Many patients with asthma are troubled by nocturnal wheeze. The cause of this symptom is unknown, but sleep is an important factor. A study was carried out to determine whether nocturnal bronchoconstriction is related to any specific stage of sleep. Eight asthmatics with nocturnal wheeze and eight control subjects performed forced expiratory manoeuvres immediately after being woken from rapid eye movement (REM) or non-REM sleep, wakings being timed to differentiate temporal effects from those related to the stage of sleep. The control subjects showed no significant temporal bronchoconstriction or bronchoconstriction related to the stage of sleep. All patients showed bronchoconstriction overnight, the mean peak expiratory flow rate falling from 410 (SEM 50) 1/min before sleep to 186 (49)1/min after sleep. After the patients had been woken from REM sleep the forced expiratory volume in one second was on average 300 ml lower (p less than 0.02) and peak expiratory flow rate 45 1/min lower (p less than 0.03) than after they had been woken from non-REM sleep. As wakenings from REM sleep were 21(8) minutes later in the night than those from non-REM sleep multivariate analysis was performed to differentiate temporal effects from those related to the stage of sleep. This showed that the overnight decreases in forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow rate were significantly related both to time and to REM sleep. This study suggests that asthmatics may suffer bronchoconstriction during REM sleep.
Atopic diseases, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, are common conditions that can influence sleep and subsequent daytime functioning. Children and patients with allergic conditions from ethnic minority groups might be particularly vulnerable to poor sleep and compromised daytime functioning because of the prevalence of these illnesses in these groups and the high level of morbidity. Research over the past 10 years has shed light on the pathophysiologic mechanisms (eg, inflammatory mediators) involved in many atopic diseases that can underlie sleep disruptions as a consequence of the presence of nocturnal symptoms. Associations between nocturnal symptoms and sleep and poorer quality of life as a result of missed sleep have been demonstrated across studies. Patients with severe illness and poor control appear to bear the most burden in terms of sleep impairment. Sleep-disordered breathing is also more common in patients with allergic diseases. Upper and lower airway resistance can increase the risk for sleep-disordered breathing events. In patients with allergic rhinitis, nasal congestion is a risk factor for apnea and snoring. Finally, consistent and appropriate use of medications can minimize nocturnal asthma or allergic symptoms that might disrupt sleep. Despite these advances, there is much room for improvement in this area. A summary of the sleep and allergic disease literature is reviewed, with methodological, conceptual, and clinical suggestions presented for future research.
Sleep; allergic disease; asthma; allergic rhinitis; atopic dermatitis
To describe nocturnal asthma symptoms among urban children with asthma and assess the burden of sleep difficulties between children with varying levels of nocturnal symptoms.
We analyzed baseline data from 287 urban children with persistent asthma (ages 4–10) enrolled in the School-Based Asthma Therapy trial; Rochester, NY. Caregivers reported on nocturnal asthma symptoms (# nights/2 weeks with wheezing or coughing), parent quality of life (Juniper’s PACQLQ), and sleep quality using the validated Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire. We used bivariate and multivariate statistics to compare nocturnal asthma symptoms with sleep quality/quantity and quality of life.
Most children (mean age 7.5yrs) were Black (62%); 74% had Medicaid. Forty-one percent of children had intermittent nocturnal asthma symptoms, 23% mild persistent, and 36% moderate to severe. Children’s average total sleep quality score was 51 (range 33–99) which is above the clinically significant cut-off of 41, indicating pervasive sleep disturbances among this population. Sleep scores were worse for children with more nocturnal asthma symptoms compared to those with milder symptoms on total score, as well as several subscales including night wakings, parasomnias, and sleep disordered breathing (all p<.03). Parents of children with more nocturnal asthma symptoms reported their child having fewer nights with enough sleep in the past week (p=.018) and worse parent quality of life (p<.001).
Nocturnal asthma symptoms are prevalent in this population, and are associated with poor sleep quality and worse parent quality of life. These findings have potential implications for understanding the disease burden of pediatric asthma.
asthma; childhood; symptoms; sleep; quality of life; smoke
Most patients with asthma waken with nocturnal asthma from time to time. To assess morbidity in patients with nocturnal asthma nocturnal sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and daytime cognitive performance were measured prospectively in 12 patients with nocturnal asthma (median age 43 years) and 12 age and intellect matched normal subjects. The median (range) percentage overnight fall in peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) was 22 (15 to 50) in the patients with nocturnal asthma and 4 (-4 to 7) in the normal subjects. The patients with asthma had poorer average scores for subjective sleep quality than the normal subjects (median paired difference 1.1 (95% confidence limits 0.1, 2.3)). Objective overnight sleep quality was also worse in the asthmatic patients, who spent more time awake at night (median difference 51 (95% CL 8.1, 74) minutes), had a longer sleep onset latency (12 (10, 30) minutes), and tended to have less stage 4 (deep) sleep (-33 (-58, 4) minutes). Daytime cognitive performance was worse in the patients with nocturnal asthma, who took a longer time to complete the trail making tests (median difference 62 (22, 75) seconds) and achieved a lower score on the paced serial addition tests (-10 (-24, -3)). Mean daytime sleep latency did not differ significantly between the two groups (2 (-3, 7) minutes). It is concluded that hospital outpatients with stable nocturnal asthma have impaired sleep quality and daytime cognitive performance even when having their usual maintenance asthma treatment.
This report documents how respiratory sleep disorders can adversely effect ischaemic heart disease. Three male patients (aged 60-67 years) with proven ischaemic heart disease are described. They illustrate a spectrum of nocturnal cardiac dysfunction, two with nocturnal angina and one with nocturnal arrhythmias. Full sleep studies were performed in a dedicated sleep laboratory on all patients, and one patient had 48 hours of continuous Holter monitoring. Two patients were found to have obstructive sleep apnoea with apnoea/hypopnoea indices of 57 and 36 per hour, respectively, the former with nocturnal arrhythmias and the latter with nocturnal angina. In both cases, nasal continuous positive airways pressure successfully treated the sleep apnoea, with an associated improvement in nocturnal arrhythmias and angina. The third patient who presented with nocturnal angina, did not demonstrate obstructive sleep apnoea (apnoea/hypopnoea index = 7.2) but had significant oxygen desaturation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This patient responded to a combination of nocturnal oxygen and protriptyline, an agent known to suppress REM sleep, and had no further nocturnal angina. All patients were considered to be an optimum cardiac medication and successful symptom resolution only occurred with the addition of specific therapy aimed at their sleep-related respiratory problem. We conclude that all patients with nocturnal angina or arrhythmias should have respiratory sleep abnormalities considered in their assessment.
Subjective and objective sleep disturbance was studied in
children with nocturnal asthma. Relations between such disturbance and
daytime psychological function were also explored, including possible
changes in learning and behaviour associated with improvements in
nocturnal asthma and sleep. Assessments included home polysomnography, parental questionnaires concerning sleep disturbance, behaviour, and
mood and cognitive testing. Compared with matched controls, children
with asthma had significantly more disturbed sleep, tended to have more
psychological problems, and they performed less well on some tests of
memory and concentration. In general, improvement of nocturnal asthma
symptoms by changes in treatment was followed by improvement in sleep
and psychological function in subsequent weeks. The effects of asthma
on sleep and the possible psychological consequences are important
aspects of overall care.
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether inhaled salmeterol, a new long acting inhaled beta adrenergic agonist, reduces nocturnal bronchoconstriction and improves sleep quality in patients with nocturnal asthma. DESIGN--Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover study. SETTING--Hospital outpatient clinics in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS--Twenty clinically stable patients (13 women, seven men) with nocturnal asthma, median age 39 (range 18-60) years. INTERVENTIONS--Salmeterol 50 micrograms and 100 micrograms and placebo taken each morning and evening by metered dose inhaler. Rescue salbutamol inhalers were provided throughout the run in and study periods. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Improvement in nocturnal asthma as measured by peak expiratory flow rates and change in sleep quality as measured by electroencephalography. RESULTS--Salmeterol improved the lowest overnight peak flow rate at both 50 micrograms (difference in median values (95% confidence interval for difference in medians) 69 (18 to 88) l/min) and 100 micrograms (72 (23 to 61) l/min) doses twice daily. While taking salmeterol 50 micrograms twice daily patients had an objective improvement in sleep quality, spending less time awake or in light sleep (-9 (-4 to -44) min) and more time in stage 4 sleep (26 (6-34) min). CONCLUSIONS--Salmeterol is an effective long acting inhaled bronchodilator for patients with nocturnal asthma and at a dose of 50 micrograms twice daily improves objective sleep quality.
The effect of an oral sustained release beta 2 agonist on symptoms, sleep quality, and peak flow rates has been studied in nine patients with nocturnal asthma. Patients received oral terbutaline 7.5 mg twice daily or placebo for seven days in a double blind crossover study and spent the last two nights of each limb in a sleep laboratory. Oral terbutaline improved morning peak flow (259 v 213 l min-1) and decreased nocturnal inhaler usage (1.3 v 1.9) with no alteration in sleep quality as assessed electroencephalographically. The study shows that oral sustained release terbutaline can be useful in the treatment of nocturnal asthma without impairment of sleep quality.
The effects of sleep interruption and deprivation were studied in 21 patients with nocturnal asthma. Seven patients were awakened at 0200 on three consecutive night and exercised for 15 minutes. This produced no significant improvement in the overnight fall in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) compared with a control night of uninterrupted sleep. In a second study in five patients PEFR was measured at two-hourly intervals to estimate the time of onset of the nocturnal fall in PEFR. On three subsequent nights they were awakened and exercised one hour before this time. This also failed to prevent a fall in PEFR by 0600. Eleven patients, who had followed a similar protocol to the second study, were kept awake until after 0300 or later, and PEFR was observed hourly. Six of them (group A) sustained their usual fall in PEFR while awake, proving that sleep was not responsible for their nocturnal asthma. Five patients (group B) showed little fall in PEFR until they were allowed to sleep, when an appreciable fall was noted on waking at 0600. When sleep deprivation was repeated in two patients in group B, however, they sustained falls in PEFR while still awake. We conclude that the circadian rhythm in PEFR is often in phase with the timing of sleep but sleep does not cause nocturnal asthma. Disruption of sleep therefore has no apparent value in the treatment of nocturnal asthma.
Exploding head syndrome (EHS) is a rare parasomnia in which affected individuals awaken from sleep with the sensation of a loud bang. The etiology is unknown, but other conditions including primary and secondary headache disorders and nocturnal seizures need to be excluded.
A 57-year-old Indian male presented with four separate episodes of awakening from sleep at night after hearing a flashing sound on the right side of his head over the last 2 years. These events were described ‘as if there are explosions in my head’. A neurologic examination, imaging studies, and a polysomnogram ensued, and the results led to the diagnosis of EHS.
EHS is a benign, uncommon, predominately nocturnal disorder that is self-limited. No treatment is generally required. Reassurance to the patient is often all that is needed.
Exploding head syndrome; Parasomnia; Headache disorder
Breathing patterns early and late in the night, at the same sleep stage, were compared in six healthy subjects and 15 adults with nocturnal asthma, to try to identify changes of overnight bronchoconstriction, and breathing patterns at different sleep stages, to see whether there were changes related to sleep stages that were indicative of bronchoconstriction. Despite an average 31% fall in FEV1 overnight in the patients with asthma, neither breathing frequency nor expiratory time, which might be expected to change during bronchoconstriction, was different early in the night from late in the night, nor did they differ between sleep stages. There was no evidence of asynchronous movement of the chest and abdomen in any patient. This study did not identify any abnormality of breathing pattern that would indicate the development of nocturnal asthma without the need to awaken the patient.
Methods: Sleep was studied in 11 patients (six women and five men; mean (SD) age 63.6 (7.8) years) who underwent STN-DBS. Subjective sleep evaluation was assessed by clinical sleep interview and the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) questionnaire, and sleep architecture by polysomnography with audiovisual recording. Nocturnal mobility was evaluated.
Results: Before surgery, eight patients rated their sleep quality as unsatisfactory; seven of these had a marked improvement after surgery, and the PSQI questionnaire showed significantly improved sleep quality. After surgery, polysomnography showed an increase in the longest period of uninterrupted sleep and a decrease in the arousal index. There was an increase in nocturnal mobility after surgery, but no change in REM sleep behaviour disorder.
Conclusions: In advanced Parkinson's disease, chronic STN-DBS is associated with subjective improvement in sleep quality, probably through increased nocturnal mobility and reduction of sleep fragmentation.
Nocturnal awakenings are one of the most prevalent sleep disturbances in the general population. Little is known, however, about the frequency of these episodes and how difficulty resuming sleep once awakened affects subjective sleep quality and quantity. Method: This is a cross-sectional telephone study with a representative sample consisting of 8,937 non-institutionalized individuals aged 18 or over living in Texas, New York and California. The interviews included questions on sleeping habits, health, sleep and mental disorders. Nocturnal awakenings were evaluated according to their frequency per week and per night, as well as their duration.
A total of 35.5% of the sample reported awakening at least 3 nights per week. Of this 35.5%, 43% (15.2% of the total sample) reported difficulty resuming sleep once awakened. More than 80% of subjects with insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or non-restorative sleep) also had nocturnal awakenings. Difficulty resuming sleep was associated with subjective shorter sleep duration, poorer sleep quality, greater daytime impairment, greater consultations for sleep disturbances and greater likelihood of receiving a sleep medication.
Nocturnal awakenings disrupt the sleep of about one-third of the general population. Using difficulty resuming sleep identifies individuals with significant daytime impairment who are most likely to seek medical help for their sleep disturbances. In the absence of other insomnia symptoms, nocturnal awakenings alone are unlikely to be associated with daytime impairments.
Nocturnal cough and wheeze are common in asthma. The cause of nocturnal asthma is unknown and there is conflicting evidence on whether sleep is a factor. Twelve adult asthmatic subjects with nocturnal wheeze were studied on two occasions: on one night subjects were allowed to sleep and on the other they were kept awake all night, wakefulness being confirmed by electroencephalogram. Every patient developed bronchoconstriction overnight both on the asleep night, when peak expiratory flow (PEF) fell from a mean (SE) of 418 (40) 1 min-1 at 10 pm to 270 (46) 1 min-1 in the morning, and on the awake night (PEF 10 pm 465 (43), morning 371 (43) 1 min-1). The morning values of PEF were, however, higher (p less than 0.1) after the awake night and both the absolute and the percentage overnight falls in PEF were greater when the patients slept (asleep night 38% (6%), awake night 20% (4%); p less than 0.01). This study suggests that sleep is an important factor in determining overnight bronchoconstriction in patients with nocturnal asthma.
The role of sleep in the relations between early-life trauma and the development of adverse psychological trajectories is relatively unknown and was the primary aim of the present study. Military veterans were evaluated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, combat exposure, trauma history, sleep quality, disruptive nocturnal behaviors, and a subsample completed overnight polysomnography that yielded objectively measured sleep parameters. When relevant variables were controlled, increased earlier-life traumatic event exposure was associated with increased rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMs) fragmentation, and increased REMs fragmentation was associated with increased later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. REMs fragmentation carried an indirect relation between earlier-life trauma and later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. Objectively measured sleep parameters were used to describe REMs fragmentation physiology. The current findings elucidate the important role that earlier-life trauma exposure may have in the development of REM sleep physiology, and how this altered sleep physiology may have dynamic influences on subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms in adulthood.
Sleep; Development; Translational; Trauma; Fear; PTSD; Combat
are common problems affecting the quality life
of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and are
often underestimated. The causes of sleep
disturbances are multifactorial and include
nocturnal motor disturbances, nocturia,
depressive symptoms, and medication use.
Comorbidity of PD with sleep apnea syndrome,
restless legs syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep
behavior disorder, or circadian cycle disruption
also results in impaired sleep. In addition, the
involvement of serotoninergic, noradrenergic,
and cholinergic neurons in the brainstem as a
disease-related change contributes to impaired
sleep structures. Excessive daytime sleepiness
is not only secondary to nocturnal disturbances
or dopaminergic medication but may also be due
to independent mechanisms related to impairments
in ascending arousal system and the orexin
system. Notably, several recent lines of
evidence suggest a strong link between rapid eye
movement sleep behavior disorder and the risk of
neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. In the
present paper, we review the current literature
concerning sleep disorders in PD.
Nocturnal wheeze is common in patients with asthma, and slow release theophyllines may reduce symptoms. As theophyllines are stimulants of the central nervous system the effect of 10 days' twice daily treatment with sustained release choline theophyllinate or placebo on symptoms, overnight bronchoconstriction, nocturnal oxygen saturation, and quality of sleep were studied in a double blind crossover study in nine stable patients with nocturnal asthma (five men, four women, age range 23-64 years; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 0.85-3.8 1; vital capacity 1.95-6.1 1). When treated with the active drug all patients had plasma theophylline concentrations of at least 28 mmol/l (5 micrograms/ml) (peak plasma theophylline concentrations 50-144 mmol/l (9-26 micrograms/ml]. Morning FEV1 was higher when treated with sustained release choline theophyllinate (2.7 (SEM 0.3) 1) than placebo (2.1 (0.3) 1) (p less than 0.01). Both daytime and nocturnal symptoms were reduced when the patients were treated with sustained release choline theophyllinate and subjective quality of sleep was improved (p less than 0.002). When treated with the active drug, however, quality of sleep determined by electroencephalography deteriorated with an increase in wakefulness and drowsiness (p less than 0.05) and a reduction in non-rapid eye movement sleep (p less than 0.005). Treatment with choline theophyllinate had no effect on either the occurrence or the severity of transient nocturnal hypoxaemic episodes or apnoeas or hypopnoeas. In conclusion, sustained release choline theophyllinate prevents overnight bronchoconstriction, but impairs quality of sleep defined by electroencephalography.
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is a disease characterized by a collapse of the pharyngeal airway resulting in repeated episodes of airflow
cessation, oxygen desaturation, and sleep disruption. It is a common disorder affecting at least 2-4% of the adult population. The role
of nasal resistance in the pathogenesis of sleep disordered breathing and sleep apnoea has not been completely clarified. Aim of the present
study was to establish whether nasal resistance and nasal volumes, measured by means of Active Anterior Rhinomanometry and Acoustic
Rhinometry together with Muco-Ciliary Transport time play a positive predictive role in the evaluation of Obstructive sleep apnoea
syndrome patients before running a nocturnal polysomnographic recording. A retrospective study was performed analysing 223 patients
referred for suspected Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. All patients were submitted to complete otorhinolaryngological evaluation and
underwent nocturnal polysomnography. On the basis of polysomnographic data analysis, the apnoea-hypopnoea index and snoring index,
patients were classified into two groups: Group 1 (110/223 patients) with a diagnosis of mild-moderate Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome
(apnoea-hypopnoea index < 30) and Group 2 (113/223 patients) affected by snoring without associated hypoxaemia/hypercapnia. A control
group of 76 subjects, not complaining of sleep disorders and free from nasal symptoms was also selected. The results showed, in all the
snoring and Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients, total nasal resistance and increased Muco-Ciliary Transport time compared to
standard values. Furthermore, the apnoea-hypopnoea index was significantly higher in patients with higher nasal resistence and significantly
different between the groups. These results allow us to propose the simultaneous evaluation of nasal functions by Active Anterior
Rhinomanometry, Acoustic Rhinometry, and Muco-Ciliary Transport time in the selection of patients undergoing polysomnography.
Sleep respiratory disorders; Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome; Nasal functionality tests; Polysomnography
Psychiatric disorders constitute 15.4% of the disease burden in established market economies. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, and the relationship is often bidirectional. This paper reviews the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders, their clinical presentation, and their association with sleep disorders. Among the psychiatric disorders reviewed are affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder), substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. The spectrum of associated sleep disorders includes insomnia, hypersomnia, nocturnal panic, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, restless legs/periodic limb movements of sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, and parasomnias. The effects on sleep of various psychotropic medications utilized to treat the above psychiatric disorders are summarized.
sleep disorder; psychiatric disorder; depression; psychosis; anxiety; sleep
Aging is associated with several well-described changes in patterns of sleep. Typically, there is a phase advance in the normal circadian sleep cycle: older people tend to go to sleep earlier in the evening but also to wake earlier. They may also wake more frequently during the night and experience fragmented sleep. The prevalence of many sleep disorders increases with age. Insomnia, whether primary or secondary to coexistant illness or medication use, is very common among elderly people. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder and narcolepsy, although less common, are frequently not considered for this population. Periodic leg-movement disorder, a frequent cause of interrupted sleep, can be easily diagnosed with electromyography during nocturnal polysomnography. Restless legs syndrome, however, is diagnosed clinically. Snoring is a common sleep-related respiratory disorder; so is obstructive sleep apnea, which is increasingly seen among older people and is significantly associated with cardio-and cerebrovascular disease as well as cognitive impairment.
To define the roles of circadian rhythmicity (intrinsic effects of time of day independent of the sleep or wake condition) and sleep (intrinsic effects of the sleep condition, irrespective of the time of day) on the 24-h variation in glucose tolerance, eight normal men were studied during constant glucose infusion for a total of 53 h. The period of study included 8 h of nocturnal sleep, 28 h of continuous wakefulness, and 8 h of daytime sleep. Blood samples for the measurement of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, cortisol, and growth hormone were collected at 20-min intervals throughout the entire study. Insulin secretion rates were derived from C-peptide levels by deconvolution. Sleep was polygraphically monitored. During nocturnal sleep, levels of glucose and insulin secretion increased by 31 +/- 5% and 60 +/- 11%, respectively, and returned to baseline in the morning. During sleep deprivation, glucose levels and insulin secretion rose again to reach a maximum at a time corresponding to the beginning of the habitual sleep period. The magnitude of the rise above morning levels averaged 17 +/- 5% for glucose and 49 +/- 8% for calculated insulin secretion. Serum insulin levels did not parallel the circadian variation in insulin secretion, indicating the existence of an approximate 40% increase in insulin clearance during the night. Daytime sleep was associated with a 16 +/- 3% rise in glucose levels, a 55 +/- 7% rise in insulin secretion, and a 39 +/- 5% rise in serum insulin. The diurnal variation in insulin secretion was inversely related to the cortisol rhythm, with a significant correlation of the magnitudes of their morning to evening excursions. Sleep-associated rises in glucose correlated with the amount of concomitant growth hormone secreted. These studies demonstrate previously underappreciated effects of circadian rhythmicity and sleep on glucose levels, insulin secretion, and insulin clearance, and suggest that these effects could be partially mediated by cortisol and growth hormone.
Methods: Information about sleep disorders was collected using a standardised questionnaire in an unselected group of 57 patients with MSA and in 62 patients with PD matched as a group for age, sex distribution, and disease duration.
Results: Seventy percent of patients with MSA complained of sleep disorders compared with 51% of patients with PD (p=0.03). The most commonly reported sleep disorders were sleep fragmentation (52.5%), vocalisation (60%), REM sleep behaviour disorder (47.5%), and nocturnal stridor (19%). Except for sleep fragmentation, the incidence of these disorders was significantly higher than in PD. Sleep problems tended to be associated with more severe motor symptoms, longer disease duration, depression, and longer duration of levodopa treatment. Half of patients with MSA with sleep disorders complained of daytime somnolence compared with 30% of patients with PD. Daytime somnolence was significantly associated with disease severity in MSA.
Conclusion: This study shows that sleep disorders are more common in patients with MSA than in those with PD after the same duration of the disease, reflecting the more diffuse underlying pathological process in MSA.
Rates of cardiac arrhythmias increase with age and may be associated with clinically significant morbidity. We studied the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) with nocturnal atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF) and complex ventricular ectopy (CVE) in older men.
A total of 2911 participants in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men Study underwent unattended polysomnography. Nocturnal AF and CVE were ascertained by electrocardiogram-specific analysis of the polysomnographic data. Exposures were (1) SDB defined by respiratory disturbance index (RDI) quartile (a major index including all apneas and hypopneas), and ancillary definitions incorporating (2) obstructive events, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; Obstructive Apnea Hypopnea Index quartile), or (3) central events, central sleep apnea (CSA; Central Apnea Index category), and (4) hypoxia (percentage of sleep time with <90% arterial oxygen percent saturation). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed.
An increasing RDI quartile was associated with increased odds of AF and CVE (P values for trend, .01 and <.001, respectively). The highest RDI quartile was associated with increased odds of AF (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19–3.89) and CVE (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.12–1.82) compared with the lowest quartile. An increasing OSA quartile was significantly associated with increasing CVE (P value for trend, .01) but not AF. Central sleep apnea was more strongly associated with AF (OR, 2.69; 95%CI, 1.61–4.47) than CVE (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.97–1.66). Hypoxia level was associated with CVE (P value for trend, <.001); those in the highest hypoxia category had an increased odds of CVE (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.23–2.14) compared with the lowest quartile.
In this large cohort of older men, increasing severity of SDB was associated with a progressive increase in odds of AF and CVE. When SDB was characterized according to central or obstructive subtypes, CVE was associated most strongly with OSA and hypoxia, whereas AF was most strongly associated with CSA, suggesting that different sleep-related stresses may contribute to atrial and ventricular arrhythmogenesis in older men.
To assess the chronicity and severity of nocturnal awakenings with difficulty resuming sleep (DRS), its value as an indicator of an ongoing sleep and/or mental disorder and, finally, how it affects on daytime functioning.
A cross-sectional telephone study was performed in the non-institutionalized general population of France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Spain. This representative sample of 22,740 non-institutionalized individuals aged 15 or over was interviewed on their sleeping habits, health, sleep and mental disorders. These 5 European countries totaled 245.1 million inhabitants. The evaluation of nocturnal awakenings with DRS included duration, frequency (per night, per week and in the previous months) and assessment scale of daytime functioning. DRS was defined as a complaint of difficulty in resuming or inability to resume sleep occurring at least 3 nights per week and lasting for at least 1 month.
A total of 16.1% [95% CI: 15.6–16.6] of the sample had DRS. Prevalence was higher in women and increased with age. The average duration of DRS was 40 months. DRS individuals slept on average 30 minutes less than other subjects with insomnia symptoms and 60 minutes less than the rest of the sample. Painful physical conditions, anxiety and mood disorders were the most discriminative factors for individuals with DRS distinguishing them from other insomnia subjects and the rest of the sample. Daytime impairment was observed in 52.2% of DRS individuals compared to 32.8% in individuals with classical insomnia symptoms (p<.0001).
1) DRS affects a large segment of the population; 2) it is a good indicator of an ongoing sleep or mental disorder; 3) it has a stronger impact on daytime functioning than classical insomnia symptoms (OR: 4.7).
Asthma control requires assessment of nighttime symptoms and sleep disruption. Cognitive and emotional development enables most school age children to report nocturnal problems but providers often rely only on parental report potentially limiting the comprehensiveness of their assessments and their ability to support the child’s emerging efforts at shared management of their illness. This study investigated parent-child concordance in report of nighttime respiratory symptoms, sleep disruption and quality of sleep in a sample of 9–11 year old children with asthma. Secondarily, similar concordance patterns in an equal number of dyads where the child was asthma free were examined, to illustrate the potential influence of asthma.
Parents and children completed one-week diaries in their homes without confiding in one another. The probability of knowing the child’s report on a specific item if the parent’s report was known was assessed using contingency tables.
Within the asthma group, parent-child reports differed significantly across all symptoms and sleep parameters. Parents most often reported fewer symptoms and awakenings and better quality of sleep than their child. Concordance rates were lowest for morning perceptions of tiredness, sleepiness and alertness in both asthma and non-asthma groups.
Both parents and school age children with asthma need to be asked about nighttime asthma symptoms, sleep and morning perceptions when attempting to evaluate asthma control. Assessment of sleep in all children should include parent and child reports and would benefit by the addition of objective measures.