This report describes several key aspects of a novel form of RecA-independent homologous recombination. We found that synthetic single stranded DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) introduced into bacteria by transformation can site-specifically recombine with bacterial chromosomes in the absence of any additional phage encoded functions. Oligo recombination was tested in four genera of Gram-negative bacteria and in all cases evidence for recombination was apparent. The experiments presented here were designed with an eye towards learning to use oligo recombination in order to bootstrap identification and development of phage encoded recombination systems for recombineering in a wide range of bacteria. The results show that oligo concentration and sequence have the greatest influence on recombination frequency, while oligo length was less important. Apart from the utility of oligo recombination, these findings also provide insights regarding the details of recombination mediated by phage-encoded functions. Establishing that oligos can recombine with bacterial genomes provides a link to similar observations of oligo recombination in archaea and eukaryotes suggesting the possibility that this process is evolutionary conserved.
Recombineering; Pseudomonas; Homologous Recombination; Oligonucleotide; Gene Conversion
The human gut is one of the most complex ecosystems, composed of 1013-1014 microorganisms which play an important role in human health. In addition, some food products contain live bacteria which transit through our gastrointestinal tract and could exert beneficial effects on our health (known as probiotic effect). Among the numerous proposed health benefits attributed to commensal and probiotic bacteria, their capacity to interact with the host immune system is now well demonstrated. Currently, the use of recombinant lactic acid bacteria to deliver compounds of health interest is gaining importance as an extension of the probiotic concept. This review summarizes some of the recent findings and perspectives in the study of the crosstalk of both commensal and probiotic bacteria with the human host as well as the latest studies in recombinant commensal and probiotic bacteria. Our aim is to highlight the potential roles of recombinant bacteria in this ecosystem.
Bacteria-host crosstalk; Dysbiosis; Genetically modified microorganisms
The use of live bacteria to induce an immune response to itself or to a carried vaccine component is an attractive vaccine strategy. Advantages of live bacterial vaccines include their mimicry of a natural infection, intrinsic adjuvant properties and their possibility to be administered orally. Derivatives of pathogenic and non-pathogenic food related bacteria are currently being evaluated as live vaccines. However, pathogenic bacteria demands for attenuation to weaken its virulence. The use of bacteria as vaccine delivery vehicles implies construction of recombinant strains that contain the gene cassette encoding the antigen. With the increased knowledge of mucosal immunity and the availability of genetic tools for heterologous gene expression the concept of live vaccine vehicles gains renewed interest. However, administration of live bacterial vaccines poses some risks. In addition, vaccination using recombinant bacteria results in the release of live recombinant organisms into nature. This places these vaccines in the debate on application of genetically modified organisms. In this review we give an overview of live bacterial vaccines on the market and describe the development of new live vaccines with a focus on attenuated bacteria and food-related lactic acid bacteria. Furthermore, we outline the safety concerns and identify the hazards associated with live bacterial vaccines and try to give some suggestions of what to consider during their development.
Illegitimate recombination between a prophage and adjacent bacterial DNA is the first step in the formation of specialized transducing phage. Such recombination is rare, but it is greatly enhanced by UV irradiation. We studied the mechanism of UV-induced illegitimate recombination by examining the effect of rec mutations on the frequency of lambda bio transducing phage and found that an Escherichia coli recJ mutation reduces it by 3- to 10-fold. In addition, the recombination hotspot, which accounts for approximately 60% of lambda bio transducing phages in wild-type bacteria, was not detected in the recJ mutant. Introduction of a RecJ overexpression plasmid into the recJ mutant recovered the recombination at the hotspot. These results indicate that the RecJ protein preferentially stimulates illegitimate recombination at the hotspot. Both the hotspot and the non- hotspot sites have short regions of homology, but only the hotspot sites contain common direct-repeat sequences. We propose a model based on the 5'-3' exonuclease activity of RecJ to explain the involvement of this protein in illegitimate recombination at the hotspot.
Pseudomonas putida EEZ15(pWW0-EB62) is a phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant strain with a recombinant TOL plasmid which allows the strain to grow on p-ethylbenzoate. The survival of this strain in sterile agricultural soils depends on the physicochemical properties of the soil. The recombinant pWW0-EB62 plasmid and its catabolic functions were stable for periods of up to 1 month in bacteria introduced in unamended soils and only conferred selective advantage to the host bacteria without the plasmid or with the natural pWW0 plasmid when the soils were amended with low amounts of p-ethylbenzoate. The addition to soils of aromatics that are cometabolized by P. putida EEZ15(pWW0-EB62) had a detrimental effect on the survival of the bacteria, whereas low amounts of aromatics that are not metabolized by this bacterium had no effect on their survival. Survival of P. putida EEZ15(pWW0-EB62) was better at 4 and 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. The host bacterium carrying the recombinant pWW0-EB62 plasmid was established in unsterile soils.
Indigenous bacteria from poplar tree (Populus canadensis var. eugenei ‘Imperial Carolina’) and southern California shrub rhizospheres, as well as two tree-colonizing Rhizobium strains (ATCC 10320 and ATCC 35645), were engineered to express constitutively and stably toluene o-monooxygenase (TOM) from Burkholderia cepacia G4 by integrating the tom locus into the chromosome. The poplar and Rhizobium recombinant bacteria degraded trichloroethylene at a rate of 0.8 to 2.1 nmol/min/mg of protein and were competitive against the unengineered hosts in wheat and barley rhizospheres for 1 month (colonization occurred at a level of 1.0 × 105 to 23 × 105 CFU/cm of root). In addition, six of these recombinants colonized poplar roots stably and competitively with populations as large as 79% ± 12% of all rhizosphere bacteria after 28 days (0.2 × 105 to 31 × 105 CFU/cm of root). Furthermore, five of the most competitive poplar recombinants (e.g., Pb3-1 and Pb5-1, which were identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain PsK recombinants) retained the ability to express TOM for 29 days as 100% ± 0% of the recombinants detected in the poplar rhizosphere expressed TOM constitutively.
Strains of Bacillus subtilis 168 lysogenic for bacteriophage phi105 transfer with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolated from bacteriophage SPO2 at a higher efficiency than non-lysogenic strains. This enhancement of transfection was not the result of recombination between bacteriophages SPO2 and phi105. Superinfection marker rescue increased transfection with DNA from bacteriophage phi105 occurred simultaneously with the addition of the transfecting DNA. Again, this enhancement of transfection was not the result of recombination but rather a protection of the transfecting DNA by the superinfecting bacteriophage. The ability of the superinfecting bacteriophage to protect the transfecting DNA from inactivation was maximal when the bacteria were just becoming competent. Bacteriophage phi1 cannot replicate after the transfection of competent bacteria lacking a functional DNA replication system, whereas bacteriophage phi1 was able to replicate after infection of competent bacteria grown under comparable conditions. These observations support the hypothesis that GAPase and an inducible repair system play an important role in the development of competence.
Single-strand gaps (SSGs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the major initiation sites for recombination. In bacteria, the SSGs are repaired by RecFOR, while the DSBs are processed by RecBCD in gram-negative bacteria and AddAB in gram-positive bacteria. Unexpectedly, instead of recBCD genes, the addAB genes were found in members of the α-proteobacteria group (gram negative). Taking Rhizobium etli as a model, the role of recF and addAB genes in homologous recombination and repair of damaged DNA was evaluated. Inactivation of either recF or addA provoked strong sensitivity to UV radiation and mitomycin C, while an additive effect was observed in the recF-addA mutant. The DSBs generated by nalidixic acid caused low viability only in the addA mutant. The recombination frequency of large and small plasmids was reduced in the recF mutant (24- and 36-fold, respectively), whereas a slight decrease (threefold) in the addA mutant was observed. Moreover, an additive effect (47- and 90-fold, respectively) was observed in the double mutant, but it was not as dramatic as that in a recA mutant. Interestingly, the frequency of deletion and Campbell-type recombination was slightly affected in either single or double mutants. These results suggest that another pathway exists that allows plasmid and Campbell-type recombination in the absence of recF and addA genes.
Wolbachia and Cardinium are endosymbiotic bacteria infecting many arthropods and manipulating host reproduction. Although these bacteria are maternally transmitted, incongruencies between phylogenies of host and parasite suggest an additional role for occasional horizontal transmission. Consistent with this view is the strong evidence for recombination in Wolbachia, although it is less clear to what extent recombination drives diversification within single host species and genera. Furthermore, little is known concerning the population structures of other insect endosymbionts which co-infect with Wolbachia, such as Cardinium. Here, we explore Wolbachia and Cardinium strain diversity within nine spider mite species (Tetranychidae) from 38 populations, and quantify the contribution of recombination compared to point mutation in generating Wolbachia diversity.
We found a high level of genetic diversity for Wolbachia, with 36 unique strains detected (64 investigated mite individuals). Sequence data from four Wolbachia genes suggest that new alleles are 7.5 to 11 times more likely to be generated by recombination than point mutation. Consistent with previous reports on more diverse host samples, our data did not reveal evidence for co-evolution of Wolbachia with its host. Cardinium was less frequently found in the mites, but also showed a high level of diversity, with eight unique strains detected in 15 individuals on the basis of only two genes. A lack of congruence among host and Cardinium phylogenies was observed.
We found a high rate of recombination for Wolbachia strains obtained from host species of the spider mite family Tetranychidae, comparable to rates found for horizontally transmitted bacteria. This suggests frequent horizontal transmission of Wolbachia and/or frequent horizontal transfer of single genes. Our findings strengthens earlier reports of recombination for Wolbachia, and shows that high recombination rates are also present on strains from a restrictive host range. Cardinium was found co-infecting several spider mite species, and phylogenetic comparisons suggest also horizontal transmission of Cardinium among hosts.
Recombinant proteins are widely used today in many industries, including the biopharmaceutical industry, and can be expressed in bacteria, yeasts, mammalian and insect cell cultures, or in transgenic plants and animals. In addition, transgenic algae have also been shown to support recombinant protein expression, both from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes. However, to date, there are only a few reports on recombinant proteins expressed in the algal chloroplast. It is unclear if this is due to few attempts or to limitations of the system that preclude expression of many proteins. Thus, we sought to assess the versatility of transgenic algae as a recombinant protein production platform. To do this, we tested whether the algal chloroplast could support the expression of a diverse set of current or potential human therapeutic proteins. Of the seven proteins chosen, greater than 50% expressed at levels sufficient for commercial production. Three expressed at 2% to 3% of total soluble protein, while a forth protein accumulated to similar levels when translationally fused to a well-expressed serum amyloid protein. All of the algal chloroplast-expressed proteins are soluble and showed biological activity comparable to that of the same proteins expressed using traditional production platforms. Thus, the success rate, expression levels, and bioactivty achieved demonstrate the utility of C. reinhardtii as a robust platform for human therapeutic protein production.
The importance of host-specialization to speciation processes in obligate host-associated bacteria is well known, as is also the ability of recombination to generate cohesion in bacterial populations. However, whether divergent strains of highly recombining intracellular bacteria, such as Wolbachia, can maintain their genetic distinctness when infecting the same host is not known. We first developed a protocol for the genome sequencing of uncultivable endosymbionts. Using this method, we have sequenced the complete genomes of the Wolbachia strains wHa and wNo, which occur as natural double infections in Drosophila simulans populations on the Seychelles and in New Caledonia. Taxonomically, wHa belong to supergroup A and wNo to supergroup B. A comparative genomics study including additional strains supported the supergroup classification scheme and revealed 24 and 33 group-specific genes, putatively involved in host-adaptation processes. Recombination frequencies were high for strains of the same supergroup despite different host-preference patterns, leading to genomic cohesion. The inferred recombination fragments for strains of different supergroups were of short sizes, and the genomes of the co-infecting Wolbachia strains wHa and wNo were not more similar to each other and did not share more genes than other A- and B-group strains that infect different hosts. We conclude that Wolbachia strains of supergroup A and B represent genetically distinct clades, and that strains of different supergroups can co-exist in the same arthropod host without converging into the same species. This suggests that the supergroups are irreversibly separated and that barriers other than host-specialization are able to maintain distinct clades in recombining endosymbiont populations. Acquiring a good knowledge of the barriers to genetic exchange in Wolbachia will advance our understanding of how endosymbiont communities are constructed from vertically and horizontally transmitted genes.
Speciation in sexual organisms is defined as the inability of two populations to get viable offspring. Speciation in asexual, obligate endosymbionts is thought to be an indirect consequence of host-specialization. An important question is if divergent endosymbionts would start blending if the host barrier isolating them were removed. Here, we have studied Wolbachia, an abundant group of bacteria in the insect world. Wolbachia is classified into supergroups based on multi-locus sequence typing. We have sequenced the genomes from the Wolbachia strains wNo and wHa. These are particularly interesting since they belong to different supergroups yet co-occur as a double-infection in natural populations of Drosophila simulans. A comparative genomics study showed that wHa and wNo contain no uniquely shared genes. Instead, each strain shares unique gene functions with members of the same supergroup that infect other hosts. This unexpected finding suggests an alternative means of ecological speciation, indicating that speciation is not restricted to host-specialization but rather that related endosymbionts can coexist as separate species in the same host. Our study sheds light on the genomic divergence between different partners inhabiting the intracellular niche of the same host organism.
Natural competence is the genetically encoded ability of some bacteria to take up DNA from the environment. Although most of the incoming DNA is degraded, occasionally intact homologous fragments can recombine with the chromosome, displacing one resident strand. This potential to use DNA as a source of both nutrients and genetic novelty has important implications for the ecology and evolution of competent bacteria. However, it is not known how frequently competence changes during evolution, or whether non-competent strains can persist for long periods of time. We have previously studied competence in H. influenzae and found that both the amount of DNA taken up and the amount recombined varies extensively between different strains. In addition, several strains are unable to become competent, suggesting that competence has been lost at least once. To investigate how many times competence has increased or decreased during the divergence of these strains, we inferred the evolutionary relationships of strains using the largest datasets currently available. However, despite the use of three datasets and multiple inference methods, few nodes were resolved with high support, perhaps due to extensive mixing by recombination. Tracing the evolution of competence in those clades that were well supported identified changes in DNA uptake and/or transformation in most strains. The recency of these events suggests that competence has changed frequently during evolution but the poor support of basal relationships precludes the determination of whether non-competent strains can persist for long periods of time. In some strains, changes in transformation have occurred that cannot be due to changes in DNA uptake, suggesting that selection can act on transformation independent of DNA uptake.
Squalene synthase (SQS) is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to give presqualene diphosphate (PSPP) and the subsequent rearrangement of PSPP to squalene. These reactions constitute the first pathway-specific steps in hopane biosynthesis in Bacteria and sterol biosynthesis in Eukarya. The genes encoding SQS were isolated from the hopane-producing bacteria Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, and Zymomonas mobilis and cloned into an Escherichia coli expression system. The expressed proteins with a His6 tag were found exclusively in inclusion bodies when no additives were used in the buffer. After extensive optimization, soluble recombinant T. elongatus BP-1 SQS was obtained when cells were disrupted and purified in buffers containing glycerol. The recombinant B. japonicum and Z. mobilis SQSs could not be solubilized under any of the expression and purification conditions used. Purified T. elongatus His6-SQS gave a single band at 42 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and molecular ion at m/z 41886 by electrospray mass spectrometry. Incubation with FPP and NADPH gave squalene as the sole product. Incubation of the enzyme with [14C]FPP in the absence of NADPH gave PSPP. The enzyme requires Mg2+ for activity, has an optimum pH of 7.6, and is strongly stimulated by detergent. Under optimal conditions, the Km of FPP is 0.97 ± 0.10 μM and the kcat is 1.74 ± 0.04 s−1. Zaragozic acid A, a potent inhibitor of mammalian, fungal, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae SQSs, also inhibited recombinant T. elongatus BP-1 SQS, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 95.5 ± 13.6 nM.
The identity of the histidine specific transfer RNA (tRNAHis) is largely determined by a unique guanosine residue at position −1. In eukaryotes and archaea, the tRNAHis guanylyltransferase (Thg1) catalyzes 3'-5' addition of G to the 5'-terminus of tRNAHis. Here, we show that Thg1 also occurs in bacteria. We demonstrate in vitro Thg1 activity for recombinant enzymes from the two bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Myxococcus xanthus and provide a closer investigation of several archaeal Thg1. The reaction mechanism of prokaryotic Thg1 differs from eukaryotic enzymes, as it does not require ATP. Complementation of a yeast thg1 knockout strain with bacterial Thg1 verified in vivo activity and suggests a relaxed recognition of the discriminator base in bacteria.
tRNA-His guanylyltransferase; Thg1; tRNA processing; histidyl-tRNA synthetase; RNase P
Natural transformation can lead to exchange of DNA between taxonomically diverse bacteria. In the case of chromosomal DNA, homology-based recombination with the recipient genome is usually necessary for heritable stability. In our recent study, we have shown that natural transformation can promote the transfer of transposons, IS elements, and integrons and gene cassettes, largely independent of the genetic relationship between the donor and recipient bacteria. Additional results from our study suggest that natural transformation with species-foreign DNA might result in the uptake of a wide range of DNA fragments; leading to changes in the antimicrobial susceptibility profile and contributing to the generation of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria.
natural transformation; transposition; homologous recombination; class 1 integrons; gene cassettes; transposons; mosaic genes; Acinetobacter
Antimicrobial cationic peptides have been discovered in many different organisms and often possess a broad range of activity. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of actions of melittin and two synthetic peptides, CEME (a cecropin-melittin hybrid) and CEMA, against gram-negative bacteria. CEMA was produced by recombinant DNA procedures and is an analog of CEME with a modified C terminus resulting in two additional positive charges. All three peptides showed good antimicrobial activity against four different gram-negative bacteria, but only CEMA was able to somewhat augment the activity of some conventional antibiotics in synergy studies. Studies using the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae showed that the peptides all possessed the ability to permeabilize bacterial outer membranes to the hydrophobic fluorophor 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine and the protein lysozyme, with CEMA being the most active. CEMA also had the strongest relative binding affinity for bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide). These data collectively indicated that these peptides all cross the outer membrane by the self-promoted uptake pathway and that CEMA is the peptide most effective at accessing this pathway.
Proteus mirabilis bacteria are a common cause of hospital-acquired urinary tract infection. In a previous study, we described a P. mirabilis fimbrial protein, UCA, that adhered to human uroepithelial cells. Genes sufficient for expression of UCA adherence were cloned into Escherichia coli K-12. E. coli bacteria that contained the uca recombinant plasmid adhered to human uroepithelial cells. In addition, the ucaA gene encoding the structural component of UCA pili was subcloned, and its DNA sequence was determined. Amino acid sequence homology (30 to 50%) was found between mature UcaA protein and pilins from pathogenic bacteria representing several genera, including E. coli F17, G, and type 1C pilins, Haemophilus M43 pilin, and a Bordetella pilin.
We describe a novel cloning method termed SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (≥15 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from Bacteria Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost effective as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. In addition, the cloning efficiencies and capabilities of these strains can be greatly improved by simple genetic modifications. As an example, we modified the DH10B Escherichia coli strain to express an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system. This strain, termed PPY, facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies and demonstrates the versatility of the method.
In bacteria with circular chromosomes, homologous recombination events can lead to the formation of chromosome dimers. In Escherichia coli, chromosome dimers are resolved by the addition of a crossover by two tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, at a specific site on the chromosome, dif. Recombination depends on a direct contact between XerD and a cell division protein, FtsK, which functions as a hexameric double stranded DNA translocase. Here, we have investigated how the structure and composition of DNA interferes with Xer recombination activation by FtsK. XerC and XerD each cleave a specific strand on dif, the top and bottom strand, respectively. We found that the integrity and nature of eight bottom-strand nucleotides and three top-strand nucleotides immediately adjacent to the XerD-binding site of dif are crucial for recombination. These nucleotides are probably not implicated in FtsK translocation since FtsK could translocate on single stranded DNA in both the 5′–3′ and 3′–5′ orientation along a few nucleotides. We propose that they are required to stabilize FtsK in the vicinity of dif for recombination to occur because the FtsK–XerD interaction is too transient or too weak in itself to allow for XerD catalysis.
Intermolecular recombination in mammalian cells was studied by coinfecting African green monkey cells in culture with two shuttle vector plasmids, each carrying an incomplete but overlapping portion of the gene for neomycin resistance. The region of homology between the two plasmids was about 0.6 kilobases. Recombination between the homology regions could reconstruct the neomycin resistance gene, which was monitored by analysis of progeny plasmids in bacteria. The individual plasmids carried additional markers which, in combination with restriction analysis, allowed the determination of the frequency of formation of the heterodimeric plasmid which would be formed in a conservative recombination reaction between the homologous sequences. Reconstruction of the neomycin resistance gene was readily observed, but only 1 to 2% of the neomycin resistance plasmids had the structure of the conservative heterodimer. Treatment of the plasmids which enhanced the frequency of the neomycin resistance gene reconstruction reaction did not significantly increase the relative frequency of conservative product plasmids. The results support nonconservative models for recombination of these sequences.
The characteristics of the intermediates in the reaction, between DNA and pneumococcus, that results in genetic transformation are described in so far as they have been characterized. Transformation with DNA isolated from bacteria carrying in addition to genetic markers 32P as a radioactive label and 2H and 15N as density labels has permitted the characterization of the product of recombination between the newly introduced DNA and the DNA of a recipient bacterium. The evidence for a single strand displacement mechanism producing a hybrid structure in the DNA of the recipient bacteria is presented. Progeny of single transformants have been examined. The results of these segregation studies permit the further characterization of this hybrid product of transformation as a genetically heterozygous structure.
For protection against intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes, the cellular arm of adaptive immunity is necessary. A variety of immunization methods have been evaluated and are reported to induce specific CD8+ T cells against intracellular bacterial infection. Modified BCG vaccines have been examined to enhance CD8+ T-cell responses. Naked DNA vaccination is a promising strategy to induce CD8+ T cells. In addition to this strategy, live attenuated intracellular bacteria such as Shigella, Salmonella, and Listeria have been utilized as carriers of DNA vaccines in animal models. Vaccination with dendritic cells pulsed with antigenic peptides or the cells introduced antigen genes by virus vectors such as retroviruses is also a powerful strategy. Furthermore, vaccination with recombinant lentivirus has been attempted to induce specific CD8+ T cells. Combinations of these strategies (prime-boost immunization) have been studied for the efficient induction of intracellular bacteria-specific CD8+ T cells.
Most studies of Lactococcus lactis as delivery vehicles of pneumococcal antigens are focused on the effectiveness of mucosal recombinant vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae in animal models. At present, there are three types of pneumococcal vaccines: capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines (PPV), protein-polysaccharide conjugate pneumococcal vaccines (PCV) and protein-based pneumococcal vaccines (PBPV). Only PPV and PCV have been licensed. These vaccines, however, do not represent a definitive solution. Novel, safe and inexpensive vaccines are necessary, especially in developing countries. Probiotic microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an interesting alternative for their use as vehicles in pneumococcal vaccines due to their GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status. Thus, the adjuvanticity of Lactococcus lactis by itself represents added value over the use of other bacteria, a question dealt with in this review. In addition, the expression of different pneumococcal antigens as well as the use of oral and nasal mucosal routes of administration of lactococcal vaccines is considered. The advantages of nasal live vaccines are evident; nonetheless, oral vaccines can be a good alternative when the adequate dose is used. Another point addressed here is the use of live versus inactivated vaccines. In this sense, few researchers have focused on inactivated strains to be used as vaccines against pneumoccoccus. The immunogenicity of live vaccines is better than the one afforded by inactivated ones; however, the probiotic-inactivated vaccine combination has improved this matter considerably. The progress made so far in the protective immune response induced by recombinant vaccines, the successful trials in animal models and the safety considerations of their application in humans suggest that the use of recombinant vaccines represents a good short-term option in the control of pneumococcal diseases.
recombinant vaccine; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Lactococcus lactis
A major virulence mechanism used by pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria is the delivery of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm into host cells by type III secretion. Typically, genes encoding type III secretion systems (T3SS) and effectors have been horizontally acquired by the bacteria that employ them. In proteobacteria, and especially Salmonella, and attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens, the genetic structure of these systems presents as a large locus encoding a T3SS with a small number of effectors, plus numerous small unlinked loci encoding additional individual effectors. We discuss the generation of novel effectors, and the evolution of G+C content following acquisition. We also consider the currently held view that each locus has been acquired individually, as well as propose an alternative where recombination may have redistributed and broken up clusters of effectors. It is clear that the evolution of this virulence strategy is highly complex and challenging to analyze.
type III secretion system; type III effector; G+C content; codon usage; horizontal gene transfer; ORFan
It has been previously reported that pretreatment with exogenous heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is able to protect cells and animals from the deleterious effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by Gram-negative bacteria. However, the effects of Hsp70 pretreatment on lipoteichoic acid (LTA) challenge resulted from Gram-positive bacteria infection have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that preconditioning with human recombinant Hsp70 ameliorates various manifestations of systematic inflammation, including reactive oxygen species, TNFα, and CD11b/CD18 adhesion receptor expression induction observed in different myeloid cells after LTA addition. Therefore, exogenous Hsp70 may provide a mechanism for controlling excessive inflammatory responses after macrophage activation. Furthermore, in a rat model of LTA-induced sepsis, we demonstrated that prophylactic administration of exogenous human Hsp70 significantly exacerbated numerous homeostatic and hemodynamic disturbances induced by LTA challenge and partially normalized the coagulation system and multiple biochemical blood parameters, including albumin and bilirubin concentrations, which were severely disturbed after LTA injections. Importantly, prophylactic intravenous injection of Hsp70 before LTA challenge significantly reduced mortality rates. Thus, exogenous mammalian Hsp70 may serve as a powerful cellular defense agent against the deleterious effects of bacterial pathogens, such as LTA and LPS. Taken together, our findings reveal novel functions of this protein and establish exogenous Hsp70 as a promising pharmacological agent for the prophylactic treatment of various types of sepsis.
Lipoteichoic acid; Lipopolysaccharide; Exogenous heat shock protein 70; Sepsis models