostly due to the method used to collect the information on the family members; systematic investigation of all family members provided higher results. There is still a lot to be done in the epidemiological field of hypersomnia. Inconsistencies in its definition and measurement limit the generalization of the results. The use of a single question fails to capture the complexity of the symptom. The natural evolution of hypersomnia remains to be documented.
epidemiology; excessive sleepiness; hypersomnia; narcolepsy; genetic epidemiology