A high-throughput microbial profiling tool based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was developed to monitor the poultry gut microbiota in response to dietary manipulations. Gut microbial communities from the duodena, jejuna, ilea, and ceca of 48 birds fed either a barley control diet or barley diet supplemented with exogenous enzymes for degrading nonstarch polysaccharide were characterized by using multivariate statistical methods. Analysis of samples showed that gut microbial communities varied significantly among gut sections, except between the duodenum and jejunum. Significant diet-associated differences in gut microbial communities were detected within the ileum and cecum only. The dissimilarity in bacterial community composition between diets was 73 and 66% within the ileum and cecum, respectively. Operational taxonomic units, representing bacterial species or taxonomically related groups, contributing to diet-associated differences were identified. Several bacterial species contributed to differences between diet-related gut microbial community composition, with no individual bacterial species contributing more than 1 to 5% of the total. Using canonical analysis of principal coordinates biplots, we correlated differences in gut microbial community composition within the ileum and cecum to improved performance, as measured by apparent metabolizable energy. This is the first report that directly links differences in the composition of the gut microbial community with improved performance, which implies that the presence of specific beneficial and/or absence of specific detrimental bacterial species may contribute to the improved performance in these birds.
Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles.
A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet) for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P < 0.01). Additionally, the level of butyrate measured in these pectin-fed animal was more than double of the corresponding level in control animals (P < 0.01). Sequencing revealed that DGGE bands, which were suppressed in pectin-fed rats, represented Gram-negative anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa.
Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P < 0.05). Additionally, a more than four-fold increase in the amount of Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa), as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals.
Our findings show that consumption of apple pectin (7% in the diet) increases the population of butyrate- and β-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.
This study aimed at investigating the fecal microbiotas of children with celiac disease (CD) before (U-CD) and after (T-CD) they were fed a gluten-free diet and of healthy children (HC). Brothers or sisters of T-CD were enrolled as HC. Each group consisted of seven children. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis with V3 universal primers revealed a unique profile for each fecal sample. PCR-DGGE analysis with group- or genus-specific 16S rRNA gene primers showed that the Lactobacillus community of U-CD changed significantly, while the diversity of the Lactobacillus community of T-CD was quite comparable to that of HC. Compared to HC, the ratio of cultivable lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium to Bacteroides and enterobacteria was lower in T-CD and even lower in U-CD. The percentages of strains identified as lactobacilli differed as follows: HC (ca. 38%) > T-CD (ca. 17%) > U-CD (ca. 10%). Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus rossiae, and Lactobacillus pentosus were identified only in fecal samples from T-CD and HC. Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus gasseri were identified only in several fecal samples from HC. Compared to HC, the composition of Bifidobacterium species of T-CD varied, and it varied even more for U-CD. Forty-seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) belonging to different chemical classes were identified using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry-solid-phase microextraction analysis. The median concentrations varied markedly for HC, T-CD, and U-CD. Overall, the r2 values for VOC data for brothers and sisters were equal to or lower than those for unrelated HC and T-CD. This study shows the effect of CD pathology on the fecal microbiotas of children.
Several substances, including glutamine and propionic acid but in particular butyric acid, have been proposed to be important for colonic health. β-Glucans lead to the formation of comparatively high amounts of butyric acid, and germinated barley foodstuff obtained from brewer’s spent grain (BSG), containing high amounts of β-glucans and glutamine, has been reported to reduce the inflammatory response in the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. The present study examines how 3 barley products, whole grain barley, malt, and BSG, affect SCFA in the hindgut and serum of rats and whether the addition of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271 to each of these diets would have further effects. Amino acids in plasma and the cecal composition of the microbiota were also analyzed. The butyric acid concentration in the distal colon and serum was higher in the malt groups than in the other groups as was the serum concentration of propionic acid. The concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were higher in the cecum and serum of rats given L. rhamnosus than in those not given this strain. The proportion of plasma glutamine and the cecal number of bifidobacteria were lower in the malt groups than in the other groups. L. rhamnosus decreased the number of cecal bifidobacteria, whereas plasma glutamine was unaffected. We conclude that malt together with L. rhamnosus 271 had greater effects on propionic and butyric acid concentrations in rats than the other barley products. This is interesting when developing food with effects on colonic health.
Edible brown algae are used as major food material in Far East Asian countries, particularly in South Korea and Japan. They contain fermentable dietary fibers, alginic acid (uronic acid polymer) and laminaran (β-1,3-glucan), that are fermented into organic acids by intestinal bacteria. To clarify the effect of edible algae on the intestinal environment, the cecal microbiotas of rats fed diets containing no dietary fiber (control) or 2% (wt/wt) sodium alginate or laminaran for 2 weeks were analyzed using FLX amplicon pyrosequencing with bar-coded primers targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The most abundant phylum in all groups was Firmicutes. Specifically, Allobaculum was dominant in all diet groups. In addition, Bacteroides capillosus (37.1%) was abundant in the alginate group, while Clostridium ramosum (3.14%) and Parabacteroides distasonis (1.36%) were only detected in the laminaran group. Furthermore, rats fed alginate showed simplified microbiota phylotypes compared with others. With respect to cecal chemical compounds, laminaran increased cecal organic acid levels, particularly propionic acid. Alginate increased total cecal organic acids. Cecal putrefactive compounds, such as indole, H2S, and phenol, were decreased by both alginate and laminaran. These results indicate that edible brown algae can alter the intestinal environment, with fermentation by intestinal microbiota.
The effect of dietary fat source (soy oil or a mixture of lard and tallow) and dietary supplementation with antibiotics (a combination of avilamycin at 10 mg kg of feed−1 and salinomycin at 40 mg kg of feed−1) on the bacterial community in the ileum of broiler chickens at different ages (7, 14, 21, and 35 days) was studied using PCR with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and bacteriological culture. The bacterial origin of fragments in DGGE profiles was identified by sequencing. Bacterial enumeration results, together with PCR-DGGE profiles, showed that the composition of the microflora was age dependent and influenced by dietary fat source and antibiotic supplementation. An increased incidence of streptococci, enterobacteria, and Clostridium perfringens with age of the chickens was demonstrated. Lactobacilli and C. perfringens were the bacterial groups most strongly affected by the dietary treatments. Moreover, different strains (clonal variants of the alpha-toxin gene) of C. perfringens type A were detected in response to age, dietary fat source, and dietary supplementation with antibiotics.
The objective of this study was to evaluate health outcomes resulting from dietary supplementation of novel, low-digestible carbohydrates in the cecum and colon of Sprague-Dawley rats randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for 21 days: 5% cellulose (Control), Pectin, soluble fiber dextrin (SFD), or soluble corn fiber (SCF). Rats fed Pectin had a higher average daily food intake, but no differences in final body weights or rates of weight gain among treatments were observed. No differences were observed in total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) or branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) concentrations in the cecum and colon of rats fed either SFD or SCF. The SFD and SCF treatments increased cecal propionate and decreased butyrate concentrations compared to Control or Pectin. Pectin resulted in increased BCFA in the cecum and colon. Supplementation of SFD and SCF had no effect on cecal microbial populations compared to Control. Consumption of SFD and SCF increased total and empty cecal weight but not colon weight. Gut histomorphology was positively affected by SFD and SCF. Increased crypt depth, goblet cell numbers, and acidic mucin were observed in both the cecum and colon of rats supplemented with SFD, SCF, and Pectin. These novel, low-digestible carbohydrates appear to be beneficial in modulating indices of hindgut morphology when supplemented in the diet of the rat.
cecal fermentation; histomorphology; soluble fiber dextrin; soluble corn fiber
Human subjects consumed biscuits containing either galacto-oligosaccharides or fructo-oligosaccharides in a double-blinded, crossover study. The impact of supplementing the diet with three biscuits per day on the fecal microbiota was evaluated by selective culture of particular bacterial groups, measurement of β-galactosidase activity, and nucleic acid-based analytical methods (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [PCR-DGGE] and fluorescent in situ hybridization). The composition of the bifidobacterial populations was monitored at the level of species (PCR-DGGE) and strains (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA digests), and representative cultures were tested quantitatively for their ability to use galacto-oligosaccharides. Technical improvements to DGGE analysis of the microbiota were made by the use of an internal standard that allowed valid comparisons of fragment staining intensities to be made between profiles, the use of S1 nuclease digestion to remove single-stranded DNA to facilitate cloning of DNA sequences cut from gels, and the extraction of RNA to be used as the template in reverse transcription-PCR-DGGE. RNA-DGGE profiles were markedly different (Dice's similarity coefficient, 58.5%) from those generated by DNA-DGGE. Neither the sizes of the bacterial populations nor the DNA-DGGE profiles of the microbiota were altered by the consumption of the biscuits, but the RNA-DGGE profiles were altered by the detection or increased staining intensity of 16S rRNA gene sequences originating from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and/or Colinsella aerofaciens in the feces of 11 of 15 subjects. β-Galactosidase activity was elevated in the feces of some subjects as a result of biscuit consumption. Subjects differed in the ability of the bifidobacterial strains harbored in their feces to use galacto-oligosaccharides. Our observations suggest that a phylogenetic approach to analysis of the gut ecosystem may not always be optimal and that a more physiological (biochemical) method might be more informative.
Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients believed to beneficially affect host health by selectively stimulating the growth of the beneficial bacteria residing in the gut. Such beneficial bacteria have been reported to protect against pathogenic infections. However, contradicting results on prevention of Salmonella infections with prebiotics have been published. The aim of the present study was to examine whether S. Typhimurium SL1344 infection in mice could be prevented by administration of dietary carbohydrates with different structures and digestibility profiles. BALB/c mice were fed a diet containing 10% of either of the following carbohydrates: inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, xylo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligosaccharide, apple pectin, polydextrose or beta-glucan for three weeks prior to oral Salmonella challenge (107 CFU) and compared to mice fed a cornstarch-based control diet.
The mice fed with diets containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) or xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) had significantly higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) numbers of S. Typhimurium SL1344 in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes when compared to the mice fed with the cornstarch-based control diet. Significantly increased amounts (P < 0.01) of Salmonella were detected in ileal and fecal contents of mice fed with diets supplemented with apple pectin, however these mice did not show significantly higher numbers of S. Typhimyrium in liver, spleen and lymph nodes than animals from the control group (P < 0.20).
The acute-phase protein haptoglobin was a good marker for translocation of S. Typhimurium in mice. In accordance with the increased counts of Salmonella in the organs, serum concentrations of haptoglobin were significantly increased in the mice fed with FOS or XOS (P < 0.001). Caecum weight was increased in the mice fed with FOS (P < 0.01), XOS (P < 0.01), or polydextrose (P < 0.001), and caecal pH was reduced in the mice fed with polydextrose (P < 0.001). In vitro fermentation in monocultures revealed that S. Typhimurium SL1344 is capable of fermenting FOS, beta-glucan and GOS with a corresponding decline in pH.
Supplementing a cornstarch-based rodent diet with 10% FOS or XOS was found to increase the translocation of S. Typhimurium SL1344 to internal organs in mice, while 10% apple pectin was found to increase the numbers of S. Typhimurium in intestinal content and feces.
AIM: To analyze the microbiota shift in the distal esophagus of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet.
METHODS: Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into high-fat diet and normal control groups of 10 rats each. The composition of microbiota in the mucosa from the distal esophagus was analyzed based on selective culture. A variety of Lactobacillus species were identified by molecular biological techniques. Bacterial DNA from Lactobacillus colonies was extracted, and 16S rDNA was amplified by PCR using bacterial universal primers. The amplified 16S rDNA products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Every single band was purified from the gel and sent to be sequenced.
RESULTS: Based on mucosal bacterial culturing in the distal esophagus, Staphylococcus aureus was absent, and total anaerobes and Lactobacillus species were decreased significantly in the high-fat diet group compared with the normal control group (P < 0.01). Detailed DGGE analysis on the composition of Lactobacillus species in the distal esophagus revealed that Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri (L. gasseri) and Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) comprised the Lactobacillus species in the high-fat diet group, while the composition of Lactobacillus species in the normal control group consisted of L. gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii and L. reuteri.
CONCLUSION: High-fat diet led to a mucosal microflora shift in the distal esophagus in rats, especially the composition of Lactobacillus species.
Obesity; Lactobacillus; Sprague-Dawley rats; Distal esophagus; Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
Using 16S rRNA gene-based approaches, we analyzed the responses of ileal and colonic bacterial communities of weaning piglets to dietary addition of four fermentable carbohydrates (inulin, lactulose, wheat starch, and sugar beet pulp). An enriched diet and a control diet lacking these fermentable carbohydrates were fed to piglets for 4 days (n = 48), and 10 days (n = 48), and the lumen-associated microbiota were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial diversities in the ileal and colonic samples were measured by assessing the number of DGGE bands and the Shannon index of diversity. A higher number of DGGE bands in the colon (24.2 ± 5.5) than in the ileum (9.7 ± 4.2) was observed in all samples. In addition, significantly higher diversity, as measured by DGGE fingerprint analysis, was detected in the colonic microbial community of weaning piglets fed the fermentable-carbohydrate-enriched diet for 10 days than in the control. Selected samples from the ileal and colonic lumens were also investigated using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. This revealed a prevalence of Lactobacillus reuteri in the ileum and Lactobacillus amylovorus-like populations in the ileum and the colon in the piglets fed with fermentable carbohydrates. Newly developed oligonucleotide probes targeting these phylotypes allowed their rapid detection and quantification in the ileum and colon by FISH. The results indicate that addition of fermentable carbohydrates supports the growth of specific lactobacilli in the ilea and colons of weaning piglets.
To investigate the effects of administration of raffinose and encapsulated Bifidobacterium breve JCM 1192T cells on the rat cecal microbiota, in a preclinical synbiotic study groups of male WKAH/Hkm Slc rats were fed for 3 weeks with four different test diets: basal diet (group BD), basal diet supplemented with raffinose (group RAF), basal diet supplemented with encapsulated B. breve (group CB), and basal diet supplemented with both raffinose and encapsulated B. breve (group RCB). The bacterial populations in cecal samples were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). B. breve cells were detected only in the RCB group and accounted for about 6.3% of the total cells as determined by FISH analysis. B. breve was also detected only in the RCB group by T-RFLP analysis. This was in contrast to the CB group, in which no B. breve signals were detected by either FISH or T-RFLP. Increases in the sizes of the populations of Bifidobacterium animalis, a Bifidobacterium indigenous to the rat, were observed in the RAF and RCB groups. Principal-component analysis of T-RFLP results revealed significant alterations in the bacterial populations of rats in the RAF and RCB groups; the population in the CB group was similar to that in the control group (group BD). To the best of our knowledge, these results provide the first clear picture of the changes in the rat cecal microbiota in response to synbiotic administration.
Germinated barley foodstuff contains prebiotics which are reported to have anti-cancerous effects in colorectal cancer model, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Recent studies revealed that the role of microbiota was strongly related to the regulation of incidence and progression of colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the anti-neoplastic mechanism by prebiotics. Azoxymethane treated F344 rats were used as the sporadic cancerous model. After azoxymethane injection, either a control or germinated barley foodstuff diet was administered to the rats for another 5 weeks, and the number of abberant crypt foci, toll like receptor 4, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog, adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene and cyclooxygenase 2 mRNA expression of colonic mucosa and cecal short chain fatty acids were examined. The germinated barley food stuff significantly attenuated the number of abberant crypt focis and the expression of toll like receptor 4 and cyclooxygenase 2 mRNA, compared to the control group. In addition, the cecal butyrate production in the germinated barley foodstuff group was significantly higher than that in the control. In conclusion, this prebiotic treatment for colorectal cancer may be useful without causing the adverse effects seen in either anti-cancer drugs or anti-inflammatory drugs.
toll like receptor 4; cyclooxygenase 2; butyrate; prebiotics; microbiota
The ability to predictably engineer the composition of bowel microbial communities (microbiota) using dietary components is important because of the reported associations of altered microbiota composition with medical conditions. In a synecological study, weanling conventional Sprague-Dawley rats (21 days old) were fed a basal diet (BD) or a diet supplemented with resistant starch (RS) at 5%, 2.5%, or 1.25% for 28 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) profiles in the colonic digesta showed that rats fed RS had altered microbiota compositions due to blooms of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The altered microbiota was associated with changes in colonic short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, colonic-tissue gene expression (Gsta2 and Ela1), and host physiology (serum metabolite profiles and colonic goblet cell numbers). Comparisons between germ-free and conventional rats showed that transcriptional and serum metabolite differences were mediated by the microbiota and were not the direct result of diet composition. Altered transcriptomic and physiological responses may reflect the young host's attempts to maintain homeostasis as a consequence of exposure to a new collection of bacteria and their associated biochemistry.
The vaginal microbiota of healthy women consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and species dominated by the genus Lactobacillus. The activity of lactobacilli helps to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal microbiota. This role is particularly important during pregnancy because vaginal dismicrobism is one of the most important mechanisms for preterm birth and perinatal complications. In the present study, we characterized the impact of a dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3, a mixture of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus strains, on the vaginal microbiota and immunological profiles of healthy women during late pregnancy.
An association between the oral intake of the probiotic VSL#3 and changes in the composition of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was revealed by PCR-DGGE population profiling. Despite no significant changes were found in the amounts of the principal vaginal bacterial populations in women administered with VSL#3, qPCR results suggested a potential role of the probiotic product in counteracting the decrease of Bifidobacterium and the increase of Atopobium, that occurred in control women during late pregnancy. The modulation of the vaginal microbiota was associated with significant changes in some vaginal cytokines. In particular, the decrease of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 was observed only in control women but not in women supplemented with VSL#3. In addition, the probiotic consumption induced the decrease of the pro-inflammatory chemokine Eotaxin, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect on the vaginal immunity.
Dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3 during the last trimester of pregnancy was associated to a modulation of the vaginal microbiota and cytokine secretion, with potential implications in preventing preterm birth.
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with a prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on broiler performance, bacterial community structure, and phylogenetic populations of cecal contents. Bird performance data were collected, and cecal samples were extracted from randomly caught poults from each treatment group every 7 days from hatching to the age of 42 days. Weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency ratios did not differ significantly between groups. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) of the bacterial communities in birds receiving MOS-supplemented diets indicated that dietary supplementation with MOS at either of 2 levels significantly altered the bacterial community structure from that of the control group on all sample days. The phylogenetic identities of bacteria contained within the cecum were determined by constructing a 16S rRNA gene clone library. A total of 594 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the cecal contents were analyzed and compared for the three dietary treatments. The dominant bacteria of the cecum belonged to three phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria; of these, Firmicutes were the most dominant in all treatment groups. Statistical analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the compositions of the clone libraries from broilers receiving MOS-supplemented diets were, in most cases, significantly different from that of the control group. It can be concluded that in this trial MOS supplementation significantly altered the cecal bacterial community structure.
Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal diet. The dry powder of celery leaves, chicory leaves, and barley grains was separately added to the basal diet at 10% concentration or in combination of three plants at 15% for four weeks. Biochemical analyses of serum liver enzymes and blood lipids as well as histopathological examination of liver were performed. Feeding of diet supplemented with 10% of celery, 10% chicory, and 10% of barley lowered the elevated serum level of liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats. Feeding plant combination of celery, chicory, and barley at 15% concentration (5% from each) was more effective in decreasing the elevation of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) and blood lipids. The histopathological lesions seen in the livers of hypercholesterolemic rats were ameliorated by feeding this plant mixture. This study recommends that dietary intake of plant mixture of celery; chicory, and barley at 15% (5% of each) concentration can be beneficial to patients suffering from hypercholesterolemia and liver diseases.
Barley; biochemical analysis; celery; chicory; hypercholesterolemia
The impact of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) differing in their functional properties on intestinal bacterial community composition, prevalence of butyrate production pathway genes, and occurrence of Escherichia coli virulence factors was studied for eight ileum-cannulated growing pigs by use of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and quantitative PCR. A cornstarch- and casein-based diet was supplemented with low-viscosity, low-fermentability cellulose (CEL), with high-viscosity, low-fermentability carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), with low-viscosity, high-fermentability oat β-glucan (LG), and with high-viscosity, high-fermentability oat β-glucan (HG). Only minor effects of NSP fractions on the ileal bacterial community were observed, but NSP clearly changed the digestion in the small intestine. Compared to what was observed for CMC, more fermentable substrate was transferred into the large intestine with CEL, LG, and HG, resulting in higher levels of postileal dry-matter disappearance. Linear discriminant analysis of NSP and TRFLP profiles and 16S rRNA gene copy numbers for major bacterial groups revealed that CMC resulted in a distinctive bacterial community in comparison to the other NSP, which was characterized by higher gene copy numbers for total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas, Clostridium cluster XIVa, and Enterobacteriaceae and increased prevalences of E. coli virulence factors in feces. The numbers of butyryl-coenzyme A (CoA) CoA transferase gene copies were higher than those of butyrate kinase gene copies in feces, and these quantities were affected by NSP. The present results suggest that the NSP fractions clearly and distinctly affected the taxonomic composition and metabolic features of the fecal microbiota. However, the effects were more linked to the individual NSP and to their effect on nutrient flow into the large intestine than to their shared functional properties.
Epidemiology of celiac disease (CD) is increasing. CD mainly presents in early childhood with small intestinal villous atrophy and signs of malabsorption. Compared to healthy individuals, CD patients seemed to be characterized by higher numbers of Gram-negative bacteria and lower numbers Gram-positive bacteria.
This study aimed at investigating the microbiota and metabolome of 19 celiac disease children under gluten-free diet (treated celiac disease, T-CD) and 15 non-celiac children (HC). PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses by universal and group-specific primers were carried out in duodenal biopsies and faecal samples. Based on the number of PCR-DGGE bands, the diversity of Eubacteria was the higher in duodenal biopsies of T-CD than HC children. Bifidobacteria were only found in faecal samples. With a few exceptions, PCR-DGGE profiles of faecal samples for Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria differed between T-CD and HC. As shown by culture-dependent methods, the levels of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacteria were confirmed to be significantly higher (P = 0.028; P = 0.019; and P = 0.023, respectively) in fecal samples of HC than in T-CD children. On the contrary, cell counts (CFU/ml) of presumptive Bacteroides, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shighella and Klebsiella were significantly higher (P = 0.014) in T-CD compared to HC children. Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus plantarum were the species most diffusely identified. This latter species was also found in all duodenal biopsies of T-CD and HC children. Other bacterial species were identified only in T-CD or HC faecal samples. As shown by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis, the percentage of strains identified as lactobacilli significantly (P = 0.011) differed between T-CD (ca. 26.5%) and HC (ca. 34.6%) groups. The metabolome of T-CD and HC children was studied using faecal and urine samples which were analyzed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry-solid-phase microextraction and 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. As shown by Canonical Discriminant Analysis of Principal Coordinates, the levels of volatile organic compounds and free amino acids in faecal and/or urine samples were markedly affected by CD.
As shown by the parallel microbiology and metabolome approach, the gluten-free diet lasting at least two years did not completely restore the microbiota and, consequently, the metabolome of CD children. Some molecules (e.g., ethyl-acetate and octyl-acetate, some short chain fatty acids and free amino acids, and glutamine) seems to be metabolic signatures of CD.
Diets producing a high glycemic response result in exaggerated insulin secretion which induces hepatic lipogenesis, contributing to development of insulin resistance and fatty liver. Viscous dietary fibers blunt the postprandial rise in blood glucose, however their effect on type 2 diabetes and obesity are not entirely known. This study examined the effect of chronic consumption of the viscous, non-fermentable dietary fiber, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), on glucose control, insulin resistance and liver lipids in an obese diabetic rat model.
Three groups of Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats were fed diets containing either 5% non-viscous cellulose (control), low viscosity HPMC (LV-HPMC) or high viscosity HPMC (HV- HPMC) for six weeks. Zucker lean littermates consuming cellulose served as a negative control. Markers of glucose control, including oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin and urinary glucose, were measured as well as adiposity and the accumulation of liver lipids.
The HPMC diets increased the viscosity of the small intestinal contents and reduced the postprandial rise in blood glucose. The food efficiency ratio was greater with HPMC feeding compared to the obese control and urinary excretion of glucose and ketone bodies was reduced. The two HPMC groups had lower glycated hemoglobin and kidney weights and a reduced area under the curve during a glucose tolerance test, indicating improved glucose control. Epididymal fat pad weight as percent of body weight was reduced in the HV-HPMC group compared to the obese control group. The HV-HPMC group also had lower concentrations of liver lipid and cholesterol and reduced liver weight. However, HV-HPMC feeding did not affect hepatic gene expression of SREBP-1c or FAS. Muscle concentration of acylcarnitines, a lipid intermediate in fatty acid β-oxidation, was not different between the HPMC groups and obese control, suggesting no change in muscle fatty acid oxidation by HPMC.
Consumption of the viscous non-fermentable fiber HPMC decreased diabetic wasting, improved glucose control and reduced insulin resistance and fatty liver in a model of obesity with diabetes.
Acylcarnitines; Adiposity; Dietary fiber; Fatty liver; Insulin resistance; Viscosity
Diet is a major factor in maintaining a healthy human gastrointestinal tract, and this has triggered the development of functional foods containing a probiotic and/or prebiotic component intended to improve the host's health via modulation of the intestinal microbiota. In this study, a long-term placebo-controlled crossover feeding study in which each subject received several treatments was performed to monitor the effect of a prebiotic substrate (i.e., lactulose), a probiotic organism (i.e., Saccharomyces boulardii), and their synbiotic combination on the fecal microbiota of three groups of 10 healthy human subjects differing in prebiotic dose and/or intake of placebo versus synbiotic. For this purpose, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to detect possible changes in the overall bacterial composition using the universal V3 primer and to detect possible changes at the subpopulation level using group-specific primers targeting the Bacteroides fragilis subgroup, the genus Bifidobacterium, the Clostridium lituseburense group (cluster XI), and the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group (cluster XIVa). Although these populations remained fairly stable based on DGGE profiling, one pronounced change was observed in the universal fingerprint profiles after lactulose ingestion. Band position analysis and band sequencing revealed that a band appearing or intensifying following lactulose administration could be assigned to the species Bifidobacterium adolescentis. Subsequent analysis with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) indicated a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in total bifidobacteria in one of the three subject groups after lactulose administration, whereas a similar but nonsignificant trend was observed in the other two groups. Combined RT-PCR results from two subject groups indicated a borderline significant increase (P = 0.074) of B. adolescentis following lactulose intake. The probiotic yeast S. boulardii did not display any detectable universal changes in the DGGE profiles, nor did it influence the bifidobacterial levels. This study highlighted the capacity of an integrated approach consisting of DGGE analysis and RT-PCR to monitor and quantify pronounced changes in the fecal microbiota of healthy subjects upon functional food administration.
Limited knowledge of the structure and activities of the ruminal bacterial community prevents the understanding of the effect of population dynamics on functional bacterial groups and on host productivity. This study aimed to identify particular bacteria associated with host feed efficiency in steers with differing diets and residual feed intake (RFI) using culture-independent methods: PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. PCR-DGGE profiles were generated from the ruminal fluid of 55 steers fed a low-energy-density diet and then switched to a high-energy-density diet. Bacterial profile comparisons by multivariate statistical analysis showed a trend only for RFI-related clusters on the high-energy diet. When steers (n = 19) belonging to the same RFI group under both diets were used to identify specific bacterial phylotypes related to feed efficiency traits, correlations were detected between dry matter intake, average daily gain, and copy numbers of the 16S rRNA gene of Succinivibrio sp. in low-RFI (efficient) steers, whereas correlations between Robinsoniella sp. and RFI (P < 0.05) were observed for high-RFI (inefficient) animals. Eubacterium sp. differed significantly (P < 0.05) between RFI groups that were only on the high-energy diet. Our work provides a comprehensive framework to understand how particular bacterial phylotypes contribute to differences in feed efficiency and ultimately influence host productivity, which may either depend on or be independent from diet factors.
Five potentially probiotic canine fecal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus fermentum LAB8, Lactobacillus salivarius LAB9, Weissella confusa LAB10, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LAB11, and Lactobacillus mucosae LAB12, were fed to five permanently fistulated beagles for 7 days. The survival of the strains and their potential effects on the indigenous intestinal LAB microbiota were monitored for 17 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated that the five fed LAB strains survived in the upper gastrointestinal tract and modified the dominant preexisting indigenous jejunal LAB microbiota of the dogs. When the LAB supplementation was ceased, DGGE analysis of jejunal chyme showed that all the fed LAB strains were undetectable after 7 days. However, the diversity of the intestinal indigenous microbiota of the dogs, as characterized from jejunal chyme plated on Lactobacillus selective medium without acetic acid, was reduced and did not return to the original level during the study period. In all but one dog, an indigenous Lactobacillus acidophilus strain emerged as the dominant LAB strain. In conclusion, strains LAB8 to LAB12 have potential as probiotic strains for dogs as they survive in and dominate the jejunal LAB microbiota during feeding and have the ability to modify the intestinal microbiota.
A stable intestinal microbiota is important in maintaining human physiology and health. Although there have been a number of studies using in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine the impact of diet and xenobiotics on intestinal microbiota, there is no consensus for the best in vitro culture conditions for growth of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. To investigate the dynamics and activities of intestinal microbiota, it is important for the culture conditions to support the growth of a wide range of intestinal bacteria and maintain a complex microbial community representative of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we compared the bacterial community in three culture media: brain heart infusion broth and high- and low-carbohydrate medium with different growth supplements. The bacterial community was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Based on the molecular analysis, this study indicated that the 3% fecal inoculum in low-concentration carbohydrate medium with 1% autoclaved fecal supernatant provided enhanced growth conditions to conduct in vitro studies representative of the human intestinal microbiota.
The intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens and the microbiota in the litter have been well studied, but the interactions between these two microbiotas remain to be determined. Therefore, we examined their reciprocal effects by analyzing the intestinal microbiotas of broilers reared on fresh pine shavings versus reused litter, as well as the litter microbiota over a 6-week cycle. Composite ileal mucosal and cecal luminal samples from birds (n = 10) reared with both litter conditions (fresh versus reused) were collected at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days of age. Litter samples were also collected at days 7, 14, 21, and 42. The microbiotas were profiled and compared within sample types based on litter condition using PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The microbiotas were further analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from microbiota DNA extracted from both chick intestinal and litter samples collected at day 7. Results showed significant reciprocal effects between the microbiotas present in the litter and those in the intestines of broilers. Fresh litter had more environmental bacteria, while reused litter contained more bacteria of intestinal origin. Lactobacillus spp. dominated the ileal mucosal microbiota of fresh-litter chicks, while a group of bacteria yet to be classified within Clostridiales dominated in the ileal mucosal microbiota in the reused-litter chicks. The Litter condition (fresh versus reused) seemed to have a more profound impact on the ileal microbiota than on the cecal microbiota. The data suggest that the influence of fresh litter on ileal microbiota decreased as broilers grew, compared with temporal changes observed under reused-litter rearing conditions.