The aims of the study were to compare the dimensions of oral-health-related quality-of-life measured by a generic health state measure, the EuroQol, and a specific oral health measure, the Oral Health Impact Profile.
Data were collected in 2001–02 from a random sample of South Australian dentists using mailed self-complete questionnaires. Dentists recorded the diagnosis of dental problems and provided patients with self-complete questionnaires to record the nature, severity and duration of symptoms using the EuroQol (EQ-5D+) and 14-item version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) instruments.
Data were available from 375 patients (response rate = 72%). The EuroQol items of mobility, self care and usual activities formed a separate cluster of variables, as did anxiety/depression and cognition, while pain clustered with items from the OHIP physical pain subscale. OHIP items tended to form clusters consistent with the subscales of social disability, physical disability, physical pain, functional limitation and psychological discomfort. The OHIP handicap items clustered between the OHIP social disability and physical disability subscales. The OHIP psychological disability items split between the social disability and psychological discomfort subscales.
The observed clusters of variables empirically supported most of the conceptual dimensions of the OHIP. Both instruments covered symptom experience of pain indicating overlapping domains. However there was partial separation of the generic and specific items, EuroQol covered daily activities such as self-care and usual activities and OHIP covered oral health-specific aspects of functional limitation and physical disability as well as psychological and social aspects of disability and handicap.
Background and aims
Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) represents a multidimensional structure, being measured by complex instruments, such as the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). The aim of this present study is to develop and test the psychometric properties of an initial Romanian (OHIP-49Ro) version.
The original OHIP-49 version was translated using a forward-backward technique into the Romanian OHIP-49Ro, which was applied in an interview form to 150 patients of the Second Medical Clinique of Internal Medicine, Cluj-Napoca. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was applied, in order to evaluate the factor structure and construct validity of the OHIP-49Ro.
The correlations between the OHIP-49Ro subscales were all positive and statistically significant. Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients values are above 0.7 for all subscales, providing support for the internal consistency of OHIP-49Ro scale scores. Regarding the CFA, for the seven factor model, the Bentler scaled chi-square (S–Bχ2) indicated a value of 2193.74 (df=1091; p=0.001), the CFI a value of 0.740, the TLI a value of 0.72 and RMSEA the value of 0.82.
The results of this study suggest a high internal consistency of the OHIP-49Ro instrument. Due to the correlations between several sets of factors, and the multiple-factorial load for several items, the OHIP-49Ro’s factorial structure requires further research on different samples and in different cultural and educational contexts.
quality of life; oral health; reliability; validation
The aim of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of silicone and alginate impressions for complete dentures.
Cost effectiveness analyses were undertaken alongside a UK single centre, double blind, controlled, crossover clinical trial. Taking the perspective of the healthcare sector, effectiveness is measured using the EuroQol (EQ-5D-3L) which provides a single index value for health status that may be combined with time to produce quality adjusted life years (QALYs); and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-EDENT). Incremental cost effectiveness ratios are presented representing the additional cost per one unit gained.
Mean cost was higher in the silicone impression group (£388.57 vs. £363.18). Negligible between-group differences were observed in QALY gains; the silicone group had greater mean OHIP-EDENT gains. The additional cost using silicone was £3.41 per change of one point in the OHIP-EDENT.
The silicone group was more costly, driven by the cost of materials. Changes in the EQ-5D and QALY gains over time and between arms were not statistically significant. Change in OHIP-EDENT score showed greater improvement in the silicone group and the difference between arms was statistically significant. Given negligible QALY gains and low level of resource use, results must be treated with caution. It is difficult to make robust claims about the comparative cost-effectiveness.
Silicone impressions for complete dentures improve patients’ quality of life (OHIP-EDENT score). The extra cost of silicone impressions is £30 per patient. Dentists, patients and health care funders need to consider the clinical and financial value of silicone impressions. Different patients, different dentists, different health funders will have individual perceptions and judgements.
NIHR-RfPB grant PB-PG-0408-16300.
This article forms part of a project for which the author (TPH) won the Senior Clinical Unilever Hatton Award of the International Assocation for Dental Research, Capetown, South Africa, June 2014.
Prosthodontics; Quality-of life; Impression materials; Cost effectiveness; Cost; Resource
The US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2004) evaluated oral health quality of life for the first time using a previously untested subset of seven Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) questions, i.e. the NHANES-OHIP.
(i) To describe the impact of dental conditions on quality of life in the US adult population; (ii) to evaluate construct validity and adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP in NHANES 2003–2004 and a comparable Australian survey.
In the cross-sectional NHANES 2003–2004 survey of a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 4907), prevalence was quantified as the proportion of adults who reported experiencing one or more impacts fairly often or very often within the past year. Construct validity was tested by comparing prevalence estimates across categories of sociodemographic, dental health and utilization characteristics known to vary in oral health. In 2002, Australian cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of adults (n = 2644), adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP questions were tested with reference to a slightly modified version of the OHIP-14 questions.
NHANES-OHIP prevalence estimates were markedly similar in the United States (15.3%) and Australia (15.7%). In the US construct, validity was evidenced by higher NHANES-OHIP scores among groups with greater levels of tooth loss, perceived treatment need and problem-oriented visiting and with lack of private dental insurance and low income. In Australia, prevalence for the NHANES-OHIP closely resembled prevalence estimates of the modified OHIP-14. Both varied to a similar degree across levels of tooth loss, perceived treatment need, problem-oriented visiting, and private dental insurance and income, demonstrating adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP as a brief independent instrument.
There was acceptable construct validity and adequacy of the NHANES-OHIP questionnaire. In the United States, the impact of oral disease disproportionately affected disadvantaged groups, a finding that supports application of the US Healthy People 2010 major goals of improved quality of life and reduced health disparities.
adults; health policy; health surveys; NHANES; population groups
The need for appraisal of oral health-related quality of life has been increasingly recognized over the last decades. The aims of this study were to develop a Spanish version (OHIP-Sp) of the Oral Health Impact Profile and to evaluate its convergent and discriminative validity, and its internal consistency.
The original 49-items OHIP was translated to Spanish, revised for understanding and semantics by two independent dentists, and then translated back to English by an independent bilingual dentist. The data originated in a cross sectional study conducted among high school students from the Province of Santiago, Chile. The study group was sampled using a multistage random cluster procedure yielding 9,203 students aged 12–21 years. All selected students were invited to participate and all filled a questionnaire with information on socio-demographic factors; oral health related behaviors; and self-reported oral health status (good, fair or poor). From this group, 9,163 students also accepted to fill a detailed questionnaire on socio-economic indicators and to receive a clinical examination comprising direct recordings of clinical attachment levels (CAL) in molars and incisors, tooth loss, and the presence of necrotizing ulcerative gingival lesions.
The participation rate and the questionnaire completeness were high with OHIP-Sp total scores being computed for 9,133 subjects. Self-perceived oral health status was associated with the total OHIP-Sp score and all its domains (Spearman rank correlation). The OHIP-Sp total score was also directly associated with the 4 dental outcomes investigated (Mann-Whitney test) and the largest impact was found for the outcomes, 'tooth loss' with a mean OHIP-Sp score = 13.5 and 'CAL >= 3 mm' with a mean OHIP-Sp score = 13.0.
The OHIP-Sp revealed suitable convergent and discriminative validity and appropriate internal consistency (Cronbach's α). Further studies on OHIP-Sp warrant the inclusion of populations with a higher disease burden; and the use of test-retest reliability exercises to evaluate the stability of the test.
The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is the most widely used quality of life (QoL) measure to evaluate the influence of oral diseases on individuals. QoL measures have been noted to be context and environment specific, and there is a need to cross-culturally adapt a scale before its introduction into any community. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties, validity and internal consistency of the OHIP-14 measure in an adult patient population in Ibadan, Nigeria.
A cross-sectional study was conducted over a four-month period on 204 adult patients using OHIP-14 structured questionnaire, global self-report indicator of oral conditions and perceived treatment need. Oral examinations were performed to assess periodontal status, caries experience and attachment loss. Data were analyzed using SPSS and p-value for statistical significance was set at < 0.05.
A total of 204 patients participated in the study with a mean OHIP score of 11.2 (± 9.8). OHIP scores were not related to the sociodemographic characteristics. Perception of need for treatment was greater among those who reported impacts on their QoL (89.3% vs. 14.3%, p < 0.001). The OHIP scores correlated negatively with global self rating of oral health status (rho = −0.23, p < 0.01). Higher OHIP scores were associated with having carious teeth (p = 0.023). The Cronbach's alpha for the 14 inventory items ranged from 0.857 to 0.871.
The OHIP-14 measure showed good psychometric properties with satisfactory validity and internal consistency in adult patients in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Oral health; quality of life; OHIP-14; validity; internal consistency
A desideratum of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL)
instruments - such as the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) - is that they
accurately reflect the structure of the measured construct(s). With this
goal in mind, the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ)
Project was proposed to investigate the number and nature of OHRQoL
dimensions measured by OHIP. In this report, we describe our aggregate data
set for the factor analyses in the project, which consists of responses to
the 49-item OHIP from general population subjects and prosthodontics
patients from 6 countries, including a large age range of adult subjects and
Material and methods
The DOQ Project's aggregate data set combines data from 35 individual
studies conducted in Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Slovenia, and
The combined data set includes 10,778 OHIPs from 9,348 individuals
(N=6,349 general population subjects, N=2,999 prosthodontic patients). To
elucidate the OHIP latent structure, the aggregated data were split into a
Learning Sample (N=5,173) for exploratory analyses and a Validation Sample
(N=5,022) for confirmatory analyses. Additional data (N=583) were assigned
to a third data set.
The Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Project
contains a large amount of international data and is representative of
populations where OHIP is intended to be used. It is well-suited to assess
the dimensionality of the questionnaire.
Oral Health Impact Profile; Factor analysis; questionnaire; general population; prosthodontic patients
Interpretation of scores from oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments, such as the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is challenging. It was the aim of this study to determine how many oral impacts correspond to one point of the 49-item OHIP using a new approach which translates numeric problem counts into the traditionally used ordinal OHIP response categories.
A sample of 145 consecutively recruited prosthodontic patients seeking treatment or having a routine examination completed the German version of the 49-item OHIP with the original ordinal response format as a self-administered questionnaire. In addition, the numerical frequencies of impairment during the previous month were requested in personal interviews. Based on a multilevel mixed-effects linear regression, we estimated the mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) in numerical frequency between two adjacent ordinal responses.
A numerical frequency of 15.2 (CI: 14.8 – 15.7) impacts per month corresponded to one OHIP point. This translates to approximately one impact every other day in the past month.
The oral problem count per day that corresponds to one OHIP-49 point can be used to interpret this instrument’s scores in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. This number can help to better understand OHRQoL burden for patients, clinicians, and researchers alike.
OHIP; Response format; OHRQoL; Assessment
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the the Chinese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile for TMDs (OHIP-TMDs-C).
Study Design: The OHIP-TMDs was initially translated and cross-culturally adapted to Chinese following international guidelines; then subsequently validated for the psychometric characteristics of reliability and validity. In total, 156 participants with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) were recruited to complete the questionnaire. The reliability of the OHIP-TMDs-C was evaluated using internal consistency and test-retest methods. The validity of the OHIP-TMDs-C was analysed by construct validity and convergent validity. Construct validity was determined based on factor analysis, and convergent validity by analyzing the correlation between OHIP-TMDs-C subscale scores and the global rating of oral health question.
Results: Cronbach’s alpha value (internal reliability) for the total OHIP-TMDs-C score was 0.917 and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) value (test–retest reliability) was 0.899. Construct validity was determined by factor analysis, extracting five factors, accounting for 78.6% of the variance. All items had factor loadings above 0.40. In terms of convergent validity, the OHIP-TMDs-C subscale was significant correlated to the global oral health rating.
Conclusions: The results suggest that the OHIP-TMDs-C has good reliability and validity and thus may be used as a valuable instrument for patients with TMDs in China.
Key words:Validation, TMDs, quality of life, questionnaire.
To develop Croatian and Slovenian versions of the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) Questionnaire.
The English original version of the OHIP questionnaire was translated into Croatian (OHIP-CRO14) and Slovenian (OHIP-SVN14) language by a forward-backward translation method. The psychometric properties of the OHIP-CRO14 and OHIP-SVN14 were tested. Concurrent validity was tested on 623 subjects (193 Croatian and 430 Slovenian), test-retest reliability on 115 subjects (55 Croatian and 60 Slovenian), internal consistency on 678 subjects (218 Croatian and 460 Slovenian), and responsiveness on 51 patients (21 Croatian and 30 Slovenian) in demand of treatment (toothache).
Concurrent validity was confirmed by the association between the OHIP summary scores and self-reported oral health (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.40 to 0.60, P<0.001). Test-retest reliability showed high intraclass correlation (correlation coefficients, 0.79-0.94). Internal consistency showed high Cronbach α (0.77-0.91). Responsiveness was confirmed by a significant difference between the mean OHIP score at baseline and follow-up (P<0.001 for both Croatian and Slovenian patients) and high effect size in Croatian and Slovenian patients in demand of treatment (3.00 and 0.57, respectively).
Psychometric properties of OHIP-CRO14 and OHIP-SVN14 render these instruments suitable for the assessment of Oral Health Related Quality of Life in Croatia and Slovenia.
To determine whether participants of a dental practice-based research network (PBRN) differ in their level of oral health impact as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) questionnaire.
A total of 2410 patients contributed 2432 OHIP measurements (median age = 43 years; interquartile range = 28) were enrolled in four dental studies. All participants completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) during a baseline visit. The main outcome of the current study was the level of oral health impact, defined as follows: no impact (“Never” reported on all items); low (“Occasionally” or “Hardly ever” as the greatest frequency score reported on any item); and high (“Fairly often” or “Very often” as the greatest frequency reported on any item). Polychotomous logistic regression was used to develop a predictive model for the level of oral health impact considering the following predictors: patient’s age, gender, race, practice location, type of dentist, and number of years the enrolling dentist has been practicing.
A high level of oral health impacts was reported in 8% of the sample; almost a third (29%) of the sample reported a low level of impacts, and 63% had no oral health impacts. The prevalence of impacts differed significantly across protocols (P<0.001). Females were more likely to be in the high oral impact group than the no impact group compared to males (OR=1.46; 95% CI= 1.06–1.99). African-Americans were more likely to report high oral impacts when compared to other racial/ethnic groups (OR=2.11; 95% CI = 1.26–3.55). Protective effects for being in the high or in the low impact groups were observed among patients enrolled by a solo practice (P<0.001) or by more experienced dentists (P=0.01). A small but highly significant statistical association was obtained for patient age (P<0.001). In the multivariate model, patient’s age, practice size and gender were found to jointly be significant predictors of oral health impact level.
Patients’ subjective report of oral health impact in the clinical setting is of importance for their health. In the context of a dental PBRN, the report of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was different across four dental studies. The observed findings validate the differential impact that oral health has on the patients’ perception of OHRQoL particularly among specific groups. Similar investigations to elucidate the factors associated with patient’s report of quality of life are warranted.
Oral-Health Impact; OHRQoL; Dental PBRN; OHIP-14; Patient Reported Outcomes; Subjective Health
To investigate the effect of persistent neurosensory disturbance of the lingual nerve (LN) or inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) on general health and oral health- related quality of life (QoL).
The study design was a case-control study. Patients with persistent neurosensory deficit of LN or IAN after lower third molar surgery (for 12 months or more) were the study group. The control group was an age and gender matched sample of patients who had dental extractions or lower third molar surgeries without trigeminal neurosensory deficit. The outcome variables were the general health and oral health-related QoL. General health-related QoL was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and oral health-related QoL using the 14-item Short Form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Differences in SF-36 scores and OHIP-14 scores between the groups were compared.
Forty-eight subjects (24 cases and 24 controls) were recruited. When compared to the control group, patients with neurosensory deficits had poorer Mental-Health Component Scores (MCS) (p = 0.005), General Health (p = 0.023), Vitality (p = 0.048), Social Functioning (p = 0.003), Role-emotion (p = 0.008) and Mental Health (p = 0.022). The OHIP-14 scores were also significantly worse in this patients with neurosensory deficits compared with the control group (p = 0.002). When compared within the study group, older patient with neurosensory deficit was found to correlate with worse Physical Health Component Scores (PCS) (p = 0.02) and OHIP-14 scores (p = 0.02), while more severe visualized analog scaling rating of numbness was correlated with a worse PCS (p = 0.034).
Patients with persistent LN or IAN deficit after lower third molar surgery have poorer health-related QoL and poorer oral health-related QoL than those without such deficits.
The OHIP-49 is widely used to assess oral health-related quality of life, but its length makes it time-consuming and difficult to use. An abbreviated version of the OHIP-49 with fourteen items has been validated for older adults, but not in Chile. The aim was to develop and validate the Spanish version of the OHIP-14 in an elderly Chilean population.
Two studies were conducted; a cross sectional to develop and a retrospective study to validate the OHIP-14Sp. The OHIP-49Sp was applied to 490 older adults and the fourteen questions with the higher impact on oral health-related quality of life were selected through linear regression. These items were applied on a retrospective dataset of 85 older adults to test internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha). A discriminative validity analysis was performed along with the assessment of sociodemographic (age and gender, educational level) and clinical variables (number of teeth, caries lesions, CPITN, prosthetic needs and prosthetic functionality). Data were analyzed using Mann–Whitney U, Student’s t and one-way ANOVA tests with a 95% confidence level and finally were analyzed by a Multivariate Logistic Regression Model.
High internal consistency values were obtained for the OHIP-14Sp instrument (0.91). There was an association between the OHIP-14Sp scores and the presence of caries (p = 0.003), need for complex periodontal treatment (p = 0.002), prosthetic needs (p < 0.0001) and age younger than 70 years-old (p < 0.0001). Subjects with periodontal treatment need were more likely to report reduced oral health-related quality of life (PR = 2.10).
The OHIP-14Sp proved to be a consistent and valid tool to assess oral health-related quality of life when tested in Chilean older adults.
Quality of life; Oral health; OHIP; Validation studies; Aging; Chile
Objective: Evaluate the validity, reliability, and factorial invariance of the complete Portuguese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) and its short version (OHIP-14). Methods: A total of 1,162 adults enrolled in the Faculty of Dentistry of Araraquara/UNESP participated in the study; 73.1% were women; and the mean age was 40.7 ± 16.3 yr. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis, where χ2/df, comparative fit index, goodness of fit index, and root mean square error of approximation were used as indices of goodness of fit. The convergent validity was judged from the average variance extracted and the composite reliability, and the internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach standardized alpha. The stability of the models was evaluated by multigroup analysis in independent samples (test and validation) and between users and nonusers of dental prosthesis. Results: We found best-fitting models for the OHIP-14 and among dental prosthesis users. The convergent validity was below adequate values for the factors “functional limitation” and “physical pain” for the complete version and for the factors “functional limitation” and “psychological discomfort” for the OHIP-14. Values of composite reliability and internal consistency were below adequate in the OHIP-14 for the factors “functional limitation” and “psychological discomfort.” We detected strong invariance between test and validation samples of the full version and weak invariance for OHIP-14. The models for users and nonusers of dental prosthesis were not invariant for both versions. Conclusion: The reduced version of the OHIP was parsimonious, reliable, and valid to capture the construct “impact of oral health on quality of life,” which was more pronounced in prosthesis users.
quality of life; oral health; validation studies; weights and measures; dental prosthesis; scales
To investigate the association between oral health literacy (OHL) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and explore the racial differences therein among a low-income community-based group of female WIC participants.
Participants (N = 1,405) enrolled in the Carolina Oral Health Literacy (COHL) study completed the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile Index (OHIP-14, a measure of OHRQoL) and REALD-30 (a word recognition literacy test). Socio-demographic and self-reported dental attendance data were collected via structured interviews. Severity (cumulative OHIP-14 score) and extent of impact (number of items reported fairly/very often) scores were calculated as measures of OHRQoL. OHL was assessed by the cumulative REALD-30 score. The association of OHL with OHRQoL was examined using descriptive and visual methods, and was quantified using Spearman's rho and zero-inflated negative binomial modeling.
The study group included a substantial number of African Americans (AA = 41%) and American Indians (AI = 20%). The sample majority had a high school education or less and a mean age of 26.6 years. One-third of the participants reported at least one oral health impact. The OHIP-14 mean severity and extent scores were 10.6 [95% confidence limits (CL) = 10.0, 11.2] and 1.35 (95% CL = 1.21, 1.50), respectively. OHL scores were distributed normally with mean (standard deviation, SD) REALD-30 of 15.8 (5.3). OHL was weakly associated with OHRQoL: prevalence rho = -0.14 (95% CL = -0.20, -0.08); extent rho = -0.14 (95% CL = -0.19, -0.09); severity rho = -0.10 (95% CL = -0.16, -0.05). "Low" OHL (defined as < 13 REALD-30 score) was associated with worse OHRQoL, with increases in the prevalence of OHIP-14 impacts ranging from 11% for severity to 34% for extent. The inverse association of OHL with OHIP-14 impacts persisted in multivariate analysis: Problem Rate Ratio (PRR) = 0.91 (95% CL = 0.86, 0.98) for one SD change in OHL. Stratification by race revealed effect-measure modification: Whites--PRR = 1.01 (95% CL = 0.91, 1.11); AA--PRR = 0.86 (95% CL = 0.77, 0.96).
Although the inverse association between OHL and OHRQoL across the entire sample was weak, subjects in the "low" OHL group reported significantly more OHRQoL impacts versus those with higher literacy. Our findings indicate that the association between OHL and OHRQoL may be modified by race.
oral health literacy; oral health-related quality of life; OHIP-14; racial differences; effect measure modification
To determine the impact of oral diseases on everyday life, measures of oral quality of life are needed. In complementing traditional disease-based measures, they assess the need for oral care to evaluate oral health care programs and management of treatment. To assess the reliability and validity of the Oral Impact of Daily Performance (OIDP) and the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) among high school students in Xi’an, the capital of Shanxi province, China.
Cross-sectional one-stage stratified random cluster sample using high schools as the primary sampling unit. Students completed self-administered questionnaires at school. The survey included the OHIP-14 and OIDP inventories, translated and culturally adapted for China, and global oral health and socio-behavioral measures.
A total of 5,608 students participated in the study, with a 93% response rate (mean age 17.2, SD 0.8, 52% females, 45.3% urban residents).The proportion experiencing at least one impact (at any frequency) during the previous six months was 62.9% for the OHIP-14 and 45.8% for the OIDP. Cronbach’s alpha measured internal consistency at 0.85 for OHIP-14 and 0.75 for OIDP while Cohen’s kappa varied between 0.27 and 0.58 for OHIP-14 items and between 0.23 and 0.65 for OIDP items. Kappa scores for the OHIP-14 and OIDP additive scores were 0.52 and 0.66, respectively. Both measures varied systematically and in the expected direction, with global oral health measures showing criterion validity. The correlation between OIDP and OHIP-14 was rs +0.65. That both measures varied systematically with socio-behavioral factors indicates construct validity.
Both the OIDP and OHIP-14 inventories had reasonable reliability and construct validity in relation to subjective global oral health indicators among adolescents attending high schools in China and thus appear to be useful oral health –related quality of life measures in this context. Overall, the OHIP-14 and OIDP performed equally well, although OHIP-14 had superior content validity due to its sensitivity towards less severe impacts.
OIDP; OHIP-14; Adolescents; China
The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between psychosocial aspects of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) and, secondly, to investigate the gender differences in these associations using patient and non-patient groups.
Materials and methods.
The sample of the study consisted of 79 patients with TMD and 70 non-patients. The data was collected by Finnish versions of the RDC/TMD Axis II profile and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaires. The associations between Axis II profile sub-scales and OHIP prevalence were evaluated using chi-square tests, as stratified by group status (TMD patients and non-patient controls) and by gender. The association between OHIP prevalence and Axis II profile sub-scales were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, adjusted by age, gender and group.
OHIP prevalence (those reporting at least one problem) was 90.9% in the patient group and 33.3% in the non-patient group (p < 0.001, chi-squared test). OHIP prevalence was higher among those scoring higher on all RDC/TMD Axis II profile sub-scales, i.e. graded chronic pain status, depression and non-specific physical symptoms with pain items included and with pain items excluded. The associations were significant in the non-patient group. Women showed statistically significant associations of OHIP prevalence with all Axis II sub-scales. Among men, OHIP prevalence associated with GCPS and somatization. The logistic regression analysis showed that OHIP prevalence associated significantly with somatization and depression.
TMD associate with OHRQoL through multiple ways, linked with depression and somatization. These findings emphasize the importance of early and effective treatment of TMD.
temporomandibular disorders; oral health-related quality-of-life; Oral Health Impact Profile; psychosocial factors
Objectives: The purposes of this study are to validate the indicator of Oral Health Impact Profile for edentulous patients (OHIP-20sp) in the Spanish population and to analyze the factorial construct of the prosthetic well-being.
Study Design: A total of twenty-one (n=21) edentulous patients wearing mandibular implant-over dentures on Locator® (LO) and twenty (n=20) with complete dentures (CD) were retrospectively evaluated in this study. All participants were recruited consecutively and were treated in the previous academic year 2009-2010 by professors of the University of Salamanca. Reliability analyses and validity tests were performed in order to evaluate the psychometric properties of OHIP-20sp employing two different total score methods (additional and simple count). A retrospective evaluation of the impact of the prosthetic treatment was captured with an evaluative instrument derived from OHIP-20, and named POST-OHIP-13.
Results: The reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.91) has shown a high internal consistency. Item-total correlations coefficients ranged from 0.46 and 0.81. Five factors, named as disability, functional comfort, psychosocial impact, pain-discomfort and functional limitations were identified as principal components of the construct, explaining almost 85% of the variance. The 48% of the sample felt at least one impact in an occasional or more frequently manner (generally food packing). The global transition judgment of the prosthetic treatment using the POST-OHIP-13 was significantly higher in group LO than in the CD group.
Conclusions: OHIP-20 seems to be a reliable and valid indicator to measure oral impact and satisfaction in the Spanish edentulous population. The underlying construct is comprised by 5 factors named as disability, functional comfort, psychosocial impact, pain-discomfort and functional limitations.
Key words:Oral health-related quality of life, edentulous, satisfaction, validation.
The oral health-related quality of life indicators are increasingly used to measure the impact of the oral conditions on quality of life. One of the most used indicators is the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), but it has never been applied in Iran. The aim of this study was to validate the usage of OHIP-14 among Iranians.
A cross-sectional study was performed in Kerman (Iran). A consecutive sample (n= 400) of the Kerman Dental School Clinics attending patients participated in this study. All participants self-completed the translated OHIP-14. Reliability analyses, validity tests, and responsiveness were carried out to evaluate the psychometric properties of the OHIP-14.
The reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) of the OHIP-14 was above the recommended 0.7 threshold and considered excellent (alpha: 0.85). The coefficient of the test-retest reliability measured by ICC was 0.88 (CI 95%: 0.80–0.93). Poorer oral condition was strongly associated with OHIP scores of the patients, supporting construct validity. Moreover, for evaluation of responsiveness, the ES was measured to be 0.43 and the SRM was 0.67.
The Persian version of OHIP-14 is a precise, valid and reliable instrument for assessing oral health-related quality of life among Persian population.
Oral health; Quality of life; Validity; Iran
The purpose of this study was to make a cross-culturally adapted, Dutch version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP), a 49-item questionnaire measuring oral health-related quality of life, and to examine its psychometric properties.
The original English version of the OHIP was translated into the Dutch language, following the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures. The resulting OHIP-NL's psychometric properties were examined in a sample of 119 patients (68.9 % women; mean age = 57.1 ± 12.2 yrs). They were referred to the clinic of Prosthodontics and Implantology with complaints concerning their partial or full dentures or other problems with missing teeth. To establish the reliability of the OHIP-NL, internal consistency and test-retest reliability (N = 41; 1 – 2 weeks interval) were examined, using Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), respectively. Further, construct validity was established by calculating ANOVA.
Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.82 – 0.97; ICC = 0.78 – 0.90). In addition, all associations were significant and in the expected direction.
In conclusion: the OHIP-NL can be considered a reliable and valid instrument to measure oral health-related quality of life.
Age and tooth loss are expected to have a complex relationship with oral health-related quality of life. So the purpose of this study was to explain the impact of age and tooth loss on oral health-related quality of life using the short form 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) among two population samples of Gujarat and Rajasthan.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 1441 subjects collected from two major cities of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Both questionnaire approaches using OHIP-14 scale and clinical examination were conducted in accordance with WHO criteria using type III procedure on the same day. Chi square test, ANOVA and stepwise multiple regression analysis were applied using SPSS software version 15.0.
With the increase of age, OHIP mean score in both states increased, but that among Rajasthan state was higher, depicting poor oral health. Whereas, in the remaining 23–27 number of teeth both states showed higher OHIP mean, however again the score was much higher among Rajasthan subjects showing worse oral hygiene. Hence, overall all mean OHIP score for Gujarat was lower indicating good oral health; whereas, that among Rajasthan was higher indicating poor oral health-related quality of life.
Both age and tooth loss are associated with each other, but they have an independent effect on the oral health-related quality of life. Thus, all studied populations with complete natural dentition showed good oral health-related quality of life.
Age Distribution; Tooth Loss; Oral Health; Quality of Life
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of tooth loss on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in adults with emphasis on the number of teeth lost and their relative position in the mouth.
The study population was a cross-sectional household probability sample of 248, representing 149,635 20–64 year-old residents in Piracicaba-SP, Brazil. OHRQoL was measured using the OHIP-14. Socioeconomic, demographic, health literacy, dental services use data and clinical variables were collected. Oral examinations were performed using WHO criteria for caries diagnosis, using the DMFT index; that is, the sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). An ordinal scale for tooth loss, based on position and number of missing teeth, was the main explanatory variable. The total OHIP score was the outcome for negative binomial regression and OHIP prevalence was the outcome for logistic regression at 5% level. A hierarchical modeling approach was adopted according to conceptual model.
OHIP score was 10.21 (SE 1.16) with 48.1% (n=115) reporting one or more impacts fairly/very often (OHIP prevalence). Significant prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) for OHIP severity were observed for those who had lost up to 12 teeth, including one or more anterior teeth (PRR=1.63, 95%CI 1.06–2.51), those who had lost 13–31 teeth (PRR=2.33, 95%CI 1.49–3.63), and the edentulous (PRR=2.66, 95%CI 1.55–4.57) compared with fully dentate adults. Other significant indicators included those who only sought dental care because of dental pain (PRR=1.67, 95%CI 1.11–2.51) or dental needs (PRR=1.84, 95%CI 1.24–2.71) and having untreated caries (PRR=1.57 95%CI 1.09–2.26). Tooth loss was not significantly associated with OHIP prevalence; instead using dental services due to dental pain (PR=2.43, 95%CI 1.01–5.82), having untreated caries (PR=3.96, 95%CI 1.85–8.51) and low income (PR=2.80, 95%CI 1.26–6.42) were significant risk indicators for reporting OHIP prevalence.
Our analyses showed OHRQoL gradients consistent with the number and position of teeth missing due to oral disease. These findings suggest that the quantity of teeth lost does not necessarily reflect the impact of tooth mortality on OHRQoL and that future studies should take this into consideration.
Adults; Oral health; Quality of life; OHIP14; Regression analysis
Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw is a growing clinical concern that affects treatment decisions because of its potential negative impact on quality of life. It significantly affects the quality of life of patients with cancer and may be an important consideration for intravenous and oral bisphosphonate treatment decisions by patients, clinicians, and policy makers.
Potentially debilitating, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is an emerging complication of bisphosphonates. However, its effect on quality of life (QoL) is unknown. We determined the ONJ-related QoL decline in a cancer patient cohort.
Patients and Methods.
Thirty-four cancer patients with bisphosphonate-associated ONJ completed a telephone survey (October 2007 through May 2008). The Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP) retrospectively assessed participant oral health–related QoL before and after ONJ. Standardized ONJ descriptions were developed in a multidisciplinary, iterative process and were evaluated with three frequently used preference-based QoL measurement methods on a 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health) scale: Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Time Trade-Off (TTO), and EQ-5D.
ONJ significantly (p < .001) increased OHIP scores (worse QoL) for additive (3.56–16.53) and weighted (7.0–17.5) methods. Seven individual OHIP items significantly increased (Bonferroni correction p < .0035): pain, eating discomfort, self-consciousness, unsatisfactory diet, interrupted meals, irritability, and decreased life satisfaction. Mean preference-based QoL values significantly decreased (p < .001) with worsening ONJ stage (VAS, TTO, and EQ-5D): no ONJ (0.76, 0.86, 0.82), ONJ stage 1 (0.69, 0.82, 0.78), ONJ stage 2 (0.51, 0.67, 0.55), and ONJ stage 3 (0.37, 0.61, 0.32). As ONJ worsened, EQ-5D domain scores significantly increased (p < .001). Pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression contributed most to declining QoL.
ONJ significantly affects QoL, a detriment that increases with worsening ONJ. QoL impairments for ONJ stages 2 and 3 are similar to other treatment side effects that influence decision-making. Bisphosphonate-associated ONJ QoL is an important consideration for patients, clinicians, and policy makers.
Quality of life; Osteonecrosis; Bisphosphonates; Zoledronic acid; Pamidronate; Utility
Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic disorder that is characterized by a burning sensation and a normal clinical appearance of the oral mucosa. This condition often affects the health-related quality of life in patients. As such, the aim of this study was to compare the health-related quality of life of patients with BMS and healthy controls, using the validated Portuguese versions of the SF-36 and OHIP-49 questionnaires.
A calculated sample of Brazilian patients with BMS (n = 26) was compared with a control group (n = 27), paired for gender and age. Sociodemographic information and clinical characteristics were obtained, and interviews were conducted using the SF-36 and OHIP-49. To evaluate the normality of the variables, we used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The chi-square test, Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney U-Test were used to compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with BMS and controls Mann-Whitney U-test were carried out to compare SF-36 and OHIP-49 between BMS patients and controls. The significance level was set at 0.05. To compare the dimensions of the SF-36 and OHIP-49 between BMS patients and controls, we considered Bonferroni correction. So for comparison of the dimensions, the significance level was set at 0.00625 for SF-36 and at 0.00714 for OHIP-49.
The clinical and demographic data were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). SF-36 scores were significantly lower in all domains for patients with BMS (P < 0.00625). OHIP-49 scores were higher for individuals with BMS (P < 0.00714).
BMS has a negative impact on the health-related quality of life of individuals, as can be shown by instruments such as the SF-36 and OHIP-49. So, the evaluation of quality of life might be useful for more information about the nature and severity of BMS, to evaluate the effects of treatment protocols, in order to improve their outcomes by means a humanized clinical practice.
Burning Mouth Syndrome; Quality of life; epidemiology
This work aims to confirm if implant-supported overdentures are a good treatment option for edentulous patients and offer an improvement in quality of life compared with traditional complete prostheses (dentures).
Material and Methods
This retrospective clinical descriptive study included three evaluation groups: validation group (n=57); control group of patients with complete removeable prostheses (n=56); study group of patients with implant-supported overdentures retained with the Locator® system (n=80). The study also validated the Oral Health Impact Profile-20 questionnaire. Individual protocols were created that included socio-demographic data, the Oral Health Impact Profile-20 (OHIP-20) questionnaire and Oral Satisfaction Scale (OSS). Descriptive and bivariate statistical analysis was carried out applying χ², Pearson, Kruskal-Wallis, and Student t tests, transferring data into SPSS-Windows® software from a Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet.
The OHIP-20 proved to be a valid instrument and provided reliable assessment of health-related quality of life among both the Spanish general population and edentulous patients. The control and study groups proved comparable, showing socio-demographic homogeneity. For patients with overdentures retained by means of the Locator® system, these restorations had significantly lower impact on quality of life (19 vs 33), both generally and for each individual questionnaire item, and much higher satisfaction with the state of their oral cavities (8.3 vs 5.3) than patients wearing dentures; both sets of data showed a direct linear relationship, so that as the level of impact on quality of life increased, perceived oral satisfaction worsened.
Patients rehabilitated with implant supported overdentures retained by the Locator® system, presented significantly lower levels of impact on their quality of life and significantly higher oral satisfaction than patients with conventional complete prostheses.
Oral health-related quality of life, OHIP-20, OSS, overdentures, dental implants, complete prostheses, Locator® system.