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1.  The Ashtavaidya physicians of Kerala: A tradition in transition 
This paper presents what we have learned from the Ashtavaidya Ayurveda physicians of Kerala regarding the status of their unique medical tradition of Ayurveda in the contemporary context. We extensively interviewed several practicing Ashtavaidyas for the “Living History of Indian Scientific Traditions” archive, a new initiative at the NCBS, Bangalore to study the history of Indian sciences. As heirs of a tradition that has adapted and evolved over centuries without compromising its fundamental principles, their views on Ayurveda presented here represent an important contribution to the current debate on the role of traditional medicine in the Indian public health system.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.74424
PMCID: PMC3117315  PMID: 21731370
Ashtavaidya; Gurukulam learning; Indian sciences; Kerala Ayurveda; Traditional medicine
2.  Basic Science Right, Not Basic Science Lite: Medical Education at a Crossroad 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2009;24(11):1255-1258.
This perspective is a counterpoint to Dr. Brass’ article, Basic biomedical sciences and the future of medical education: implications for internal medicine. The authors review development of the US medical education system as an introduction to a discussion of Dr. Brass’ perspectives. The authors agree that sound scientific foundations and skill in critical thinking are important and that effective educational strategies to improve foundational science education should be implemented. Unfortunately, many students do not perceive the relevance of basic science education to clinical practice.
The authors cite areas of disagreement. They believe it is unlikely that the importance of basic sciences will be diminished by contemporary directions in medical education and planned modifications of USMLE. Graduates’ diminished interest in internal medicine is unlikely from changes in basic science education.
Thoughtful changes in education provide the opportunity to improve understanding of fundamental sciences, the process of scientific inquiry, and translation of that knowledge to clinical practice.
doi:10.1007/s11606-009-1109-3
PMCID: PMC2771241  PMID: 19774422
medical education; educational models; teaching; clinical care; research
3.  Launching the "Journal of Biomedical Discovery and Collaboration" 
The Journal of Biomedical Discovery and Collaboration was created to provide, for the first time, a unified forum to consider all factors that affect scientific practice and scientific discovery – with an emphasis on the changing face of contemporary biomedical science. In this endeavor we are bringing together three different groups of scholars: a) laboratory investigators, who make the discoveries that are the currency of the scientific enterprise; b) computer science and informatics investigators, who devise tools for data analysis, mining, visualization and integration; and c) social scientists, including sociologists, historians, and philosophers, who study scientific practice, collaboration, and information needs. We will publish original research articles, case studies, focus pieces, reviews, and software articles. All articles in the Journal of Biomedical Discovery and Collaboration will be peer reviewed, published immediately upon acceptance, freely available online via open access, and archived in PubMed Central and other international full-text repositories.
doi:10.1186/1747-5333-1-1
PMCID: PMC1440304
4.  What's Out There Making Us Sick? 
Throughout the continuum of medical and scientific history, repeated evidence has confirmed that the main etiological determinants of disease are nutritional deficiency, toxicant exposures, genetic predisposition, infectious agents, and psychological dysfunction. Contemporary conventional medicine generally operates within a genetic predestination paradigm, attributing most chronic and degenerative illness to genomic factors, while incorporating pathogens and psychological disorder in specific situations. Toxicity and deficiency states often receive insufficient attention as common source causes of chronic disease in the developed world. Recent scientific evidence in health disciplines including molecular medicine, epigenetics, and environmental health sciences, however, reveal ineluctable evidence that deficiency and toxicity states feature prominently as common etiological determinants of contemporary ill-health. Incorporating evidence from historical and emerging science, it is evident that a reevaluation of conventional wisdom on the current construct of disease origins should be considered and that new knowledge should receive expeditious translation into clinical strategies for disease management and health promotion.
An analysis of almost any scientific problem leads automatically to a study of its history.—Ernst Mayr
doi:10.1155/2012/605137
PMCID: PMC3202108  PMID: 22262979
5.  What do we know about who does and does not attend general health checks? Findings from a narrative scoping review 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:723.
Background
General and preventive health checks are a key feature of contemporary policies of anticipatory care. Ensuring high and equitable uptake of such general health checks is essential to ensuring health gain and preventing health inequalities. This literature review explores the socio-demographic, clinical and social cognitive characteristics of those who do and do not engage with general health checks or preventive health checks for cardiovascular disease.
Methods
An exploratory scoping study approach was employed. Databases searched included the British Nursing Index and Archive, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Titles and abstracts of 17463 papers were screened; 1171 papers were then independently assessed by two researchers. A review of full text was carried out by two of the authors resulting in 39 being included in the final review.
Results
Those least likely to attend health checks were men on low incomes, low socio-economic status, unemployed or less well educated. In general, attenders were older than non-attenders. An individual’s marital status was found to affect attendance rates with non-attenders more likely to be single. In general, white individuals were more likely to engage with services than individuals from other ethnic backgrounds. Non-attenders had a greater proportion of cardiovascular risk factors than attenders, and smokers were less likely to attend than non-smokers. The relationship between health beliefs and health behaviours appeared complex. Non-attenders were shown to value health less strongly, have low self-efficacy, feel less in control of their health and be less likely to believe in the efficacy of health checks.
Conclusion
Routine health check-ups appear to be taken up inequitably, with gender, age, socio-demographic status and ethnicity all associated with differential service use. Furthermore, non-attenders appeared to have greater clinical need or risk factors suggesting that differential uptake may lead to sub-optimal health gain and contribute to inequalities via the inverse care law. Appropriate service redesign and interventions to encourage increased uptake among these groups is required.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-723
PMCID: PMC3491052  PMID: 22938046
Health checks; Screening; Public health; Inequalities; Primary care
6.  Integrated radiology information system, picture archiving and communications system, and teleradiology—Workflow-driven and future-proof 
Journal of Digital Imaging  1999;12(Suppl 1):199-200.
The proliferation of integrated radiology information system/picture archiving and communication system (RIS/PACS) and teleradiology has been slow because of two concerns: usability and economic return. A major dissatisfaction on the usability issue is that contemporary systems are not intelligent enough to support the logical workflow of radiologists. We propose to better understand the algorithms underlying the radiologists′ reading process, and then embed this intelligence into the software program so that radiologists can interact with the system with less conscious effort. Regarding economic return issues, people are looking for insurance against obsolescence in order to protect their investments. We propose to future-proof a system by sticking to the following principles: compliance to industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, and modularity. An integrated RIS/PACS and teleradiology system designed to be workflow-driven and future-proof is being developed at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
doi:10.1007/BF03168801
PMCID: PMC3452897  PMID: 10342212
7.  Integrative endeavor for renaissance in Ayurveda 
Currently western medicine has assumed the central position in mainstream global healthcare. Openness to learn from contemporary disciplines of basic sciences, application of modern technology and further adoption of the evidence-based approach has helped western medicine gain its currently acknowledged position as mainstream modern medicine. Modern medicine has further developed forms of integrative medicine by developing interfaces with other systems of medicine, including traditional, complementary and alternative medicine. However, these developments do not seem to address all the problems facing global health care caused by overemphasis on pharmaco-therapeutic drug developments. On the other hand, Ayurveda which is founded on genuine fundamentals, has the longest uninterrupted tradition of healthcare practice, and its holistic approach to healthcare management emphasizes disease prevention and health promotion; if it opens up to incorporate emerging new knowledge into mainstream Ayurveda, and maintains fidelity to Ayurveda fundamentals, it will certainly provide a broad-based opportunity to address the majority of the problems that have emerged from global healthcare requirements. To bring these solutions to bear, however, it will be necessary to progress from the present “utilitarian ethos” to a “unifying ethos” for realization of medical integration.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.78179
PMCID: PMC3121253  PMID: 21731380
Ayurveda; global healthcare; integrative Ayurveda; integrative medicine
8.  Guide to the Internet. Logging in, fetching files, reading news. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1995;311(7020):1626-1630.
Aside from email and the world wide web, there are several other systems for distributing information on the Internet. Telnet is a system that allows you to log on to a remote computer from anywhere on the Internet and affords access to many useful biomedical sites on the Internet. File transfer protocol (FTP) is a method of transferring files from one computer to another over the Internet. It can be used to download files, including software, from numerous publiclly accessible "anonymous FTP archives" around the world. Such archives can be searched using a tool known as Archie. Network News is a system of electronic discussion groups covering almost every imaginable subject, including many areas of medicine and the biomedical sciences; MOOs are virtual environments that allow real time electronic conferencing and teaching over the Internet. It is difficult to predict the future of medicine on the Internet. However, the net opens up many possibilities not available through previous technologies. It is now up to medical practitioners to realise the Internet's full potential.
PMCID: PMC2551511  PMID: 8555810
9.  The history of ginseng in the management of erectile dysfunction in ancient China (3500-2600 BCE) 
Emperor Shen-Nung was the second of China's mythical emperors (3500-2600 BCE). Widely considered the father of Chinese medicine, he catalogued over 365 species of medicinal plants which he personally tasted. Through his treatise ‘Shen Nung Benchau Jing’, we relive Emperor Shen-Nung's contribution to urology with reference to his management of erectile dysfunction. Time-related sources in medical and historical literature were reviewed, including the ‘Shen Nung Benchau Jing’ (The medicine book of Emperor Shen-Nung), archives and manuscripts at the Wellcome History of Medicine Collection, the Royal Society of Medicine, London, The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, and The Museum of Medical History, Shanghai, China. Chinese traditional herbal medicine began approximately 5000 years ago. Agricultural clan leader, Emperor Shen-Nung, was said to have a ‘crystal-like belly’ to watch the reactions in his own stomach of the herbs he collected. Ginseng was among of Shen Nung's contributions to herbal medicine. He experienced a warm and sexually pleasurable feeling after chewing the root. He advocated this as a treatment for erectile dysfunction and used it to stimulate sexual appetite. The reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac is based on the doctrine of signatures, since the adult root has a phallic shape. Shen-Nung believed that ginseng's resemblance to the human form is proof of its rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties. It was believed that the closer the similarity to the human figure, the more potent the root. The use of ginseng for erectile dysfunction by Emperor Shen-Nung was unique for its time. It continues to hold parallels as a modern-day herbal aphrodisiac 5000 years on.
doi:10.4103/0970-1591.94946
PMCID: PMC3339779  PMID: 22557711
Ancient China; erectile dysfunction; ginseng; history of urology
10.  Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care looks forward to 2009 
Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care, which enters its third year of operation in 2009 under the umbrella of BioMed Central, continues to promote and advance open access publishing through universal online access without charge, indexing in PubMed and archiving in PubMed Central, retention of authors' copyright, and expeditious peer review. Notable accomplishments during 2008 included a median lag time of four months from initial manuscript submission to publication, designation of eight articles as "highly accessed," and achievement of a balanced proportion of publications in our core topic areas of osteopathic medicine and primary care. In October 2008, Springer Science+Business Media, a major publisher of journals in science, technology, and medicine, acquired the BioMed Central Group. Our 2009 Editorial Board is presented herein, as well as a new mechanism for posting book reviews on the Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care website. We continue to encourage manuscript submissions and reader comments on our articles. Waivers or discounts of article processing charges are available via several mechanisms for eligible authors who submit qualified manuscripts.
doi:10.1186/1750-4732-3-2
PMCID: PMC2646741  PMID: 19193237
11.  Highlights in asthma 2005 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2006;91(5):422-425.
It is usual at the end of a year for top tens to feature large in our collective consciousness. These inevitably include the occasional controversial selection and without fail will overlook a number of gems, whether in the field of literature, art, or science. The approaches to such compilations include personal selections, convening expert committees through to letting the market decide. However, it is well recognised that experts can be wrong and markets distorted. A novel approach to identifying the key publications in the field of medicine, Faculty of 1000 Medicine (http://www.f1000medicine.com), uses faculty evaluations to assign ratings to published papers within topics and categories, bringing a flavour of the dynamism of post hoc peer review to biological sciences that exists in other fields of scholarship. Archives of Disease in Childhood has also developed a market led system of peer evaluation through its web based top ten most read articles feature.
doi:10.1136/adc.2006.094094
PMCID: PMC2082737  PMID: 16632671
airway inflammation; asthma; review; treatment
12.  Computer hardware for radiologists: Part I 
Computers are an integral part of modern radiology practice. They are used in different radiology modalities to acquire, process, and postprocess imaging data. They have had a dramatic influence on contemporary radiology practice. Their impact has extended further with the emergence of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), Radiology information system (RIS) technology, and Teleradiology. A basic overview of computer hardware relevant to radiology practice is presented here. The key hardware components in a computer are the motherboard, central processor unit (CPU), the chipset, the random access memory (RAM), the memory modules, bus, storage drives, and ports. The personnel computer (PC) has a rectangular case that contains important components called hardware, many of which are integrated circuits (ICs). The fiberglass motherboard is the main printed circuit board and has a variety of important hardware mounted on it, which are connected by electrical pathways called “buses”. The CPU is the largest IC on the motherboard and contains millions of transistors. Its principal function is to execute “programs”. A Pentium® 4 CPU has transistors that execute a billion instructions per second. The chipset is completely different from the CPU in design and function; it controls data and interaction of buses between the motherboard and the CPU. Memory (RAM) is fundamentally semiconductor chips storing data and instructions for access by a CPU. RAM is classified by storage capacity, access speed, data rate, and configuration.
doi:10.4103/0971-3026.69346
PMCID: PMC2963745  PMID: 21042437
Chipset; computers; console; CPU; CT; hardware; motherboard; MRI; RAM; workstations
13.  The Global Crisis of Malaria: Report on a Yale Conference 
An international conference, “The Global Crisis of Malaria: Lessons of the Past and Future Prospects,” met at Yale University, November 7-9, 2008. The symposium was organized by Professor Frank Snowden and sponsored by the Provost’s office, the MacMillan Center, the Program in the History of Science and History of Medicine, and the Section of the History of Medicine at the Yale School of Medicine. It brought together experts on malaria from a variety of disciplines, countries, and experiences — physicians, research scientists, historians of medicine, public health officials, and representatives of several non-governmental organizations (NGOs). An underlying theme was that much could be gained from a big-picture examination across disciplinary frontiers of the contemporary public health problem caused by malaria. Particular features of the conference were its intense scrutiny of historical successes and failures in malaria control and its demonstration of the relevance of history to policy discussions in the field.
PMCID: PMC2660587  PMID: 19325942
14.  Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2012;6(11):1-5.
Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life.
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.95849
PMCID: PMC3358962  PMID: 22654398
History; medicinal plants; plant drugs; usage
15.  Disentangling Public Participation In Science and Biomedicine 
Genome Medicine  2014;6(1):8.
Background
This article provides a framework for disentangling the concept of participation, with emphasis on participation in genomic medicine. We have derived seven ‘dimensions’ of participation that are most frequently invoked in the extensive, heterogeneous literature on participation. To exemplify these dimensions, we use material from a database of 102 contemporary cases of participation, and focus here on cases specific to science and medicine. We describe the stakes of public participation in biomedical research, with a focus on genomic medicine and lay out the seven dimensions.
Discussion
We single out five cases of participation that have particular relevance to the field of genomic medicine, we apply the seven dimensions to show how we can differentiate among forms of participation within this domain.
Summary
We conclude with some provocations to researchers and some recommendations for taking variation in participation more seriously.
doi:10.1186/gm525
PMCID: PMC3979030  PMID: 24479693
16.  Training in interprofessional collaboration 
Canadian Family Physician  2012;58(4):e203-e209.
Abstract
Problem addressed
A number of agencies that accredit university health sciences programs recently added standards for the acquisition of knowledge and skills with respect to interprofessional collaboration. Within primary care settings there are no practical training programs that allow students from different disciplines to develop competencies in this area.
Objective of the program
The training program was developed within family medicine units affiliated with Université Laval in Quebec for family medicine residents and trainees from various disciplines to develop competencies in patient-centred, interprofessional collaborative practice in primary care.
Program description
Based on adult learning theories, the program was divided into 3 phases—preparing family medicine unit professionals, training preceptors, and training the residents and trainees. The program’s pedagogic strategies allowed participants to learn with, from, and about one another while preparing them to engage in contemporary primary care practices. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to evaluate the implementation process and the immediate results of the training program.
Conclusion
The training program had a positive effect on both the clinical settings and the students. Preparation of clinical settings is an important issue that must be considered when planning practical interprofessional training.
PMCID: PMC3325472  PMID: 22611607
17.  The National Library of Medicine: from MEDLARS to the sesquicentennial and beyond. 
The two decades since the introduction of MEDLARS and the passage of the Medical Library Assistance Act have been especially eventful in the history of the National Library of Medicine. The library's collections and services have grown to keep pace with the expanding health sciences literature and the needs of health professionals. Networking has emerged as an invaluable method for disseminating biomedical information. NLM has assumed new responsibilities for information services in toxicology, pharmacology, and environmental health, and for research and development in biomedical communications. Research now being carried out by NLM has the potential for enhancing the library's archival programs and for improving information dissemination in support of health sciences research, education, and practice.
Images
PMCID: PMC406284  PMID: 3535951
18.  Estelle Brodman and the First Generation of Library AutomationEC 
Objective:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the contributions of Estelle Brodman, PhD, to the early application of computing technologies in health sciences libraries.
Methods:
A review of the literature, oral histories, and materials contained in the archives of the Bernard Becker Medical Library at the Washington University School of Medicine was conducted.
Results:
While the early computing technologies were not well suited to library applications, their exciting potential was recognized by visionaries like Dr. Brodman. The effective use of these technologies was made possible by creative and innovative projects and programs. The impact of these early efforts continues to resonate through library services and operations.
Conclusions:
Computing technologies have transformed libraries. Dr. Brodman's leadership in the early development and application of these technologies provided significant benefits to the health sciences library community.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.96.3.016
PMCID: PMC2479055  PMID: 18654651
19.  Crowdsourced Health Research Studies: An Important Emerging Complement to Clinical Trials in the Public Health Research Ecosystem 
Background
Crowdsourced health research studies are the nexus of three contemporary trends: 1) citizen science (non-professionally trained individuals conducting science-related activities); 2) crowdsourcing (use of web-based technologies to recruit project participants); and 3) medicine 2.0 / health 2.0 (active participation of individuals in their health care particularly using web 2.0 technologies). Crowdsourced health research studies have arisen as a natural extension of the activities of health social networks (online health interest communities), and can be researcher-organized or participant-organized. In the last few years, professional researchers have been crowdsourcing cohorts from health social networks for the conduct of traditional studies. Participants have also begun to organize their own research studies through health social networks and health collaboration communities created especially for the purpose of self-experimentation and the investigation of health-related concerns.
Objective
The objective of this analysis is to undertake a comprehensive narrative review of crowdsourced health research studies. This review will assess the status, impact, and prospects of crowdsourced health research studies.
Methods
Crowdsourced health research studies were identified through a search of literature published from 2000 to 2011 and informal interviews conducted 2008-2011. Keyword terms related to crowdsourcing were sought in Medline/PubMed. Papers that presented results from human health studies that included crowdsourced populations were selected for inclusion. Crowdsourced health research studies not published in the scientific literature were identified by attending industry conferences and events, interviewing attendees, and reviewing related websites.
Results
Participatory health is a growing area with individuals using health social networks, crowdsourced studies, smartphone health applications, and personal health records to achieve positive outcomes for a variety of health conditions. PatientsLikeMe and 23andMe are the leading operators of researcher-organized, crowdsourced health research studies. These operators have published findings in the areas of disease research, drug response, user experience in crowdsourced studies, and genetic association. Quantified Self, Genomera, and DIYgenomics are communities of participant-organized health research studies where individuals conduct self-experimentation and group studies. Crowdsourced health research studies have a diversity of intended outcomes and levels of scientific rigor.
Conclusions
Participatory health initiatives are becoming part of the public health ecosystem and their rapid growth is facilitated by Internet and social networking influences. Large-scale parameter-stratified cohorts have potential to facilitate a next-generation understanding of disease and drug response. Not only is the large size of crowdsourced cohorts an asset to medical discovery, too is the near-immediate speed at which medical findings might be tested and applied. Participatory health initiatives are expanding the scope of medicine from a traditional focus on disease cure to a personalized preventive approach. Crowdsourced health research studies are a promising complement and extension to traditional clinical trials as a model for the conduct of health research.
doi:10.2196/jmir.1988
PMCID: PMC3376509  PMID: 22397809
Community-Based Participatory Research; Preventive Medicine; Personalized Medicine; Individualized Medicine; Consumer Participation; Health Services Research; Health Care Research; Public Health; Genomics; Medicine
20.  Macroprolactin; A Frequent Cause of Misdiagnosed Hyperprolactinemia in Clinical Practice 
Introduction
Macroprolactin is a significant cause of misdiagnosis, unnecessary investigation, and inappropriate treatment in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Its frequency has not been clearly established due to technical difficulties in identifying it. Most laboratories and clinicians are unaware of macroprolactin interferences in prolactin assays.
Materials and Methods
A comprehensive literature search was conducted on the websites of the National Library of Medicine (http://www.ncbl.nlm.nih.gov) and PubMed Central, the US National Library of Medicine's digital archive of life sciences literature (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/). The data were also looked for in relevant books and journal.
Results
Macroprolactin is a non-bioactive prolactin isoform usually composed of a prolactin monomer and an IgG molecule having a prolonged clearance rate similar to that of immunoglobulins. This isoform is clinically non-reactive but it interferes with immunological assays used for the detection of prolactin.
Conclusion
There is a need to understand and explore the recent progress in the diagnosis and pathophysiology of macroprolactinemia for improving patient care.
PMCID: PMC3719302  PMID: 23926484
Hyperprolactinemia; Macroprolactin; Polyethylene glycol assay; Prolactin antibody; Prolactin
21.  What's so special about Osler? 
Sir William Osler was an outstanding figure in American and British Medicine during the early years of this century. Over fifty years after his death, his name is still remembered and honored, whereas other leaders who were equally important in the eyes of their contemporaries have been relegated to the realm of history. This brief review attempts to discover what special qualities have kept Osler's memory vivid. No single characteristic of his skill, science, or personality seems in itself to explain his continuing reputation. Rather, a combination of his eminence in several different medical schools, his presence at a time of revolution in medical teaching and thought, his authorship of one of the most successful medical textbooks, and an enthusiastic claque of ex-students and colleagues seem to have combined to maintain his memory as a leader of medicine.
PMCID: PMC2595874  PMID: 6996343
22.  Should We Be Teaching Information Management Instead of Evidence-based Medicine? 
Background
To encourage high-quality patient care guided by the best evidence, many medical schools and residencies are teaching techniques for critically evaluating the medical literature. While a large step forward in many regards, these skills of evidence-based medicine are necessary but not sufficient for the practice of contemporary medicine and surgery. Incorporating the best evidence into the real world of busy clinical practice requires the applied science of information management. Clinicians must learn the techniques and skills to focus on finding, evaluating, and using information at the point of care. This information must be both relevant to themselves and their patients and be valid.
Where are we now?
Today, orthopaedic surgery is in the post-Flexner era of passive didactic learning combined with the practical experience of surgery as taught by supervising experts. The medical student and house officer fill their memory with mountains of facts and classic references ‘just in case’ that information is needed. With libraries and now internet repositories of orthopaedic information, all orthopaedic knowledge can be readily accessed without having to store much in one’s memory. Evidence is often trumped by the opinion of a teacher or expert in the field.
Where do we need to go?
To improve the quality of orthopaedic surgery there should be application of the best evidence, changing practice where needed when evidence is available. To apply evidence, the evidence has to find a way into practice without the long pipeline of change that now exists. Evidence should trump opinion and unfounded practices.
How do we get there?
To create a curriculum and learning space for information management requires effort on the part of medical schools, residency programs and health systems. Internet sources need to be created that have the readily available evidence-based answers to patient issues so surgeons do not need to spend all the time necessary to research the questions on their own. Information management is built on a platform created by EBM but saves the surgeon time and improves accuracy by having experts validate the evidence and make it easily available.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1381-x
PMCID: PMC3049623  PMID: 20496022
23.  The Oral History Program: I. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. 
The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.
PMCID: PMC226349  PMID: 9578936
24.  The Oral History Program: III. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. 
The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.
PMCID: PMC226437  PMID: 9803287
25.  The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. 
The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.
PMCID: PMC226383  PMID: 9681172

Results 1-25 (39750)