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1.  Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: involvement in control of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice. 
Infection and Immunity  1996;64(8):3429-3434.
Several cytokines play crucial roles in Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice, but the involvement of endogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is poorly documented. This report shows that T. cruzi infection of mice triggered an early and sharp increase in plasma GM-CSF during the ascending phase of parasitemia. The plasma GM-CSF concentration remained stable at the peak of parasitemia and subsequently increased in those mice that survived to the acute phase. GM-CSF level increased again sharply, while parasitemia was rapidly decreasing. Finally, GM-CSF was undetectable, soon after the disappearance of circulating parasites. Injection of T. cruzi-infected mice with neutralizing anti-GM-CSF monoclonal antibodies induced the early appearance of parasitemia and aggravated cumulative mortality. In contrast, recombinant mouse GM-CSF (rmGM-CSF) caused sharp decreases in both parasitemia and cumulative mortality in T. cruzi-infected mice. Peritoneal macrophages from rmGM-CSF-treated and infected or uninfected mice were less infected ex vivo than those from control mice. Taken together these data demonstrate the protective action of endogenous GM-CSF in T. cruzi infection. Neutralization of endogenous GM-CSF aggravates infection, while exogenous rmGM-CSF decreases both parasitemia and host mortality.
PMCID: PMC174243  PMID: 8757888
2.  Protective effect of recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in leukocytopenic mice. 
Infection and Immunity  1989;57(6):1792-1799.
The effects of recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in ICR mice were investigated. Mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CPA) and were then injected intraperitoneally with rmGM-CSF three times daily, beginning on the day after CPA treatment, for 7 days. The number of peripheral blood leukocytes in both CPA- and rmGM-CSF-treated mice and control CPA-treated mice reached a nadir on day 4, when P. aeruginosa was injected intraperitoneally. The administration of rmGM-CSF significantly increased the proportion of survivors among mice infected with a lethal dose of P. aeruginosa. This effect was further analyzed by monitoring sequential changes in leukocyte count and bacterial growth in various organs. The number of bacteria in the peritoneal cavities, peripheral blood samples, and livers of GM-CSF-treated mice decreased to an undetectable level after a transient increase, and the number was significantly lower than that in control mice. In GM-CSF-treated mice, the neutrophil levels in peripheral blood started to increase 5 days after CPA administration and were consistently higher than those in controls. Furthermore, the neutrophils in GM-CSF-treated mice were more mature morphologically. Thus, the prophylactic effect of rmGM-CSF against P. aeruginosa infection may result from a rapid recovery of myelopoiesis and a partial enhancement of mature neutrophil function.
PMCID: PMC313358  PMID: 2656523
3.  Effect of intraperitoneally administered recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) on the cytotoxic potential of murine peritoneal cells 
British Journal of Cancer  1999;79(1):89-94.
We studied the effect of recombinant murine granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor(rmGM-CSF) on the cytotoxic potential of murine peritoneal cells. Mice received rmGM-CSF intraperitoneally using different dosages and injection schemes. At different time points after the last injection, mice were sacrificed, peritoneal cells isolated and their tumour cytotoxicity was determined by a cytotoxicity assay using syngeneic [methyl-3H]thymidine-labelled colon carcinoma cells. Also, the cytotoxic response to a subsequent in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide was determined. Upon daily injection of 6000–54 000 U rmGM-CSF over a 6-day period, the number of peritoneal cells increased over ten fold with the highest rmGM-CSF dose. Increases in cell numbers was mainly due to increases in macrophage numbers. Upon injection of three doses of 3000 U rmGM-CSF per day for 3 consecutive days, the number of macrophages remained elevated for minimally 6 days. Although the peritoneal cells from rmGM-CSF-treated mice were not activated to a tumoricidal state, they could be activated to high levels of cytotoxicity with an additional in vitro stimulation of lipopolysaccharide. Resident cells isolated from control mice could be activated only to low levels of tumour cytotoxicity with lipopolysaccharide. Tumour cytotoxicity strongly correlated with nitric oxide secretion. When inhibiting nitric oxide synthase, tumour cell lysis decreased. Thus, the expanded peritoneal cell population induced by multiple injections of rmGM-CSF has a strong tumour cytotoxic potential and might provide a favourable condition for immunotherapeutic treatment of peritoneal neoplasms. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6690016
PMCID: PMC2362159  PMID: 10408698
granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor; peritoneal macrophages; murine; cytotoxicity
4.  Enhancement of experimental metastasis by tumor necrosis factor 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1993;177(5):1391-1398.
The influence of endogenous and exogenous tumor necrosis factor (TNF) on metastasis was investigated in an experimental fibrosarcoma metastasis model. A single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human (rh) TNF or recombinant mouse (rm) TNF into mice 5 h before intravenous inoculation of methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma cells (CFS1) induced a significant enhancement of the number of metastases in the lung. Dose responses of rmTNF and rhTNF demonstrated a stronger metastasis-augmenting effect by rmTNF compared with rhTNF. This effect was time dependent, as administration of rmTNF 5 h before or 1 h but not 24 h after tumor cell inoculation caused an increase of tumor cell colony formation on the lung surface, suggesting an influence of TNF on the vascular adhesion and diapedesis of tumor cells. Since tumor-bearing mice showed an enhanced ability to produce TNF after endotoxin injection compared to control mice, tumor-bearing mice were treated with anti-mTNF antibodies. Neutralization of endogenous tumor-induced TNF led to a significant decrease of the number of pulmonary metastases. Histological analysis of micrometastases in the lung on day 5 by silver staining of proteins associated with nucleolar organizer regions revealed more metastatic foci and augmented proliferative activity of the tumor cells after rmTNF pretreatment of mice. However, no direct effect of rmTNF on the proliferation rate of tumor cells was seen in vitro. These findings suggest that low doses of endogenous TNF or administered TNF during cytokine therapy might enhance the metastatic potential of circulating tumor cells.
PMCID: PMC2191015  PMID: 8478614
5.  Interleukin-3 induces antimicrobial activity against Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi and tumoricidal activity in human peripheral blood-derived macrophages. 
Infection and Immunity  1992;60(5):1984-1993.
The ability of interleukin-3 (IL-3) to induce antimicrobial and tumoricidal activity was evaluated. Macrophages infected with two intracellular protozoa, Leishmania amazonensis or Trypanosoma cruzi, were treated with cytokines. IL-3 induced a dose-dependent enhancement of microbistasis against leishmanias, and the activity of IL-3 (100 ng/ml) was comparable to that of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) (1,000 U/ml). In addition, IL-3 in combination with either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage CSF (M-CSF) or with IFN-gamma reduced infection and lowered the required dose. IL-3 similarly activated macrophages to inhibit intracellular replication of T. cruzi. Furthermore, IL-3 induced antibody-independent tumoricidal activity against melanoma cells that was dose dependent and comparable to that of lipopolysaccharide and GM-CSF. The mechanisms by which IL-3 induced antimicrobial activity may involve at least the augmentation of oxidative capacity. IL-3, at concentrations of 0.5 ng/ml or greater, led to a significantly increased oxidative burst which paralleled the inhibition of protozoan replication. The enhancement of oxidative capacity by IL-3 (5 ng/ml or higher) was comparable to that of IFN-gamma. The induction of tumoricidal activity was associated with the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which in this system may feed back to enhance the macrophage inhibition of leishmanias, as demonstrated by neutralization of IL-3 activation by anti-TNF-alpha antibody. Thus, peripheral blood macrophages remain responsive to IL-3, as demonstrated by enhanced antimicrobial and tumoricidal activity. IL-3 may have potential clinical applications because of these properties and its effect on myelopoiesis.
PMCID: PMC257105  PMID: 1314223
6.  Prophylactic Efficacy of TcVac2 against Trypanosoma cruzi in Mice 
Background
Chagas disease is a major health problem in Latin America, and an emerging infectious disease in the US. Previously, we have screened the Trypanosoma cruzi sequence database by a computational/bioinformatics approach, and identified antigens that exhibited the characteristics of vaccine candidates.
Methodology
We investigated the protective efficacy of a multi-component DNA-prime/protein-boost vaccine (TcVac2) constituted of the selected candidates and cytokine (IL-12 and GM-CSF) expression plasmids in a murine model. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with antigen-encoding plasmids plus cytokine adjuvants, followed by recombinant proteins; and two-weeks later, challenged with T. cruzi trypomastigotes. ELISA and flow cytometry were employed to measure humoral (antibody isotypes) and cellular (lymphocyte proliferation, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell phenotype and cytokines) responses. Myocardial pathology was evaluated by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining.
Principal Findings
TcVac2 induced a strong antigen-specific antibody response (IgG2b>IgG1) and a moderate level of lymphocyte proliferation in mice. Upon challenge infection, TcVac2-vaccinated mice expanded the IgG2b/IgG1 antibodies and elicited a substantial CD8+ T cell response associated with type 1 cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF-α) that resulted in control of acute parasite burden. During chronic phase, antibody response persisted, splenic activation of CD8+ T cells and IFN-γ/TNF-α cytokines subsided, and IL-4/IL-10 cytokines became dominant in vaccinated mice. The tissue parasitism, inflammation, and fibrosis in heart and skeletal muscle of TcVac2-vaccinated chronic mice were undetectable by histological techniques. In comparison, mice injected with vector or cytokines only responded to T. cruzi by elicitation of a mixed (type 1/type 2) antibody, T cell and cytokine response, and exhibited persistent parasite burden and immunopathology in the myocardium.
Conclusion
TcVac2-induced activation of type 1 antibody and lymphocyte responses provided resistance to acute T. cruzi infection, and consequently, prevented the evolution of chronic immunopathology associated with parasite persistence in chagasic hearts.
Author Summary
Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasitic protozoan, is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Chagas disease is the most common cause of congestive heart failure related deaths among young adults in the endemic areas of South and Central America and Mexico. Vaccine development against Chagas disease has been dramatically limited because of extensive debate on the mechanisms involved in this pathology. It is now accepted that the presence of parasites in cardiac tissue is necessary to initiate and maintain the inflammatory responses and that therapeutic treatments or vaccines aimed at eliminating T. cruzi would limit or prevent the progression of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. In the present study, we have tested the protective efficacy of a multi-component heterologous DNA-prime/protein-boost vaccine TcVac2 in a murine model of T. cruzi infection. Immunization of mice with TcVac2 induced potent antibody, CD8+ T cell and cytokine responses that provided protection from acute parasitemia and chronic parasite persistence and immunopathology in chagasic mice in comparison to unvaccinated mice.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000797
PMCID: PMC2919396  PMID: 20706586
7.  Dose-dependent embryotrophic effect of recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in culture medium for mouse preimplantation embryo 
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science  2014;57(5):373-378.
Objective
To evaluate the dose effect of recombinant mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in culture medium on the development of in vitro fertilized mouse embryos.
Methods
Mature oocytes were retrieved from superovulated female BDF1 mice and inseminated by sperm from male BDF1 mice. On day 1, two-cell stage embryos were divided and cultured until day 5 in the embryo maintenance medium supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 5, or 10 ng/mL of rmGM-CSF or supplemented with 0, 5, 10, or 20 ng/mL of BDNF. Blastocyst formation rate and their cell numbers were assessed.
Results
The blastocyst formation rate and the total cell count in blastocyst was similar in all the rmGM-CSF treatment groups when compared with the control. However, the blastocyst formation rate and the total cell count was significantly higher in the group supplemented with 10 ng/mL of BDNF compared with the control (63.9%, 45.8±11.5 vs. 52.3%, 38.0±6.8; P<0.05, respectively).
Conclusion
Supplementation of 10 ng/mL of BDNF enhanced the developmental potential of mouse preimplantation embryos, but supplementation of rmGM-CSF did not.
doi:10.5468/ogs.2014.57.5.373
PMCID: PMC4175597  PMID: 25264527
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; Culture medium; Embryotrophic effects; Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
8.  Recombinant granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor activates macrophages to inhibit Trypanosoma cruzi and release hydrogen peroxide. Comparison with interferon gamma 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1987;166(6):1734-1746.
Recombinant granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factors (rGM-CSF) of mouse and human origins activated macrophages of the homologous species to inhibit the replication of the protozoan parasite T. cruzi. Activation could be induced with 10-100 ng/ml of rMu-GM-CSF, whether it was added before or after uptake of the parasite, in either adherent or suspension cultures. However, the degree of inhibition of parasite replication after exposure to rMu-GM-CSF was not as great as after treatment with rMu-IFN-gamma, and much more rMu-GM-CSF than rMu-IFN- gamma was required to achieve an equivalent antimicrobial effect. These results were mirrored by effects of the cytokines on enhancement of H2O2-releasing capacity in resident mouse peritoneal macrophages. In the latter tests, rMu-IFN-gamma and rHu-TNF-alpha afforded a 44-51-fold enhancement over the untreated control, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) for rMu-IFN-gamma of approximately 0.05 ng/ml. Using rMu-GM-CSF or rM-CSF, enhancement of H2O2-releasing capacity was 14-15-fold over control, with EC50s of 1 and 14 ng/ml, respectively. However, peak enhancement of macrophage H2O2-releasing capacity was seen at least 24 h earlier with rMu-GM-CSF or rHu-M-CSF than with r-Mu- IFN-gamma or rHu-TNF-alpha. Thus, rMu-GM-CSF and rHu-GM-CSF displayed clear-cut macrophage-activating activity in vitro, but rMu-GM-CSF was less potent and less effective than rMu-IFN-gamma in the tests used.
PMCID: PMC2188783  PMID: 3119762
9.  Trypanosoma cruzi Infects Human Dendritic Cells and Prevents Their Maturation: Inhibition of Cytokines, HLA-DR, And Costimulatory Molecules 
Infection and Immunity  1999;67(8):4033-4040.
Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasitic protozoan, is the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease. Despite the many immune system disorders recognized in this infection and the crucial role played by dendritic cells (DC) in acquired immune responses, it was not known whether these cells could be infected by T. cruzi trypomastigotes and the consequences of such an infection on their immune functions. We now provide evidence that human monocyte-derived DC can be infected by T. cruzi and can support its intracellular multiplication. Interestingly, this infection has functional consequences on immature DC and on their maturation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). First, after T. cruzi infection, the basal synthesis of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was impaired. Furthermore, the process of maturation of DC induced by LPS was drastically affected by T. cruzi infection. Indeed, secretion of cytokines such as IL-12, TNF-α, and IL-6, which are released normally at high levels by LPS-activated DC, as well as the up-regulation of HLA-DR and CD40 molecules, was significantly reduced after this infection. The same effects could be induced by T. cruzi-conditioned medium, indicating that at least these inhibitory effects were mediated by soluble factors released by T. cruzi. Taken together, these results provide new insights into a novel efficient mechanism, directly involving the alteration of DC function, which might be used by T. cruzi to escape the host immune responses in Chagas’ disease and thus might favor persistent infection.
PMCID: PMC96695  PMID: 10417171
10.  Roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, platelet-activating factor, and arachidonic acid metabolites in interleukin-1-induced resistance to infection in neutropenic mice. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(5):2065-2070.
Treatment with a single low dose (80 to 800 ng) of interleukin-1 (IL-1) 24 h before a lethal bacterial challenge in granulocytopenic and in normal mice enhances nonspecific resistance. The mechanism behind this protection has only partially been elucidated. Since IL-1 induces production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet-activating factor (PAF), and arachidonic acid metabolites, we investigated the potential role of these substances in IL-1-induced protection. Low doses of murine TNF-alpha but not of human TNF-alpha enhanced survival, suggesting an effect via the type II TNF receptor rather than the type I TNF receptor, which has little species specificity. In line with this TNF-alpha-induced protection from infection, pretreatment with a low dose of a rat anti-murine TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody tended to inhibit IL-1-induced protection, suggesting a role of TNF-alpha as a mediator of IL-1-induced enhanced resistance to infection. Pretreatment with higher doses of anti-TNF-alpha, however, showed a dose-related protective effect per se, which could be further enhanced by a suboptimal dose of IL-1. A combination of optimal doses of anti-TNF-alpha and IL-1 produced an increase in survival similar to that produced by separate pretreatments. This lack of further enhancement of survival by combined optimal pretreatments suggests a similar mechanism of protection, most likely attenuation of deleterious effects of overproduced proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha during lethal infection. Pretreatment with different doses of GM-CSF before a lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge in neutropenic mice did not enhance survival. Different doses of WEB 2170, a selective PAF receptor antagonist, of MK-886, a selective inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis, or of several cyclooxygenase inhibitors did not reduce the protective effect of IL-1 pretreatment. We conclude that IL-1-induced nonspecific resistance is partially mediated by induction of TNF-alpha and not by GM-CSF, PAF, and arachidonic acid metabolites. The mechanism of action of IL-1 seems to be similar to that of anti-TNF-alpha.
PMCID: PMC186467  PMID: 8168971
11.  Tumor necrosis factor alpha mediates resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice by inducing nitric oxide production in infected gamma interferon-activated macrophages. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(12):4862-4867.
Cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi and its intracellular replication are essential for continuation of the parasite life cycle and for production of Chagas' disease. T. cruzi is able to replicate in nucleated cells and can be killed by activated macrophages. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) is one of the major stimuli for the activation of macrophages and has been shown to be a key activation factor for the killing of intracellular parasites through a mechanism dependent upon nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. We show that although the addition of exogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) does not potentiate the trypanocidal activity of IFN-gamma in vitro, treatment of resistant C57BI/6 mice with an anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody increased parasitemia and mortality. In addition, the anti-TNF-alpha-treated animals had decreased NO production, both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting an important role for TNF-alpha in controlling infection. In order to better understand the role of TNF-alpha in the macrophage-mediating killing of parasites, cultures of T. cruzi-infected macrophages were treated with an anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody. IFN-gamma-activated macrophages failed to kill intracellular parasites following treatment with 100 micrograms of anti-TNF-alpha. In these cultures, the number of parasites released at various time points after infection was significantly increased while NO production was significantly reduced. We conclude that IFN-gamma-activated macrophages produce TNF-alpha after infection by T. cruzi and suggest that this cytokine plays a role in amplifying NO production and parasite killing.
PMCID: PMC173696  PMID: 7591147
12.  Effects of granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors in a neutropenic murine model of trichosporonosis. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(8):3422-3429.
We produced disseminated trichosporonosis in a neutropenic murine model with Trichosporon asahii, which was identified by DNA relatedness analysis. We then assessed the efficacy of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (30 to 100 microg/kg of body weight per day) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (0.8 to 2 microg/kg x day). The administration of G-CSF either before or after infection improved the survival rate from less than 25% up to 100% (P < 0.05). The effects of G-CSF on organ clearance and histological examinations were most remarkable in the lungs. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of neutropenic and G-CSF-pretreated mice were 60 +/- 6 ng/ml and 18 +/- 6 pg/ml, respectively, at 24 h after infection. Immunohistologically, alveolar macrophages proved to be the main source of TNF-alpha in BALF. GM-CSF increased neutrophil counts less significantly than did G-CSF and increased the lethality (P < 0.05) with a high level of TNF-alpha in BALF. Expecting to inhibit TNF-alpha, we administered anti-TNF-alpha intraperitoneally at the dose completely inhibiting TNF-alpha in plasma (2 x 10(4) U), but the TNF-alpha level in BALF and the lethality increased. Though the number of neutrophils at the early stage of infection appeared to be the most critical, the results suggest that other host defense mechanisms, such as TNF-alpha overproduction in the lungs, have an important role in the prognosis of trichosporonosis.
PMCID: PMC175484  PMID: 9234807
13.  Opposing effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha and leukemia inhibitory factor in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated myelopoiesis. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(2):418-422.
Three myelopoietically active, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monokines, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), were tested for effect in an in vitro model for LPS-induced inflammatory murine monocytopoiesis. Neither cytokine stimulated clonal proliferation of marrow-derived progenitors; however, both IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha enhanced macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent colony formation. The additional progenitors stimulated by IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha to form colonies in response to M-CSF were equivalent to the precommitment, transitional progenitors stimulated by M-CSF and bacterial LPS. In addition, the additional colonies elicited by IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha were not additive in cultures containing both M-CSF and LPS, indicating these colonies arose from the same LPS-responsive, two-signal-dependent transitional progenitors. Leukemia inhibitory factor did not influence M-CSF-stimulated colony formation; however, LIF effected a dose-dependent inhibition of colony formation by transitional progenitors responding to combinations of M-CSF and LPS, IL-1 alpha, TNF-alpha, or an additional transitional cell costimulant, substance P. Neutralizing anti-murine TNF-alpha antibodies abrogated transitional cell colony formation stimulated by combinations of M-CSF and TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, LPS, or substance P but had no effect on colony formation stimulated solely by M-CSF. The results indicate that TNF-alpha may be an important positive stimulus for commitment of progenitors to the mononuclear phagocyte lineage and that TNF-alpha may be the endogenous regulator of the costimulatory effects of LPS, IL-1, and substance P. In addition, the results indicate that LIF may play an opposing negative regulatory role acting to inhibit LPS and TNF-alpha stimulation of the transitional progenitors.
PMCID: PMC302745  PMID: 7678584
14.  Mouse Macrophage Galactose-type Lectin (mMGL) is Critical for Host Resistance against Trypanosoma cruzi Infection 
The C-type lectin receptor mMGL is expressed exclusively by myeloid antigen presenting cells (APC) such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (Mφ), and it mediates binding to glycoproteins carrying terminal galactose and α- or β-N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) residues. Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) expresses large amounts of mucin (TcMUC)-like glycoproteins. Here, we show by lectin-blot that galactose moieties are also expressed on the surface of T. cruzi. Male mMGL knockout (-/-) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were infected intraperitoneally with 104 T. cruzi trypomastigotes (Queretaro strain). Following T. cruzi infection, mMGL-/- mice developed higher parasitemia and higher mortality rates compared with WT mice. Although hearts from T. cruzi-infected WT mice presented few amastigote nests, mMGL-/- mice displayed higher numbers of amastigote nests. Compared with WT, Mφ from mMGL-/- mice had low production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in response to soluble T. cruzi antigens (TcAg). Interestingly, upon in vitro T. cruzi infection, mMGL-/- Mφ expressed lower levels of MHC-II and TLR-4 and harbored higher numbers of parasites, even when mMGL-/- Mφ were previously primed with IFN-γ or LPS/IFN-γ. These data suggest that mMGL plays an important role during T. cruzi infection, is required for optimal Mφ activation, and may synergize with TLR-4-induced pathways to produce TNF-α, IL-1β and NO during the early phase of infection.
doi:10.7150/ijbs.9214
PMCID: PMC4147224  PMID: 25170304
mMGL; Trypanosoma cruzi; Proinflammatory cytokines; C-Type lectin receptor; Macrophages receptors.
15.  Genetic Immunization Elicits Antigen-Specific Protective Immune Responses and Decreases Disease Severity in Trypanosoma cruzi Infection  
Infection and Immunity  2002;70(10):5547-5555.
Immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi requires elicitation of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to extracellular trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. In this study, the effectiveness of the T. cruzi trans-sialidase family (ts) genes ASP-1, ASP-2, and TSA-1 as genetic vaccines was assessed. Immunization of mice with plasmids encoding ASP-1, ASP-2, or TSA-1 elicited poor antigen-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity and T. cruzi-specific antibody responses. Codelivery of interleukin-12 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor plasmids with antigen-encoding plasmids resulted in a substantial increase in CTL activity and antibody production and in increased resistance to T. cruzi infection. In pooled results from two to four experiments, 30 to 60% of mice immunized with antigen-encoding plasmids and 60 to 80% of mice immunized with antigen-encoding plasmids plus cytokine adjuvants survived a lethal challenge with T. cruzi. In comparison, 90% of control mice injected with empty plasmid DNA died during the acute phase of infection. However, the pool of three ts genes provided no greater protection than the most effective single gene (ASP-2) either with or without coadministration of cytokine plasmids. Importantly, the extent of tissue parasitism, inflammation, and associated tissue damage in skeletal muscles during the chronic phase of T. cruzi infection in mice immunized with antigen-encoding plasmids plus cytokine adjuvants was remarkably reduced compared to mice immunized with only cytokine adjuvants or empty plasmid DNA. These results identify new vaccine candidates and establish some of the methodologies that might be needed to develop effective vaccine-mediated control of T. cruzi infection. In addition, this work provides the first evidence that prophylactic genetic immunization can prevent the development of Chagas’ disease.
doi:10.1128/IAI.70.10.5547-5555.2002
PMCID: PMC128309  PMID: 12228281
16.  Cytokine mRNA in the central nervous system of SCID mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii: importance of T-cell-independent regulation of resistance to T. gondii. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(10):4038-4044.
Levels of cytokine mRNA were studied in the central nervous system (CNS) of SCID mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii. This infection led to 100% mortality by day 23 postinfection. Inflammation was observed in the lungs on day 7 and in the heart, liver, and kidneys on days 14 and 18 of infection. In the CNS, necrotic, acellular lesions that contained numerous parasites, accompanied by a localized astrocyte activation, were evident on day 14. Polymerase chain reaction-assisted amplification of RNA revealed that, although transcripts for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and IL-1 beta were present in the brains of uninfected mice, increased levels of these transcripts were detected on day 7 of infection. Transcripts for macrophage inflammatory protein 1 and transforming growth factor beta were also detected in brains of infected mice at this time point. On days 14 and 18, levels of these transcripts had increased and transcripts for IL-6, IL-10, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were also detected. Transcripts for IL-2 or IL-4 were not detected at any of the time points. Detection of locally produced cytokine transcripts may reflect involvement of the cytokines in the immunopathogenesis of this infection or involvement in mediating antitoxoplasma activity. To assess the possible role of endogenous IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-6, and GM-CSF, cytokine-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were administered to infected SCID mice. Neutralization of IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha led to earlier mortality than that in controls. In contrast, treatment with antibody to IL-10 and IL-6 increased survival time. Treatment with anti-GM-CSF did not alter the time to death. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma are both involved in T-cell-independent mechanisms of resistance to T. gondii in SCID mice and that IL-10 and IL-6 may downregulate the immune response to this pathogen.
Images
PMCID: PMC281121  PMID: 8406791
17.  Response to stimulation with recombinant cytokines and synthesis of cytokines by murine intestinal macrophages infected with the Mycobacterium avium complex. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(2):528-533.
Current evidence suggests that the gut is the chief portal of entry for organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in AIDS patients. Bacterial invasion of intestinal mucosa presumably occurs through epithelial cells, and M cells in the Peyer's patches, where the bacteria have contact with immunocompetent cells such as macrophages and T and B lymphocytes. As mucosal macrophages are probably the first line of defense against MAC, we examined their ability to inhibit intracellular growth of MAC when properly stimulated. Mouse intestinal macrophages were purified, infected with MAC 101, serovar 1, and MAC 86-2686, serovar 16, and subsequently stimulated with recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Viable intracellular bacteria were quantitated at 24 h after infection and again after 4 days of infection. Stimulation with TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and GM-CSF, but not M-CSF, was associated with mycobacteriostatic and/or mycobactericidal activity in macrophages. Treatment with 10(3) U of TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, and IFN-gamma per ml at 24 h prior to infection with MAC resulted in a significant enhancement in killing of MAC at 4 days after infection, compared with that observed for macrophages exposed to cytokines after infection. When stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or live MAC, intestinal macrophages had produced significantly less TNF-alpha and transforming growth factor beta than had splenic and peritoneal macrophages, although the levels of production of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 among the three populations of cells were similar. Intestinal macrophages can be stimulated with cytokines to inhibit the intracellular growth of MAC, but they have differentiated abilities to produce cytokines which can modulate the anti-MAC immune response.
PMCID: PMC173027  PMID: 7822018
18.  Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-Deficient Mice Have Impaired Resistance to Blood-Stage Malaria 
Infection and Immunity  2001;69(1):129-136.
The contribution of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a hematopoietic and immunoregulatory cytokine, to resistance to blood-stage malaria was investigated by infecting GM-CSF-deficient (knockout [KO]) mice with Plasmodium chabaudi AS. KO mice were more susceptible to infection than wild-type (WT) mice, as evidenced by higher peak parasitemia, recurrent recrudescent parasitemia, and high mortality. P. chabaudi AS-infected KO mice had impaired splenomegaly and lower leukocytosis but equivalent levels of anemia compared to infected WT mice. Both bone marrow and splenic erythropoiesis were normal in infected KO mice. However, granulocyte-macrophage colony formation was significantly decreased in these tissues of uninfected and infected KO mice, and the numbers of macrophages in the spleen and peritoneal cavity were significantly lower than in infected WT mice. Serum levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) were found to be significantly higher in uninfected KO mice, and the level of this cytokine was not increased during infection. In contrast, IFN-γ levels were significantly above normal levels in infected WT mice. During infection, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were significantly increased in KO mice and were significantly higher than TNF-α levels in infected WT mice. Our results indicate that GM-CSF contributes to resistance to P. chabaudi AS infection and that it is involved in the development of splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and granulocyte-macrophage hematopoiesis. GM-CSF may also regulate IFN-γ and TNF-α production and activity in response to infection. The abnormal responses seen in infected KO mice may be due to the lack of GM-CSF during development, to the lack of GM-CSF in the infected mature mice, or to both.
doi:10.1128/IAI.69.1.129-136.2001
PMCID: PMC97864  PMID: 11119498
19.  CD40 Ligation Prevents Trypanosoma cruzi Infection through Interleukin-12 Upregulation 
Infection and Immunity  1999;67(4):1929-1934.
Because of the critical role of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) pathway in the induction and effector phases of immune responses, we investigated the effects of CD40 ligation on the control of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. First, we observed that supernatants of murine spleen cells stimulated by CD40L-transfected 3T3 fibroblasts (3T3-CD40L transfectants) prevent the infection of mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) by T. cruzi. This phenomenon depends on de novo production of nitric oxide (NO) as it is prevented by the addition of N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a NO synthase inhibitor. NO production requires interleukin (IL)-12-mediated gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) synthesis as demonstrated by inhibition experiments using neutralizing anti-IL-12, anti-IFN-γ, and anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibodies (MAb). We found that an activating anti-CD40 MAb also directly stimulates IFN-γ-activated MPM to produce NO and thereby to control T. cruzi infection. To determine the in vivo relevance of these in vitro findings, mice were injected with 3T3-CD40L transfectants or 3T3 control fibroblasts at the time of T. cruzi inoculation. We observed that in vivo CD40 ligation dramatically reduced both parasitemia and the mortality rate of T. cruzi-infected mice. A reduced parasitemia was still observed when the injection of 3T3-CD40L transfectants was delayed 8 days postinfection. It was abolished by injection of anti-IL-12 MAb. Taken together, these data establish that CD40 ligation facilitates the control of T. cruzi infection through a cascade involving IL-12, IFN-γ, and NO.
PMCID: PMC96548  PMID: 10085038
20.  Serum-Mediated Activation of Macrophages Reflects TcVac2 Vaccine Efficacy against Chagas Disease 
Infection and Immunity  2014;82(4):1382-1389.
Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America and an emerging infectious disease in the United States. No effective treatments are available. The TcG1, TcG2, and TcG4 antigens are highly conserved in clinically relevant Trypanosoma cruzi isolates and are recognized by B and T cells in infected hosts. Delivery of these antigens as a DNA prime/protein boost vaccine (TcVac2) elicited lytic antibodies and type 1 CD8+ T cells that expanded upon challenge infection and provided >90% control of parasite burden and myocarditis in chagasic mice. Here we determined if peripheral blood can be utilized to capture the TcVac2-induced protection from Chagas disease. We evaluated the serum levels of T. cruzi kinetoplast DNA (TckDNA), T. cruzi 18S ribosomal DNA (Tc18SrDNA), and murine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as indicators of parasite persistence and tissue damage and monitored the effect of sera on macrophage phenotype. Circulating TckDNA/Tc18SrDNA and mtDNA were decreased by >3- to 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, in vaccinated infected mice compared to nonvaccinated infected mice. Macrophages incubated with sera from vaccinated infected mice exhibited M2 surface markers (CD16, CD32, CD200, and CD206), moderate proliferation, a low oxidative/nitrosative burst, and a regulatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine response (interleukin-4 [IL-4] plus IL-10 > tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]). In comparison, macrophages incubated with sera from nonvaccinated infected mice exhibited M1 surface markers, vigorous proliferation, a substantial oxidative/nitrosative burst, and a proinflammatory cytokine response (TNF-α ≫ IL-4 plus IL-10). Cardiac infiltration of macrophages and TNF-α and oxidant levels were significantly reduced in TcVac2-immunized chagasic mice. We conclude that circulating TcDNA and mtDNA levels and macrophage phenotype mediated by serum constituents reflect in vivo levels of parasite persistence, tissue damage, and inflammatory/anti-inflammatory state and have potential utility in evaluating disease severity and efficacy of vaccines and drug therapies.
doi:10.1128/IAI.01186-13
PMCID: PMC3993374  PMID: 24421046
21.  Clinical Features and Serum Biomarkers in HIV Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome after Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Prospective Cohort Study 
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(12):e1000384.
David Boulware and colleagues investigate clinical features in a prospective cohort with AIDS and recent cryptococcal meningitis after initiation of antiretroviral therapy to identify biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of CM-IRIS (cryptococcal meninigitis-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome).
Background
Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves survival in persons with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) and AIDS, ART frequently elicits HIV immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), an exaggerated and frequently deadly inflammatory reaction that complicates recovery from immunodeficiency. The pathogenesis of IRIS is poorly understood and prediction of IRIS is not possible.
Methods and Findings
We prospectively followed 101 ART-naïve Ugandans with AIDS and recent CM for one year after initiating ART, and used Luminex multiplex assays to compare serum cytokine levels in participants who did or did not develop IRIS. IRIS occurred in 45% of participants with recent CM on ART, including 30% with central nervous system (CNS) manifestations. The median time to CM-IRIS was 8.8 wk on ART. Overall mortality on ART was 36% with IRIS and 21% without IRIS. CM-IRIS was independently associated with death (HR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–5.1, p = 0.04). Patients experiencing subsequent CM-IRIS had 4-fold higher median serum cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) levels pre-ART (p = 0.006). Higher pre-ART levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17 as well as lower tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) predicted future IRIS in multivariate analyses (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.82). An algorithm based on seven pre-ART serum biomarkers was a robust tool for stratifying high (83%), moderate (48%), and low risk (23%) for IRIS in the cohort. After ART was initiated, increasing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, IL-6, IL-7, IL-13, G-CSF, or IL-1RA were associated with increasing hazard of IRIS by time-to-event analysis (each p≤0.001). At the time of IRIS onset, multiple proinflammatory cytokine responses were present, including CRP and IL-6. Mortality was predicted by pre-ART increasing IL-17, decreasing GM-CSF, and CRP level >32 mg/l (highest quartile). Pre-ART CRP level >32 mg/l alone was associated with future death (OR = 8.3, 95% CI 2.7–25.6, p<0.001).
Conclusions
Pre-ART increases in Th17 and Th2 responses (e.g., IL-17, IL-4) and lack of proinflammatory cytokine responses (e.g., TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF, VEGF) predispose individuals to subsequent IRIS, perhaps as biomarkers of immune dysfunction and poor initial clearance of CRAG. Although requiring validation, these biomarkers might be an objective tool to stratify the risk of CM-IRIS and death, and could be used clinically to guide when to start ART or use prophylactic interventions.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Since 1981, AIDS has killed more than 25 million people and about 33 million people are now infected with HIV, which causes AIDS. HIV, which is most often transmitted through unprotected sex with an HIV-infected partner, infects and kills immune system cells. Eventually, the immune system becomes so weak that unusual infections begin to occur. These “opportunistic” infections are infections that take advantage of the opportunity offered by a weakened immune system. One common and deadly opportunistic infection in people affected by AIDS is cryptococcal meningitis (CM), an infection around the brain that is caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. About one million cases of CM occur every year. CM can be treated with a drug called amphotericin but usually recurs unless another drug called fluconazole is taken daily thereafter. HIV therapy is lifesaving by suppressing the HIV virus and allowing immune system recovery. This immune recovery also helps to prevent the recurrence of CM.
Why Was This Study Done?
Unfortunately, HIV therapy can also elicit a serious condition called immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in people with CM and AIDS. IRIS is an exaggerated inflammatory immune response that kills up to one-third of affected people. Inflammation, which is characterized by swelling and redness, is the body's first defense against infection, but uncontrolled inflammation causes widespread tissue damage. Experts think that CM-IRIS may be the result of an unbalanced recovery of the immune system leading to an inappropriate immune response to persisting C. neoformans fragments and proteins that are slowly cleared from the body over months. Unfortunately, it is impossible to predict which individuals with CM and AIDS will develop IRIS when they are given HIV therapy. In this prospective study, the researchers investigated clinical features and cytokine profiles in a group of Ugandans with AIDS and recent CM for one year after starting HIV therapy to identify biomarkers that could be used to predict and diagnose CM-IRIS. Cytokines are proteins secreted by immune system cells that regulate the immune response; biomarkers are proteins found in the blood that indicate specific diseases.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers enrolled 101 Ugandans with AIDS and recent CM who had not previously received HIV therapy. They compared cytokine patterns in individuals who did and did not subsequently develop IRIS after starting HIV therapy. Overall, 45% of the patients developed IRIS. Deaths occurred in 36% of the patients who developed IRIS and in 21% of those who did not develop IRIS. Patients who developed CM-IRIS after starting HIV therapy had 4-fold higher baseline concentrations of cryptococcal antigen in their blood than patients who did not develop CM-IRIS. Prior to starting HIV therapy, higher levels of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-17 and lower levels of four cytokines—TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and VEGF—predicted IRIS development, and an algorithm (formula) based on the baseline levels of seven serum biomarkers was able to group the patients into high, moderate, and low risk of IRIS. After starting HIV therapy, increasing levels of the inflammatory proteins C-reactive protein and D-dimer, and of several cytokines, were associated with an increased risk of IRIS. At the time of IRIS onset, the levels of many proinflammatory cytokine increased. Biomarkers also predicted death after starting HIV therapy with increasing levels of IL-17, decreasing levels of GM-CSF, and a C-reactive protein level of more than 32 mg/l (four times higher than normal) predicted death within one year.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings support the hypothesis that some AIDS patients who have a very damaged immune system have a very poor initial immune response and poor clearance of cryptococcus, which predisposes them to IRIS. The findings also identify three distinct phases of IRIS development. Before HIV therapy, a very damaged immune system with a lack of inflammatory responses to infection or inappropriate responses leads to ineffective clearance of the organism and its antigens. After HIV therapy is started, the presence of copious antigens promotes proinflammatory signaling to the immune system. As the immune system recovers proinflammatory immune cells are promoted. Finally, at the time of IRIS, a generalized “cytokine storm” occurs, which is potentially fatal when this inflammation occurs in the brain. The biomarkers identified here as indicators of a predisposition to IRIS need to be validated in more patients in more countries before they can be used as a clinical tool for predicting the risk of IRIS. If they are validated, they could help clinicians decide when to start HIV therapy in patients with AIDS and recent CM, and could guide the use of therapies that could help prevent the abnormal inflammatory responses.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000384.
The US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases provides information on HIV infection and AIDS
HIV InSite has information on all aspects of HIV/AIDS, including Knowledge Base Chapters on cryptococcosis and HIV and on the clinical implications of IRIS
Information is available from Avert, an international AIDS charity on all aspects of HIV/AIDS, including HIV-related opportunistic infections (in English and Spanish)
The MedlinePlus encyclopedia has a page on cryptococcal meningitis (in English and Spanish)
AIDS InfoNet provides fact sheets on many HIV/AIDS topics, including a fact sheet on cryptococcal meningitis (in several languages) and treatment guidelines for opportunistic infections
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000384
PMCID: PMC3014618  PMID: 21253011
22.  Autocrine self-elimination of cultured ovarian cancer cells by tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;78(7):862-870.
Human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells N.1 secrete an autocrine activity that stimulates active cell death under serum-reduced conditions. To substitute the autocrine activity by a single physiological component, 28 cytokines, growth factors and biomodulators were tested [interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-11, stem cell factor (SCF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), acid fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), IGF-2, insulin, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), oncostatin, RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted), angiogenin, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), erythropoietin (EPO), interferon alpha (INF-alpha), INF-gamma, transferrin, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha, TNF-beta and bovine serum albumin for control reasons]. In these experiments, only TNF-alpha and TNF-beta rapidly induced apoptosis. TNF-alpha and TNF-receptor 1 were expressed by N.1 cells, and the secretion of TNF-alpha was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Autocrine factor-triggered apoptosis was inhibited when conditioned supernatant was preincubated with anti-TNF-alpha antibody. These findings suggested that the apoptosis-inducing component of the N.1 autocrine activity was TNF-alpha. In the presence of antisense c-myc oligonucleotides, induction of cell death by autocrine factor was partly inhibited. Autocrine factor and TNF-alpha stimulated transcription of the invasiveness-related protease plasminogen activator/urokinase mRNA (upa) with similar kinetics. When N.1 cells were exposed to purified plasminogen activator/urokinase protein (uPA), cell matrix contact was disrupted. Thus, uPA might serve a physiological role during TNF-induced apoptosis by affecting the interactions between cells and the basal membrane, thereby facilitating anoikis. This mechanistic study, which was restricted to a single human ovarian carcinoma model cell line (N.1), provides evidence that N.1 maintains the capacity to undergo c-myc-dependent apoptosis by the TNF-TNF-receptor pathway, and no additional pharmacological stimuli for induction of apoptosis are required.
Images
PMCID: PMC2063124  PMID: 9764576
23.  Parasite virulence factors during falciparum malaria: rosetting, cytoadherence, and modulation of cytoadherence by cytokines. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(12):5198-5204.
To determine virulence factors of isolates of Plasmodium falciparum and the potential role of cytokines in cerebral malaria, 46 Malagasy patients presenting with cerebral (n = 10), severe (n = 10), and uncomplicated (n = 26) malaria were enrolled in a study. The capacity of 21 of 46 P. falciparum isolates to form rosettes in vitro and to adhere to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that express intercellular adhesion molecule-1 receptors and to C32 amelanotic melanoma cells that express mainly CD36 receptors was investigated together with the effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-3 (IL-3), and IL-6 alone and in two-by-two combinations on the cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes to HUVECs. Plasma levels of these cytokines were also measured in the patients at admission. The percentage of rosette formation was higher for the isolates from patients with cerebral (n = 6; 19.5%) and severe (n = 6; 30.5%) malaria than for those from patients with uncomplicated malaria (n = 9; 5%) (P < 0.002). The cytoadherence properties of the isolates did not differ among the three groups whatever the target cell used, but adherence to melanoma cells was systematically higher than that to HUVECs. Adhesion to HUVECs was increased more after TNF-alpha stimulation than after GM-CSF, IL-3, or IL-6 stimulation (P < 0.01). Only the combination of TNF-alpha and IL-3 enhanced cytoadherence more than TNF-alpha used alone (P < 0.02). No difference in the modulation of cytoadherence by cytokines was found in relation to the severity of the disease. TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels in peripheral blood were higher in the patients with cerebral and severe malaria than in the patients with uncomplicated malaria (P < 0.005). Most of the patients' sera contained little or no IL-3 or GM-CSF. Our results challenge the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as the principal receptor mediating the cytoadherence of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes and contrast with data obtained in the murine model.
PMCID: PMC281301  PMID: 8225594
24.  Interleukin 10(IL-10) inhibits cytokine synthesis by human monocytes: an autoregulatory role of IL-10 produced by monocytes 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1991;174(5):1209-1220.
In the present study we demonstrate that human monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were able to produce high levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10), previously designated cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), in a dose dependent fashion. IL-10 was detectable 7 h after activation of the monocytes and maximal levels of IL-10 production were observed after 24-48 h. These kinetics indicated that the production of IL-10 by human monocytes was relatively late as compared to the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which were all secreted at high levels 4-8 h after activation. The production of IL-10 by LPS activated monocytes was, similar to that of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and G-CSF, inhibited by IL-4. Furthermore we demonstrate here that IL-10, added to monocytes, activated by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), LPS, or combinations of LPS and IFN-gamma at the onset of the cultures, strongly inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF at the transcriptional level. Viral-IL-10, which has similar biological activities on human cells, also inhibited the production of TNF alpha and GM-CSF by monocytes following LPS activation. Activation of monocytes by LPS in the presence of neutralizing anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibodies resulted in the production of higher amounts of cytokines relative to LPS treatment alone, indicating that endogenously produced IL-10 inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF. In addition, IL-10 had autoregulatory effects since it strongly inhibited IL-10 mRNA synthesis in LPS activated monocytes. Furthermore, endogenously produced IL-10 was found to be responsible for the reduction in class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression following activation of monocytes with LPS. Taken together our results indicate that IL-10 has important regulatory effects on immunological and inflammatory responses because of its capacity to downregulate class II MHC expression and to inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes.
PMCID: PMC2119001  PMID: 1940799
25.  Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages by Parasite Trypanosoma cruzi 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(12):e8246.
Background
Cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage are one of the major targets of HIV-1 infection and serve as reservoirs for viral persistence in vivo. These cells are also the target of the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, being one of the most important endemic protozoonoses in Latin America. It has been demonstrated in vitro that co-infection with other pathogens can modulate HIV replication. However, no studies at cellular level have suggested an interaction between T. cruzi and HIV-1 to date.
Methodology/Principal Findings
By using a fully replicative wild-type virus, our study showed that T. cruzi inhibits HIV-1 antigen production by nearly 100% (p<0.001) in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). In different infection schemes with luciferase-reporter VSV-G or BaL pseudotyped HIV-1 and trypomastigotes, T. cruzi induced a significant reduction of luciferase level for both pseudotypes in all the infection schemes (p<0.001), T. cruzi-HIV (>99%) being stronger than HIV-T. cruzi (∼90% for BaL and ∼85% for VSV-G) infection. In MDM with established HIV-1 infection, T. cruzi significantly inhibited luciferate activity (p<0.01). By quantifying R-U5 and U5-gag transcripts by real time PCR, our study showed the expression of both transcripts significantly diminished in the presence of trypomastigotes (p<0.05). Thus, T. cruzi inhibits viral post-integration steps, early post-entry steps and entry into MDM. Trypomastigotes also caused a ∼60-70% decrease of surface CCR5 expression on MDM. Multiplication of T. cruzi inside the MDM does not seem to be required for inhibiting HIV-1 replication since soluble factors secreted by trypomastigotes have shown similar effects. Moreover, the major parasite antigen cruzipain, which is secreted by the trypomastigote form, was able to inhibit viral production in MDM over 90% (p<0.01).
Conclusions/Significance
Our study showed that T. cruzi inhibits HIV-1 replication at several replication stages in macrophages, a major cell target for both pathogens.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008246
PMCID: PMC2788415  PMID: 20011521

Results 1-25 (571963)