The postantibiotic subminimum inhibitory concentration effect (PA SME) may simulate in vivo drug exposure more accurately than the postantibiotic effect (PAE) since subinhibitory concentrations of drug persist between antibiotic dosings. In this study, we compared the PAEs and PA SMEs of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin for clinical isolates of fluoroquinolone-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. At two times the MIC, PAEs of levofloxacin were an average of 0.6 h longer than the PAEs obtained for ciprofloxacin for methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains. The PAEs of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin ranged from 1.8 to 3.1 and 1.1 to 2.4 h, respectively. Continued exposure of the methicillin-resistant strain to 1/16, 1/8, and 1/4 the MIC resulted in PA SMEs of 6.5, 15.3, and >22.3 h, respectively, for levofloxacin and 3.8, 8.0, and 12.3 h, respectively, for ciprofloxacin. For isolates of S. pneumoniae, at two times the MIC of both fluoroquinolones, the average PAEs of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were equivalent: 1.3 h for the penicillin-susceptible isolate and 0.6 h for the penicillin-resistant isolate. Continued exposure of the penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae strain to 1/16, 1/8, and 1/4 the MIC resulted in average PA SMEs of 1.0, 1.4, and 2.8 h, respectively, for levofloxacin and 1.8, 2.0, and 2.5 h, respectively, for ciprofloxacin. Continued exposure of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae to 1/16, 1/8, and 1/4 the MIC of the same fluoroquinolones resulted in average PA SMEs of 0.6, 1.1, and 2.9 h, respectively, for levofloxacin and 0.6, 1.1, and 1.5 h, respectively, for ciprofloxacin. The PA SMEs observed demonstrate the superior activity of levofloxacin against methicillin-susceptible or methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Although PAEs were similar for the penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains, the PA SME of levofloxacin at one-fourth the MIC was longer for penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae.