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1.  MedReach: building an Area Health Education Center medical information outreach system for Northwest Ohio*† 
In collaboration with regional partners in northwest Ohio, the Area Health Education Center (AHEC) program at the Medical College of Ohio (MCO) at Toledo is reaching out to underserved areas, helping to provide educational opportunities to health care professionals in these communities. This paper describes the development of MedReach, a medical information outreach system that connects regional AHEC sites to MCO via the Internet. MedReach provides physicians and other health care professionals access and support to search computerized textbooks and databases for current information on medical diagnoses, treatments, and research. A unique aspect of the MedReach project is that users are able to receive personal help with information retrieval by calling or emailing MCO's outreach librarian. Periodically, the AHEC program and the Mulford Library at MCO also sponsor an educational program, titled “Medical Applications of Computers,” for regional practitioners. Current feedback on both the medical information outreach system and the educational program has been positive.
PMCID: PMC116405  PMID: 12113517
2.  The Recurring Bibliographies Program of MEDLARS * 
Recurring bibliographies are by-products of the MEDLARS system which are prepared by the National Library of Medicine in collaboration with nonprofit scientific and professional societies and institutions and government agencies that represent a specialty area of biomedical research or practice. The sponsor generally assumes responsibility for the costs of publication and distribution. At present MEDLARS has a planned capacity of fifty such recurring bibliographies. The subject parameters and format are defined by the representatives of the sponsoring organization and the NLM Search, MeSH, and Index staffs. As citations are regularly put into the MEDLARS store, each one that qualifies for a recurring bibliography is identified and tagged by the computer with the number assigned to the pertinent RB. The MEDLARS store is searched for citations for a particular recurring bibliography according to the schedule specified by the sponsoring organization, and the output is printed from a GRACE tape.
PMCID: PMC198401  PMID: 5325816
3.  Electronic imaging of the human body. 
The Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory (USAF); the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology; the Washington University School of Medicine; and the Lister-Hill National Center for Biomedical Communication, National Library of Medicine are sponsoring a working group on electronic imaging of the human body. Electronic imaging of the surface of the human body has been pursued and developed by a number of disciplines including radiology, forensics, surgery, engineering, medical education, and anthropometry. The applications range from reconstructive surgery to computer-aided design (CAD) of protective equipment. Although these areas appear unrelated, they have a great deal of commonality. All the organizations working in this area are faced with the challenges of collecting, reducing, and formatting the data in an efficient and standard manner; storing this data in a computerized database to make it readily accessible; and developing software applications that can visualize, manipulate, and analyze the data. This working group is being established to encourage effective use of the resources of all the various groups and disciplines involved in electronic imaging of the human body surface by providing a forum for discussing progress and challenges with these types of data.
PMCID: PMC2248098  PMID: 1482896
4.  Friends of the library groups in health sciences libraries. 
The Houston Academy of Medicine--Texas Medical Center (HAM--TMC) Library collected data on friends of the library groups from 103 health sciences libraries, using a mail questionnaire. Sixteen of the responding libraries had independent friends groups; seven had friends groups that were subordinate to a university group. The sixteen independent groups gave as their major purposes (1) to raise money for their associated library and (2) to develop support for their library. These groups contributed an average of $4,870 a year to their libraries, the money being used primarily to purchase rare books and working-collection books and to sponsor social events. The subordinate groups contributed relatively little money to the health sciences libraries responding to the survey.
PMCID: PMC199489  PMID: 678699
5.  Health Science Libraries of National, State, and Local Medical Organizations 
This second survey of medical society-sponsored libraries has been expanded to include national association libraries in allied medical fields, as well as special libraries which do not fall into categories established for the MLA survey of health science libraries. A total of fifty-eight libraries in this subset have been identified, and selected characteristics have been measured. Observations are made concerning methodology, user population, and services.
PMCID: PMC199050  PMID: 6041830
6.  A MEDLINE feasibility study. 
A MEDLINE feasibility study was conducted with the Northeastern Consortium for Health Information (NECHI) and sponsored by the New England Regional Medical Library Service. It is based on the theory that most potential users and supporters of MEDLINE within hospitals are unaware of its usefulness and applications, and that there exists a need for expanding MEDLINE services to more hospital libraries. The purpose of the study was to provide NECHI with an evaluation of MEDLINE as a feasible service by ascertaining the need and by evaluating the usefulness, satisfaction, and costs of the system. The study demonstrated sufficient use of MEDLINE to justify implementation within NECHI and it provided useful data to determine the future of MEDLINE in each institution. It documented that utilization improved rapidly with publicity and the presence of the system within an institution, that MEDLINE can be an effective and economical complement to the traditional reference services used to support information needs in hospitals, and that more hospital libraries should be able to implement MEDLINE to their advantage once potential users and supporters have been exposed to the system.
PMCID: PMC226508  PMID: 6998531
7.  Educational services in health sciences libraries: a content analysis of the literature, 1987-1994. 
The recent literature (1987-1994) describing educational services of health sciences librarians was analyzed for content. Variables examined included publication journal, country, type of article (description, review, or advocacy), target audience of education services, and subject of article. Articles that reported research results also were identified. Of 123 articles studied, 82.1% were descriptive, 14.6% advocacy, and 3.3% reviews. Library users were the primary target audience (85.1%), an increase over the percentage reported in an earlier study of the 1975-1986 literature. Librarians were the target audience in 12.8% of the articles, a decrease from the previous study's findings. There was an increase in educational offerings by academic libraries, which sponsored 83.2% of programs, while hospital libraries' sponsorship decreased to 5% of programs reported in the literature. The analysis identified a major need for research related to educational activities in health sciences libraries.
PMCID: PMC226057  PMID: 8547899
8.  The Georgetown University Library Information System (LIS): a minicomputer-based integrated library system. 
Georgetown University's Library Information System (LIS), an integrated library system designed and implemented at the Dahlgren Memorial Library, is broadly described from an administrative point of view. LIS' functional components consist of eight "user-friendly" modules: catalog, circulation, serials, bibliographic management (including Mini-MEDLINE), acquisitions, accounting, networking, and computer-assisted instruction. This article touches on emerging library services, user education, and computer information services, which are also changing the role of staff librarians. The computer's networking capability brings the library directly to users through personal or institutional computers at remote sites. The proposed Integrated Medical Center Information System at Georgetown University will include interface with LIS through a network mechanism. LIS is being replicated at other libraries, and a microcomputer version is being tested for use in a hospital setting.
PMCID: PMC227199  PMID: 6688749
9.  New measures for new roles: defining and measuring the current practices of health sciences librarians 
The roles of academic health sciences librarians are continually evolving as librarians initiate new programs and services in response to developments in computer technology and user demands. However, statistics currently collected by libraries do not accurately reflect or measure these new roles. It is essential for librarians to document, measure, and evaluate these new activities to continue to meet the needs of users and to ensure the viability of their professional role. To determine what new measures should be compiled, the authors examined current statistics, user demands, professional literature, and current activities of librarians as reported in abstracts of poster sessions at Medical Library Association annual meetings. Three new categories of services to be measured are proposed. The first, consultation, groups activities such as quality filtering and individual point-of-need instruction. The second, outreach, includes activities such as working as liaisons, participating in grand rounds or morning report, and providing continuing education. The third area, Web authoring, encompasses activities such as designing Web pages, creating online tutorials, and developing new products. Adding these three measures to those already being collected will provide a more accurate and complete depiction of the services offered by academic health sciences librarians.
PMCID: PMC100761  PMID: 11999174
10.  Collaborative development of a uniform graphical interface. 
A uniform graphical user interface to informational databases is evolving at the University of Washington through a collaborative development process. The interface, called WILLOW, has grown from model analysis and preliminary design to working prototype. The design replicates a natural flow of search retrieval. Development continues in a spiral of test and linear improvements based on user analysis. WILLOW's internal structure is built on a Unix client-server model communicating over the campus TCP/IP backbone network. Its external structure is an X-Windows/Motif visual presentation emphasizing a simple, consistent, graphical face to disparate information databases. The WILLOW collaborators have grown from an initial group composed of the Health Sciences Library & Information Center and Computing & Communications' Information Systems to the University Libraries, Computing & Communications divisions, Medical Center Information Systems, and departments throughout the health sciences.
PMCID: PMC2248027  PMID: 1482877
11.  Automating Veterans Administration libraries: I. National planning and development. 
The Veterans Administration Library Network (VALNET) needed an automated library system that could interface with the agency's national automation activities. The Library Special Interest Users Group was established to oversee the selection of appropriate automated systems. The Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System (MUMPS) computer language and VA FILEMAN, a database management system, are being used to create new library software, which will be in the public domain.
PMCID: PMC227628  PMID: 3297221
12.  From Index Catalogue to Gopher space: changes in our profession as reflected in the Handbook and CPHSL. 
A fifty-year review of the history of health sciences librarianship, as reflected in four editions of the Handbook of Medical Library Practice and its successor, Current Practice in Health Sciences Librarianship, illustrates the significant changes our profession has undergone. Publication in 1943 of the first edition of the Handbook marked an important milestone in the development of the Medical Library Association, as a group of dedicated volunteers documented standard practice and recorded useful data. Administration of health sciences libraries has moved from art to science. Responsibility for the development of collections is now the sole purview of professional librarians. Automation and bibliographic standards have revolutionized the methods for controlling and providing access to information resources. And, the means by which assistance is provided to library users, through the use of computer and telecommunications technology, has changed dramatically.
PMCID: PMC225852  PMID: 8136754
13.  Public Library Participation in a MedlinePlus® Go Local Project: Perceptions of Georgia Librarians and Staff 
In an effort to promote public library involvement in Georgia Health – Go Local, a National Library of Medicine initiative to link consumers to health resources in their local areas, staff at a large public library system in south Georgia were trained to enter local records into the Go Local database. Results of two follow-up focus groups indicated that participants were enthusiastic about demonstrating Go Local and MedlinePlus to library users but were not comfortable creating or maintaining Go Local records due to concerns about the relevance of the project, unease with medical terminology, varied levels of computer expertise, and worries about possible liability.
doi:10.1080/15398285.2010.501732
PMCID: PMC3010176  PMID: 21197119
Consumer health information; Georgia Health – Go Local; Go Local program; MedlinePlus; National Library of Medicine; database development; public libraries
14.  Publicly Funded Clinical Trials and the Future of Cancer Care 
The Oncologist  2013;18(2):232-238.
Publicly sponsored trials, conducted primarily by cooperative groups sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, seek to optimize therapy for a particular disease, create new knowledge, and improve public health; these trials can also result in label extension of a drug and even in initial drug approval. This lecture examines the contributions to cancer care of the cooperative groups, the ongoing reorganization of the cooperative groups to form a national clinical trials network, as well as opportunities for developing and refining new cancer treatments and disseminating results to the medical community and the general public.
Publicly sponsored trials, conducted primarily by cooperative groups sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, and commercially sponsored trials are necessary to create new knowledge, improve the care of oncology patients, and develop new drugs and devices. Commercial sponsors launch clinical trials that will result in drug approval, label extension, expansion of market share, and an increase in shareholder value. Conversely, publicly sponsored trials seek to optimize therapy for a particular disease, create new knowledge, and improve public health; these trials can also result in label extension of a drug and even in initial drug approval. Publicly sponsored trials may combine and/or compare drugs developed by different commercial sponsors, develop multimodality therapies (e.g., the combination of chemotherapy and radiation), or develop novel treatment schedules or routes of drug administration (e.g., intraperitoneal chemotherapy). Publicly sponsored trials are more likely to focus on therapies for rare diseases and to study survivorship and quality of life; these areas may not be a priority for commercial entities. Screening and prevention strategies have been developed almost exclusively by the public sector given the large sample size and long follow-up period needed to complete the trial and, therefore, the lack of short-term commercial gain. Finally, given the public nature of the funding, clinical investigators are expected to publish their results even if the outcomes are unfavorable for the investigational therapy. With the ongoing reorganization of the cooperative groups to form a national clinical trials network, opportunities exist to create a robust platform for biomarker discovery and validation through the expanded collection of well-annotated biospecimens obtained from clinical trial participants. Thus, publicly funded trials are vital to developing and refining new cancer treatments and disseminating results to the medical community and the general public.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2012-0423
PMCID: PMC3579608  PMID: 23363807
15.  Mapping the literature of nursing administration 
Objectives: As part of Phase I of a project to map the literature of nursing, sponsored by the Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section of the Medical Library Association, this study identifies the core literature cited in nursing administration and the indexing services that provide access to the core journals. The results of this study will assist librarians and end users searching for information related to this nursing discipline, as well as database producers who might consider adding specific titles to their indexing services.
Methods: Using the common methodology described in the overview article, five source journals for nursing administration were identified and selected for citation analysis over a three-year period, 1996 to 1998, to identify the most frequently cited titles according to Bradford's Law of Scattering. From this core of most productive journal titles, the bibliographic databases that provide the best access to these titles were identified.
Results: Results reveal that nursing administration literature relies most heavily on journal articles and on those titles identified as core nursing administrative titles. When the indexing coverage of nine services is compared, PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL provide the most comprehensive coverage of this nursing discipline.
Conclusions: No one indexing service adequately covers this nursing discipline. Researchers needing comprehensive coverage in this area must search more than one database to effectively research their projects. While PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL provide more coverage for this discipline than the other indexing services, none is sufficiently broad in scope to provide indexing of nursing, health care management, and medical literature in a single file. Nurse administrators using the literature to research current work issues need to review not only the nursing titles covered by CINAHL but should also include the major weekly medical titles, core titles in health care administration, and general business sources if they wish to adequately cover the many aspects of nursing administration.
PMCID: PMC1463030  PMID: 16710468
16.  Self-Service Computerized Bibliographic Retrieval: A Comparison of Colleague and PaperChase, Programs That Search the MEDLINE Database 
Colleague and PaperChase are the two most widely used computer systems designed for clinicians and scientists who wish to search the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE data base of biomedical references. The present study compares the performance of these two systems.
Two matched groups of second-year medical students each received three hours of instruction, one group in Colleague, the other in PaperChase. Each student then attempted 10 test searches. The next day the groups were reversed, and each student attempted five additional searches.
During the 3.5 hours allocated for searching, users of Colleague attempted 64 test searches and retrieved 326 target references; users of PaperChase attempted 78 searches and retrieved 496. Users of Colleague took a mean of 2.2 minutes and spent a mean of $1.20 to find each target reference; users of PaperChase took 1.6 minutes and spent $0.92. We conclude that after limited training, medical students find more references faster and at lower cost with PaperChase than with Colleague.
PMCID: PMC2245177
17.  AIM-TWX Service at the University of Virginia: A Review and Evaluation 
The paper reviews the highlights of a four-week trial period (November 19-December 18, 1970) during which the Medical Library of the University of Virginia experimented with a new remote-access bibliographical control and retrieval system via its TWX machine. The system, called AIM-TWX, was sponsored by the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications and utilizes a timeshared IBM 360/67 computer in Santa Monica, California. Citations from 109 clinically-oriented journals from 1966 to date, including those currently included in the Abridged Index Medicus, may be retrieved either on- or off-line.
Various aspects of this service are described, including problems of staffing, training, and record keeping, as well as the role of the MeSH vocabulary which is the principle “language” of the man-computer dialog.
The statistical results indicated that the system was used for approximately 200 minutes on nineteen days and that an average of sixteen searches were run on any given day, or about 4.6 searches per hour of use. In spite of an inexperienced staff who had little knowledge of the MeSH vocabulary and whose training schedule was limited to one four-hour session, the experiment was highly successful in terms of searches and citations.
At the end of the period, 298 searches had been run for 114 requestors, and 5,343 citations had been produced. Only fifty-five searches yielded no citations. The experiment generated a great deal of excitement and interest among the staff of the Library and of the Medical Center. Moreover, a large number of medical practitioners in large and small communities of Virginia participated in this experiment, indicating that there exists a great demand for this type of literature searching which AIM-TWX is able to provide with great rapidity.
PMCID: PMC197615  PMID: 5172472
18.  Educational services in health sciences libraries: an analysis of the periodical literature, 1975-1986. 
The periodical literature on group instructional services in health sciences libraries was analyzed to determine the nature of these services, their target audiences, and their institutional settings. Three kinds of reports were identified: descriptions of services (70%), reviews of the literature (10.5%), and future-oriented articles that advocate various group instructional services (19.5%). Five target audiences were identified: library users, staff, librarian peers, library science students, and patients. Instructional services were offered primarily in medical school/center libraries, hospital libraries, and the National Library of Medicine and its Regional Medical Libraries (RMLs). To a lesser extent, health sciences educational services are offered through other professional school libraries, library associations and consortia, and schools of library science. There are gaps in the literature in the areas of library experience with marketing, evaluation, administration of the offered educational services, and continuing education for health sciences librarians.
PMCID: PMC227688  PMID: 3676534
19.  The 2006 NESCent Phyloinformatics Hackathon: A Field Report 
In December, 2006, a group of 26 software developers from some of the most widely used life science programming toolkits and phylogenetic software projects converged on Durham, North Carolina, for a Phyloinformatics Hackathon, an intense five-day collaborative software coding event sponsored by the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent). The goal was to help researchers to integrate multiple phylogenetic software tools into automated workflows. Participants addressed deficiencies in interoperability between programs by implementing “glue code” and improving support for phylogenetic data exchange standards (particularly NEXUS) across the toolkits. The work was guided by use-cases compiled in advance by both developers and users, and the code was documented as it was developed. The resulting software is freely available for both users and developers through incorporation into the distributions of several widely-used open-source toolkits. We explain the motivation for the hackathon, how it was organized, and discuss some of the outcomes and lessons learned. We conclude that hackathons are an effective mode of solving problems in software interoperability and usability, and are underutilized in scientific software development.
PMCID: PMC2684128
phylogenetics; phyloinformatics; open source software; analysis workflow
20.  Strategies for Managing Multi-Sponsored Core Facilities: How do you make “everyone” your first priority? 
FLOW CYTOMETRY SHARED RESOURCE: The VMC FCSR offers a myriad of flow cytometry and immunology related services and support to multiple supporting Centers, Veterans Administration scientist, and external private entities and of course the Vanderbilt research community at large. Users range from undergraduates all the way up to and including Principle Investigators. Every effort is made to tailor each individual's support to his or her specific needs and experience with consideration given to Institution/Center/Department/Lab membership. Prioritizing members of a group that provides sponsorship to our shared resource while maintaining a high standard of customer service and technological support to all members can be challenging, but accomplished with foresight, good communication and transparency in the process. One of the keys for success is a good strategy to ensure adequate capacity for all users, while highlighting support for specific sponsored members whenever relevant. A resource or capacity starved service Core will constantly be struggling to provide acceptable support to a sponsoring group while maintaining customer service standards and meeting the scientific needs of the broader user base. Accurate accounting of each sponsoring groups usage contrasted with the usage of all others is a good way to measure and prioritize changing needs that your core must address. If such metrics can be presented to governing bodies and sponsoring parties at our institution, planning ahead for the acquisition of additional resources or personal before they become critical becomes manageable. Targeted support or new resources that may initially only be pertinent to an individual sponsoring group will generally lead to greater use by the entire user base once successful results are reported by the focused, sponsored group. We have found the implementation of a Scientific Advisory Board comprised of members of supporting Centers and a diverse representation of our general user base to be critical to providing the service and support we strive for. An advising body that can provide a platform to display our Core finances, usage and capacity transparently and allow users at different levels to gain insight on the realities we face and assist us in making decisions is extremely helpful. In a collegial environment such as this consensus can be reached and concerns can be voiced that allow us to continue to support all users at the highest possible level. Each board member can then return to their home department and relay their findings back to their colleagues, which leads to greater overall acceptance and understanding by all. Lastly, oversight by a strong institutional leadership body with broad vision that encompasses all of the sponsoring groups and users has been critical to meet these challenges.
PMCID: PMC3635429
21.  The National Library of Medicine and Medical Informatics 
Western Journal of Medicine  1986;145(6):786-790.
Medical informatics attempts to provide the theoretic and scientific basis for the use of automated information systems in biomedicine. Even though a new field, its roots are in the 19th century. The National Library of Medicine (NLM) began classifying the medical literature and publishing the Index Medicus in 1897; in the early 1960s, the growth of the index gave rise to MEDLARS, the first successful, large-scale, computerized bibliographic system. In 1971, about the time MEDLARS evolved into a nationwide on-line retrieval system known as MEDLINE, a committee of the Association of American Medical Colleges published a report calling for the NLM to exert strong leadership in developing computer applications for information transfer in medicine. The NLM has sponsored several training and research programs in this area and is now developing the concept of “centers of excellence” in medical informatics. In addition, there are a number of current research and development activities within the NLM internal and extramural programs that may influence the progress of medical informatics.
PMCID: PMC1307151  PMID: 3544508
22.  Student Perspectives on Pharmacy Curriculum and Instruction in Egyptian Schools 
Objectives
To determine student attitudes and opinions towards pharmacy education in Egyptian universities to provide information for designing delivery of a revised pharmacy curriculum.
Methods
Students were recruited from the pharmacy faculties at a government-sponsored university and a privately funded university. Data were gathered using a structured questionnaire and statistically analyzed. Responses from open questions were subjected to thematic analysis.
Results
Students spent widely differing amounts of time on non-classroom study, little of which was self-directed. This was reflected in the low frequency of use of library facilities and the preference of students for passively acquired information. Themes that emerged on how students would improve the curriculum were to increase the use of computers and the Internet; make the course more relevant to pharmacy practice and/or clinical pharmacy; improve and expand the practical components of the course; increase their own involvement in learning; and increase their understanding of subjects as well as their knowledge. For many of the questions, there was a significant different between the responses of students at the 2 universities.
Conclusions
Students relied on classroom teaching and devoted little time to self-directed study. However, students were aware of international developments in pharmacy education and practice and are receptive to change.
PMCID: PMC1636891  PMID: 17136152
pharmacy; education; curriculum development; computer-assisted learning; problem-based learning; student perspectives; Egypt
23.  Stakeholder perspectives on implementing the National Cancer Institute’s patient-reported outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE) 
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing a patient-reported version of its Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, called the “PRO-CTCAE.” The PRO-CTCAE consists of a library of patient-reported items which can be administered in clinical trials to directly capture the patient experience of adverse events during cancer treatment, as well as a software platform for administering these items via computer or telephone. In order to better understand the impressions of stakeholders involved in cancer clinical research about the potential value of the PRO-CTCAE approach to capturing adverse event information in clinical research, as well as their perspectives about barriers and strategies for implementing the PRO-CTCAE in NCI-sponsored cancer trials, a survey was conducted. A survey including structured and open-ended questions was developed to elicit perceptions about the use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for adverse event reporting, and to explore logistical considerations for implementing the PRO-CTCAE in cancer trials. The survey was distributed electronically and by paper to a convenience sample of leadership and committee members in the NCI’s cooperative group network, including principal investigators, clinical investigators, research nurses, data managers, patient advocates, and representatives of the NCI and Food and Drug Administration. Between October, 2008 through February, 2009, 727 surveys were collected. Most respondents (93%) agreed that patient reporting of adverse symptoms would be useful for improving understanding of the patient experience with treatment in cancer trials, and 88%, 80%, and 76%, respectively, endorsed that administration of PRO-CTCAE items in clinical trials would improve the completeness, accuracy, and efficiency of symptom data collection. More than three fourths believed that patient reports would be useful for informing treatment dose modifications and towards FDA regulatory evaluation of drugs. Eighty-eight percent felt that patients in clinical trials would be willing to self-report adverse symptoms at clinic visits via computer, and 68% felt patients would self-report weekly from home via the internet or an automated telephone system. Lack of computers and limited space and personnel were seen as potential barriers to in-clinic self-reporting, but these were judged to be surmountable with adequate funding. The PRO-CTCAE items and software are viewed by a majority of survey respondents as a means to improve adverse event data quality and comprehensiveness, enhance clinical decision-making, and foster patient-clinician communication. Research is ongoing to assess the measurement properties and feasibility of implementing this measure in cancer clinical trials.
doi:10.1007/s13142-011-0025-3
PMCID: PMC3717706  PMID: 24073038
Patient-reported outcomes; Symptoms, adverse events; Oncology; Cancer, Clinical trials; Toxicity, safety; Tolerability; Comparative effectiveness research; Cooperative groups; National Cancer Institute
24.  Remote access to electronic library services through a campus network. 
The Health Science Library at University of Tennessee (UT), Memphis has taken advantage of a campuswide network for the purpose of providing enhanced access to library services. With a terminal or microcomputer, members of the UT Memphis community can use an electronic menu system to complete photocopy, interlibrary loan, and computer literature search request forms; leave messages or sign up for library workshops; use electronic mail to receive citations and abstracts from computer literature searches; use an electronic bulletin board to scan the library's new acquisitions lists, library hours, services, and policies; and use bibliographic retrieval software to search the library's locally mounted databases. Remote access to library services and electronic resources, which is available twenty-four hours a day, could potentially save users time and the institution money. Remote access, however, is intended to supplement, not to supplant or discourage, in-house library use.
PMCID: PMC225485  PMID: 1998820
25.  User attitudes toward end-user literature searching. 
A survey to determine attitudes toward end-user searching was made at Loyola University's Medical Center Library using MEDIS, an online full-text and bibliographic medical retrieval system. One hundred forty-one completed questionnaires were analyzed for this report. Information was collected on user familiarity with computers, end-user training, system use, mechanics of searching, and attitudes toward future use. Computer familiarity was highest among the faculty users. Ninety percent of the respondents saw librarians as a crucial agent in training and in providing end-user assistance. Respondents identified five major reasons for using the system: helpfulness, convenience, time savings, rapid feedback, and presentation of needed information. Searching the MEDLINE database rather than the full-text database was the search method of choice. Continued use of both mediated and end-user searching was intended by most of the respondents. Survey results support a perceived need for end-user searching and confirmed recommendations of the Association of American Medical Colleges on medical information science skills.
PMCID: PMC227228  PMID: 3285930

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